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Emotional, Behavioural, Disorders and Physical


 Introduction

              Behavioural disorder is also known as conduct disorder. The  disorders  are  the common  forms  of  psycho  pathology  among  young  adults  and children. In  a  given  special education  class,  there  will be  undoubtedly a  class  filled  with children  having  various  disabling  condition,  abilities,  skills   and  temperament.  Some  of  the students  will  have  behavioural/ emotional  disorders  that  have  or  have  not been  diagnosed.  Other  students  may have  health  and  physical  impairments  that  require  special  teaching  and  living  equipments. These  are the  broad  aspects  that the  teacher  must  consider  and  be  aware  of.  The teacher  must  have  strategies  of  maintaining  and creating a classroom  with  high  motivation  and  expectation where  students  learning  is  fostered  and  every  child  is  accepted  and  embraced  for  who  she  or he  is.  The teacher  should  be  open  and  ready  to meet  the child  where  she  or  he  is  and  assist the  students to  discover  new  skills  and independent  place.


 Physical and heath impairment

              Students  who are served  by  special  education  in  pubic  school  system due  to the Individuals  with  Disability  in  Education  Act(IDEA) are categorised  as  having  severe  orthopaedic  impairment  or  general  impairment. The impairment  is  one  that  adversely  affects  a  Childs  educational  performance( Howard (2009). The physical  and  health  impairment  are  caused  by  Congenital  anomaly  such as  clubfoot,  impairments caused  by diseases  such  as bone T.B  and  poliomyelitis.  Or  other  factors  that causes impairments  such as  amputations,  cerebral  palsy,  burns or fractures  that  cause  contractures(Howard, 2009, p 407).


            Impairments  that  involve the central  nervous  system  (CNS)are  the orthopaedic impairments  which include  neuromotor impairment.  This  form of  CNS  manifests in  ways  that causes  one  to move,  feel, use  or control  certain  parts  of the body  in  a  non  functional  or diminished  way.  The  Disability  Education  Act recognizes  health impairments  as  having  limited  vitality,  strength  or  alertness including  over alertness to  environmental  stimuli that  limits  the alertness of  one  to educational environment. This can be due to acute or chronic problems such as asthma.  Attention  deficit  hyper reactivity disorder  or  attention  deficit  disorder,  epilepsy,  diabetes,  heart  condition,  lead poisoning, haemophilia,  nephritis, leukaemia  ,  sickle  cell  anaemic,  rheumatic  fever  and  tourette  syndrome


              These conditions adversely affect educational performance.  The conditions are the defining characteristics for qualifying for special education service.  The student  must require  specially  designed  instruction  in order  to develop  ,abilities  and  skills  required  to  learn


 Characteristics of special students

          It is  not possible  to define  the characteristics  of   health impairment  and  physical  disabilities  as  a group because children  with  special  needs  vary in  description. Heward gives the general terms to be used such as severe, mild or moderate.  Some of  the  students  would  show  intellectual  functioning  being  impaired  while   others  do  not.  Most  of  the children  have  more  than  one disabling  condition  that  require  speech, occupational  or  physical  therapy to help them  access  communication  while  in  school.


 

Emotional behavioural disorder.

The definition of  emotional  disorders  is  difficult  and  the federal  definitions  are  flawed (Anderman & Anderman , 2009, p 361).  It is  also impossible  to distinguish  whether  a  condition  is  a  behavioural  disorder  or  an  emotional  disturbance. However, the common aspects in the definition include a chronic problem which is constant or on going. It  is  a n  extreme  behaviours  different  from  usual and violation of  cultural  and  social  expectation.  Children with behavioural/ emotional disorders have internalizing and externalizing problem in their behaviour.  They may look withdrawn or lack adequate social skills.  The child  with  Emotional  Behavioural  disorders  will  generally  have  below average performance,  below grade  level  and  below  average  IQ.  These children  will  also have  greater  risk  of   having  A difficult time of  getting  and  keeping  friends  as  well as  having  a learning  disability. It has  been  known  that  one  third of   students with  EBD  will be  arrested  due  to  delinquent  behaviours  during  their  school  years(Howard, 2009).


