Language Arts Unit Plan
Week 1 activity
Lesson topic: Phonics, word analysis, and word pattern
Students aim/guiding question: The aim of this lesson is to help students learn the skills and strategies and how to use them in any given reading text.
Materials/resources: Phonic books, graphics and charts.
Opening activity: The first aspect is to review the past lesson activity on phonology, word analysis and pattern. This helps them build new knowledge from the schema they have. They will thenanalyzing words in a poem or song students should identify the phonemes of each word such as onset, rhyme, alliteration and rhymes. This means that they should be keen to listen to the repeated sounds as they read the words either in isolation or within the content. They should identify the single consonant clusters and sounds such as bl, sp, or gr. Other clusters are the consonant diagraphs such as ch, Th, and sh, others are the long and short vowels oo, consonant vowels sounds like ew, oi, oy allophones and many others.
Instructional activity: In the study of phonics word analysis and patterns students should learn word formation starting with the phoneme which is the smallest unit. Students should be able to learn the words meaning through either the contextual or in phonetic use.
Practical activity: Students should repeat the phonemes for them to learn the phoneme sound articulation. The learning activity should incorporate the meaning of things and aspects which are within the student’s environment. They will then create phonic clusters from words of the same phonogram. Through words of the same sounds students will be required to read aloud tongue twisters in a fast way. Students will be required to provide a list of phonographs words in groups.
Assessment activity: Each student should learn proper pronunciation. Each student should be able to identify the characteristics of each phoneme and the position they take in a word. They should create shorts poems in with rhyming word. They should do oral spelling; independently make a list of words of the same phonogram.After identifying the word phonemes the nest lesson will build on pronunciation and grammar.
Lesson topic: Grammar and punctuation
Students aim/guiding question: Students should learn the use of various punctuations marks like speech marks, question mark, full stop, commas and others. They should identify the text’s sentences. Know that capital letters are for starting a sentence and names. Know at the end of a sentences should be marked by a full stop.
Materials/resources: Reading material, organizational devices
Opening activity: To decipher sentences and words students will use the grammar knowledge they have. Building on the schema, they will build a range of phrases and words to make sentences. By the use of questions marks like full stop, comma, and quotation marks they will make sentences individually. These sentences have to adhere to grammatical rules like capital letters to start each sentence.
Instructional activity: Reading accurately by each individual student to check on their accuracy and sense. They will use simple devises like captions and headings for organizational purpose.
Practical activity: Write clear sentenceswhich adhere to grammatical and punctuation rules.
Assessment activity: They will respond to who, why, where and when questions. Offer quizzes requiring students to write complete sentences, read aloud to test their recognition of punctuations and their use. The next class will look more into reading comprehension.
Lesson topic: Reading comprehension
Students aim/guiding question: By the end of the lesson students should be able to comprehend, interpret and evaluate the content of a reading material. They should be able to present the plot of the story, characters and culture where the story is based.
Materials/resources: Literature texts, pictures assortments, toys which represent various features and objects.
Opening activity: The students will be asked to state the previous lesson reading done and what they can remember. This will help then used past concept in understanding today’s reading.
Instructional activity: Students will be asked to fluently read a text and get the meaning of what they are reading. He or she should identify the characters, the themes of the story and the setting of the story. This is by the use of various clues in the stories. Students should also be able to identify the relationship between characters in the story.
Practical activity: Students will be asked to retell the same story from their personal point of understanding.
Assessment activity: The teacher can ask students to give alternative words for some of the common words used in the text. This will test students’ ability to understand the various concepts given in a material. Based on their previous reading, students can be able to get meaning through logical deductions. To test their comprehension of what they have read, they can be asked to elaborate on the story they have read either orally or in writing.Students will learn writing skills in the next class.
Lesson topic: Writing
Students aim/guiding question: By the end of the class, students should be able to write repeated words, simple words and words with alliterations. They should also be able to construct simple sentences with subject verb and object. They will be able to draw mathematical shapes, and write mathematical signs as well as to identify numbers.
Materials/resources: Pencils, blank paper, dictionaries
Opening activity: Built on previous knowledge on word formation, students can write down simple words from alliteration, and repeated phonemes.
Instructional activity: Students should be able to understand the categories which form the basics of a complete sentence which are the verbs, noun subject object. Students should be able to write readable letters and numbers.
