Emotional, Behavioural, Disorders and Physical
Behavioural disorder is also known as conduct disorder. The disorders are the common forms of psycho pathology among young adults and children. In a given special education class, there will be undoubtedly a class filled with children having various disabling condition, abilities, skills and temperament. Some of the students will have behavioural/ emotional disorders that have or have not been diagnosed. Other students may have health and physical impairments that require special teaching and living equipments. These are the broad aspects that the teacher must consider and be aware of. The teacher must have strategies of maintaining and creating a classroom with high motivation and expectation where students learning is fostered and every child is accepted and embraced for who she or he is. The teacher should be open and ready to meet the child where she or he is and assist the students to discover new skills and independent place.
Physical and heath impairment
Students who are served by special education in pubic school system due to the Individuals with Disability in Education Act(IDEA) are categorised as having severe orthopaedic impairment or general impairment. The impairment is one that adversely affects a Childs educational performance( Howard (2009). The physical and health impairment are caused by Congenital anomaly such as clubfoot, impairments caused by diseases such as bone T.B and poliomyelitis. Or other factors that causes impairments such as amputations, cerebral palsy, burns or fractures that cause contractures(Howard, 2009, p 407).
Impairments that involve the central nervous system (CNS)are the orthopaedic impairments which include neuromotor impairment. This form of CNS manifests in ways that causes one to move, feel, use or control certain parts of the body in a non functional or diminished way. The Disability Education Act recognizes health impairments as having limited vitality, strength or alertness including over alertness to environmental stimuli that limits the alertness of one to educational environment. This can be due to acute or chronic problems such as asthma. Attention deficit hyper reactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder, epilepsy, diabetes, heart condition, lead poisoning, haemophilia, nephritis, leukaemia , sickle cell anaemic, rheumatic fever and tourette syndrome
These conditions adversely affect educational performance. The conditions are the defining characteristics for qualifying for special education service. The student must require specially designed instruction in order to develop ,abilities and skills required to learn
Characteristics of special students
It is not possible to define the characteristics of health impairment and physical disabilities as a group because children with special needs vary in description. Heward gives the general terms to be used such as severe, mild or moderate. Some of the students would show intellectual functioning being impaired while others do not. Most of the children have more than one disabling condition that require speech, occupational or physical therapy to help them access communication while in school.
Emotional behavioural disorder.
The definition of emotional disorders is difficult and the federal definitions are flawed (Anderman & Anderman , 2009, p 361). It is also impossible to distinguish whether a condition is a behavioural disorder or an emotional disturbance. However, the common aspects in the definition include a chronic problem which is constant or on going. It is a n extreme behaviours different from usual and violation of cultural and social expectation. Children with behavioural/ emotional disorders have internalizing and externalizing problem in their behaviour. They may look withdrawn or lack adequate social skills. The child with Emotional Behavioural disorders will generally have below average performance, below grade level and below average IQ. These children will also have greater risk of having A difficult time of getting and keeping friends as well as having a learning disability. It has been known that one third of students with EBD will be arrested due to delinquent behaviours during their school years(Howard, 2009).
A teaching tool box are the strategies for success which is needed by a special education teacher. This will assist the educator in developing a classroom that is conducive to optimum learning . The following matrix is for use by a special educator.
Effective Teaching Strategies
Emotional/Behavioral Disordered Students
Strategy for Skill Deficits Definition of Strategy
This begins with identifying the learning strengths which are a set of attributes and skills of each individual has so as to be used to develop an instructional program (Wheeler & Richey, 2010). The second step is to identify the response format that have been tried before. Through this, a teacher will be able to know the cognitive level of learners which is the intellectual ability that a learner has . Condition affects the learner’s communication and language (Wheeler & Richey, 2010)
The curriculum should have strategies that must be relevant to the student. This means that tasks must be modified and coined to the ability of the learners whether cognitive, developmental or motoric level. The tasks in the curriculum must include tasks over the course of the day which need to have some flexibility and varieties. Each of this task should be posted on classroom schedule or on personal calenderer of the students (Council for Children with Behavioural Disorders, 2010).The presentation of the task must give consistent and clear cues which can be done by the presentation teacher especially when it is a new task. The teacher must use pictures, physical cues, gesture or verbal speech when appropriate.
The teacher should learn how to praise the students by giving them the opportunity to respond in class, introducing new material, and reinforcing the skill by successively and continually reducing assistance. Token economy work for students where by a token can be exchanged for a good activity. When dealing with behavior, behavioral expectations should be defined and taught to all students, this can be reinforced by using positive examples and by acknowledging appropriate behaviors. Behavioral errors are corrected proactively through clear procedures agreed upon. Individual student support program should be integrate within the school wide system (Heward, 2009). This will be beneficial in preventing tertiary and primary risks.
Self monitoring is another aspect that educators have to consider. This is where special targets are set to students beginning with one that is easily attainable to greater heights. A teacher should, supplement materials, give direct instructions , reinforce accurate self monitoring, reward improvement . Encourage self evaluation and evaluate the program. Finally, environmental modification also leads to the success of children with special need. There should be assistive technology. Fully equipped classroom with all the required equipments and a teacher should also modify for class work completion and participation.
It is important to understand the complexities of especial children attending school. These children have emotionally or physically disabling conditions which an instructor should take note of. The nature of the student might be sever, moderate or mild. A teacher is bound to have some adjustments and modification to make for the benefit of students to fully benefit form what is being taught and learned at school. Strategies for classrooms organizations and management as well as the modification of the curriculum is essential for teachers of special education.
Heward, W(2009)Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, Ninth Edition. Published by Merill. Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc.
Anderman, E and Alderman H (2009) Emotional/Behavioural Disorders. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. P361-365.
Council for Children with Behavioural Disorders (2010) Top Advocacy Stories. Retrieved from
On June 12th, 2010
US org (2010) the Americans with Disabilities Act
on June 12 2010
DRM Guide (2010) Disability Resources