 

Learning matrix

             A  teaching  tool  box are the strategies  for  success  which is  needed  by  a  special  education  teacher. This  will  assist the educator  in  developing  a  classroom  that is conducive  to optimum  learning . The following matrix is for use by a special educator.

Effective Teaching Strategies

Emotional/Behavioral Disordered Students

Strategy for Skill Deficits Definition of Strategy


            This  begins  with  identifying  the learning  strengths  which  are  a set of  attributes  and  skills  of  each individual  has  so  as  to be used  to develop  an  instructional  program (Wheeler & Richey, 2010).  The second  step is  to identify  the  response  format  that  have  been  tried before.  Through  this,  a teacher  will  be  able to know   the cognitive level  of  learners  which is the intellectual  ability  that  a  learner  has .  Condition   affects the learner’s communication and language (Wheeler & Richey, 2010)


           The curriculum should have strategies that must be relevant to the student.  This  means  that  tasks  must be  modified  and  coined  to the ability of the learners whether  cognitive,  developmental  or  motoric  level. The tasks in the curriculum  must include  tasks over  the course of the day  which  need  to have  some  flexibility  and  varieties.  Each of  this  task  should be  posted  on  classroom  schedule  or  on  personal  calenderer of the students (Council for Children with Behavioural Disorders, 2010).The presentation  of the task  must  give  consistent  and  clear  cues  which  can be  done  by the presentation  teacher especially  when  it is a new  task.  The teacher must use pictures, physical cues, gesture or verbal speech when appropriate.                  


               The teacher  should  learn how  to praise the students  by  giving them the opportunity  to respond  in  class, introducing  new material,  and  reinforcing  the skill  by  successively and  continually  reducing  assistance. Token  economy  work  for  students  where by  a  token  can be  exchanged  for  a  good  activity.  When  dealing  with  behavior,  behavioral  expectations  should  be  defined and  taught  to all  students,  this  can  be reinforced  by using  positive  examples and  by  acknowledging  appropriate  behaviors.  Behavioral errors are corrected proactively through clear procedures agreed upon. Individual  student  support  program  should  be  integrate  within the school  wide  system (Heward, 2009). This will be beneficial in preventing tertiary and primary risks.          


                  Self monitoring is another aspect that educators have to consider. This  is  where  special  targets  are set  to students beginning  with one  that is easily  attainable  to  greater  heights.  A teacher should, supplement materials, give  direct  instructions ,  reinforce  accurate self  monitoring,  reward  improvement .  Encourage self evaluation and evaluate the program.              Finally, environmental modification also leads to the success of children with special need.  There should be assistive technology.  Fully  equipped  classroom  with  all  the required  equipments and  a teacher  should  also  modify  for  class  work  completion  and  participation.


 onclusion

        It is important to understand the complexities of especial children   attending school. These children  have  emotionally  or  physically  disabling  conditions  which  an  instructor  should  take  note of. The nature of the student might be sever, moderate or mild. A teacher  is  bound  to  have  some  adjustments  and  modification  to make  for the benefit of students to  fully benefit  form  what is  being taught  and  learned at  school.  Strategies  for  classrooms  organizations  and  management  as  well  as  the modification of  the curriculum  is  essential  for teachers  of  special  education.


Reference:

 Heward, W(2009)Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, Ninth Edition. Published by Merill. Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc.

 Anderman, E and Alderman H (2009) Emotional/Behavioural Disorders. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. P361-365.

 Council for Children with Behavioural Disorders (2010) Top Advocacy Stories.  Retrieved from

http://www.ccbd.net/advocacy/

On June 12th, 2010

 US org (2010) the Americans with Disabilities Act

http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm

on June  12  2010

DRM Guide (2010) Disability Resources

http://www.disabilityresources.org/index.html


 

 
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