Practical activity: Students are told by the teacher to use a simple writing style; this can be alliteration style of writing. After listening to a short story or poem, the students are asked to write down words having the same letter sounds.
Assessment activity: Each student will write down sentences, words, numbers, draw and name various mathematical shapes. The next class will examine vocabulary use. listening an use of oral English language.
Lesson topic: Oral language, listening and vocabulary use.
Students aim/guiding question: Students should be able to use new vocabularies in their oral English language use. Students will also learn strategies and skills required in word analysis and understand a new word in a given text
Materials/resources: Charts, graphics, literature material, charts, and audiovisual aids
Opening activity: Based on their previous knowledge and learning, the students should be able to note the importance of traditional literature. Through strategies of incorporation of the story’s events and idea sequences they can be able to comprehend what they are reading.
Instructional activity: Students should be able to identify words in a sentences and paragraphs which are new to them.
Practical activity: The teacher will ask students to pick out the rhyming words from a poem. Each student will be asked to talk about a certain topic in the book, or to recite a poem. The teacher will use charts for showing rhyming words. Students will be required to provide words which are phonetically distinct but have different meaning. They will also be told to present words which their meaning can be identified through the context and the phonemic environment.
Assessment activity: Articulation of each student will be examined for each individual student. Students either in a group or on individual basis will be asked to retell the story while drawing a chart. They will also be required to write down what they have read in point form.
Week 2 activity
Lesson topic: Fluency
Students aim/guiding question: Word fluency can be measured by a recommended rate of 50-70 WPM depending on the level of their academic level.
Materials/resources: stop clock, or watch category cards, and word cards.
Opening activity: Based on their knowledge of grammar and punctuations, and reading comprehension, students will be asked to put feelings and expressions in their oral communication and in reading of a literature. They will, be taught how to read smoothly while addressing to the given punctuations in a given text.
Instructional activity: category card, word cards, clock or stop watch
Practical activity: Through reading the students is required to master how to pronounce the various words fluently. The student also has to learn how the words are correctly spelled. Decoding and categorizing words is also important for the students practicing English fluency. They should read accurately in a fast pace. By the end of the lesson a students is supported to know the used of various phonics in a word such as prefixes, suffixes, diphthongs, blends, r-controlled vowel pattern and root word. The student should also know the use of short and long vowels and the positions they take in a word. Students should be able to get the meaning of the various new vocabularies they encounter while they read to enable them comprehend the text. The individual student’s prosody and intonation will be examined by the teachers as they read a literature material. The speed of reading will also be critically examined by the teacher. Students should detect the various words patterns according to the teacher’s instructions. One of the good strategies that a teacher will use is one which enables students to categorize and memorize words. Through this a student, can be able to generalize new concepts and experiences. The teachers should incorporate a strategy which ensures that students have spelling pattern knowledge for students to be fluent readers. Spelling will be looked into in the next class.
Assessment activity: The teachers will measure the number of words a student reads in a minute using the clock or the stop watch. The students should be able to categorize words using materials like word cards and category cards.
Lesson topic: Spelling
Students aim/guiding question: Through the students previous knowledge on vocabularies and phonics, students should be able to apply this knowledgeable for effective spelling and reading. They should be able to identify split compound words into two separates words as well as identifying these compound words. Students should be able to learn the spelling of both short and long words. These students should also be tested on exercises which portray a high frequency in spelling common and regular words.
Materials/resources: Dictionary, stop watch, writing materials
Opening activity: Students should be given exercises which portray their knowledge of common prefixes and suffixes. They should be able to spell words effectively.
Instructional activity: Pupils should apply strategies which are effective for handling unfamiliar words. Students will be required to practice new spelling for words they are unfamiliar with and write the words down.
Practical activity: Students should spell the words either orally or in written form. Dictation exercises will be done by the students. The use of dictionary can be used to test to find meaning of words and to correctly spell the words. Students should show extended use and knowledge of spelling in silent letters, common prefixes and vowel phonemes among others.
Assessment activity: Through detection exercises teacher can effectively access the performance in spelling for each student. The misplelt words should be clarified. Independent spelling strategies such as visual skills and sound out should be used by the teacher. Exercises should be given to students to demonstrate their knowledge of words with the same spelling but have different meaning i.e. use of homonyms.
Lesson topic: Picture book reading using Whiteboard technology
Students aim/guiding question: How can IWB are used in teaching by the use of a picture book of the four skills of English? The use of picture book reading is important an s education strategy for not only giving students a story but education them on English language knowledge. The white board is a new technology which is a touch screen hence students and teachers can interact through reading and writing on the touch screen.
Materials/resources: Interactive whiteboard, picture book
Opening activity: Based on their previous reading and learning lessons students can use the interactive white board to write and draw aspects they are learning in a class. The opening activity requires the teacher to scan the picture book picture. These scanned pictures will then be displayed on power point slides. They class will examine these pictures through the interactive board.
Instructional activity: Students will be required to mark some pictures as instructed by the teacher. The teachers may also instruct students to write some words; or complete sentences ion the interactive whiteboard.
Practical activity: Students will be shown the pictures for free talks. These talks include questions, answers, discussions through practices of speaking and listening. Such activities are those within the daily practices of students.
Assessment activity: Through the use of questions a teacher can assess the ability of students to write complete sentences and words which are known to the students. The teacher can also tell students to read the content of the various slide on the interactive white board. Their listening skills can be tested through the use of circling practices to know whether they have understood what the teacher has requested them.
Lesson topic: English language and creative ability
Students aim/guiding question: Can learning of English be take place through creative activities. Through the use of different intelligent abilities which each student has, they can be incorporated into classroom activities for fun and for learning.
Materials/resources: Painting material, acting and drawing materials and any other.
Opening activity: students will be required to remember some of the stories they have read in previous classes. They will draw the characters and setting of the story. Some of the stories will be from those told in the class by students or by the teacher
Instructional activity: Students will be called to participate in any talent they think they have.
Practical activity: They will sing, dance, draw and paint the aspects they have learned in class. This will help boost their imaginative power and memorization of classroom activities. The students will also be told to represent the things in their surrounding and how they represent the world around them in art such as a song, poem, painting or drawing.
Assessment activity: Each student will be required to present his or her ability and what they understand from the classroom lesson. This strategy can be of great help especially to students who learn through fun and in a relaxed atmosphere. Through the composition of songs and poems students vocabulary and language use will be improves. The same case applies in the naming of the picture drawn or painted.
Lesson topic: Use of technological aspects in English language teaching
Students aim/guiding question: Through the use of computer technology, a teacher can ask students on internet use, emailing and using, Microsoft word.
Materials/resources: Computer connected to the internet, stop clock
Opening activity: Students will first be taught on the use of key board and how to make words using the spelling skills they have learned.
Instructional activity: Students will be required to search for simple information through the use of various search engines in the internet. They may also be told to write simple emails to the teacher on what they have learned and send them via email. They can also be asked to compose short poems and send them to the teacher.
Practical activity: Students will be asked to construct various texts forms. This will enable them improve their navigation ability and speed in message composition by use of a computer. This is a skill that will assist them even after school life.
Assessment activity: the speed of typing can be determined by setting time. The constructed words can be assed to test student’s ability to use the internet and computer technology.
A Reflective Journal Summary of your Decision Making for the Unit
Based on the lesson plan for teaching English as a second language, I noticed that my decision making on some of the strategies could not incorporated low level proficiency l2 learners. This means that I am required to change the strategy that will consider the L2 learners especially in reading comprehension. Another aspect which is of great challenge is on adjusting the reading session to boost the students learning, especially those in low proficiency who require plenty of time to monitor their performance. They require enough time where I can help them individually to understand a text. Because of boredom experienced by some of the students in reading text, I also had to incorporate some activities like singing before proceeding with the lesson. I noticed that there is need for audio visual material to help students understand what they are reading.
There decision to use a standardized tool of teaching was not appropriate. This is because students are from various cultural backgrounds and for them to understand the content they were reading, I had to incorporate individualized text. The monolingual approach was also not appropriate for the students. I therefore, had to incorporate a bilingual approach for the better leaning of students from different cultures. The use of schema strategy was beneficial because learners were able to build new ideas from what they had done in previous lesson (Gabbler I & Schroeder 2003, pp 26). The practical activities like the White board made every student to learn in a much better way and enjoy the class seen in their active participation. After leaning the cultural needs of students I had to change and modify my teaching strategy and diagnostic materials for better learning of students. The use of quizzes and exercises were the best in assessing student’s development.
Gabbler I & Schroeder M (2003) seven constructivist methods for the secondary classroom: a planning guide for invisible teaching, Publisher Ally and Bacon, 26.