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Diabetes


  Abstract

            The earliest known record of diabetes was mentioned in 1552 B. C. By a physician who mentioned frequent urination as one of the disease’s symptoms. Later on in the 16th century, diabetes was identified as one of the most serious genetic disorders. In 1921 insulin was discovered then lab tests confirmed that injection with insulin could help manage diabetes. In 1993, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial report indicated that intensive therapy could delay the onset and progression in diabetes type 1 complications.According to the World Health Organization, approximately 17 million people worldwide are diabetic. This represents 2.8% of the world wide population. The amount is rapidly increasing and by 2030, the number will be almost double.


        Introduction

There are tow common types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. This research project will deal with type 1 diabetes which results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Lack of insulin subsequently leads to increased level of glucose in blood and urine. Type 2 diabetes on the other hand is a metabolic disorder associated with high glucose amount in the blood in the context of insulin deficiency and resistance. Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells can not utilize insulin properly. This research process aims at determining the prevalence rate of children living with type 1 diabetes.


 Research methods

The participants were various children living with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Consent was obtained from the parents who were required to sign a consent form. Those who signed the consent form confirmed their participation in the entire research process. The parents of the participating children were determined and willing to help their children live long and cope with the condition. Moreover, they were willing to learn the various ways through which they could help their children manage diabetes. Most of them had basic knowledge on diabetes and believed that the key to managing the disorder was to keep the blood sugar level in a manageable or target range.The sample size consisted of one hundred children living with type 1 diabetes. Only the willing children were recruited to take part in the research process. The parents were also willing to participate in the entire research process and make useful; contributions.


           Instruments

Insulin testing kits were used for the research process. These kits were used to measure the insulin level in the blood drawn from children living with diabetes. Children with extremely low amount of insulin levels in the blood were defined as being at the advanced stage of diabetes. Children with normal levels of blood insulin were defines as those with manageable diabetes. The other instruments used were syringes. These were needed to remove blood from diabetic patients.


 Procedures

The procedure involves conducting interviews on parents of children living with diabetes type 1. The parents were interviewed on the condition of their children. They were also asked to describe several ways through which they could manage diabetes in their children. In addition to interviewing the parents, the children were also interviewed. They were to describe their present condition and how they were feeling. The level of interaction of these students with their healthy counterparts was also determined.The other form of data collection used is questionnaires.  A list of questions was given to parents and their children. Some of the questions asked include the number of years a child and lived with diabetes and the basic play activities that a diabetic child is involved in the daily routine. The other method used to collect data was naturalistic observation method whereby the physical outlook and condition of children living with diabetes was taken into consideration.


 Results

The results indicated that children living with diabetes faced various challenges. One of the key challenges was lack of funds to for medication. Majority of parents stated that managing diabetes was costly in terms of medication. Children needed to be administered daily insulin shots which proved to be extremely costly. The other challenge is discrimination and isolation. Children living with diabetes felt left out especially in daily school activities that required them to participate along with their healthy counterparts. Other Parents and children lacked adequate knowledge on diabetes and ways of managing the disorder (Besser, 2009).The other challenge was poverty. Most of the children suffering from diabetes type 1 are from poor family backgrounds. This means that they could not afford health diet practices. In order to manage diabetes, a child needs to eat the same amount of carbohydrate at each meal and do a lot of exercise. The other daily routine activity required is checking the child’s blood sugar levels at the recommended times according to the doctor’s instructions.


 Discussion

Results showed that many parents lacked adequate knowledge on diabetes, its causes and ways of coping with the challenges associated with the disorder. Hence, there is need to educate parents on the different types of diabetes and ways through which it can be managed in children. Play is an important form of therapy for children living with diabetes type 1. It is therefore necessary to encourage these children to take part in daily play activities with their peers (Hanas, 2007).The results also indicated that most of the children living with type 1 diabetes were form poor family backgrounds. By seeking help from support groups, such individuals could get financial help to help in managing diabetes in their children.  The other form of help can be obtain from nutritional councilors and advisors who can enlighten parents on appropriate diet and nutritional practices that can help manage diabetes in children. One of the initiatives taken by Health organization to help children suffering from diabetes type 1 is provision of free medical services for these children. There is also provision of free counseling and nutritional advice sessions that are of supreme importance to parents and children living with type 1 diabetes. There are also some organizations consisting of people living with diabetes. These people meet up often for support and encouragement (Hanas, 2007).


 Conclusion

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that is most prevalent in children. There is an increasing number of children with diabetes globally. Poverty and lack of knowledge are among the challenges facing these children. It is essential for health organization to take several initiatives to help children living with type 1 diabetes


 References

Besser, R. (2009) Diabetes through the Looking Glass. Class Publishing Limited

Sperling, M. (2003) Type 1 diabetes: etiology and treatment. Humana Press.

Hanas, R. (2007) Type 1 diabetes in children, addressing adolescents, and young adults: how to become an expert on your own diabetes. Class Publishing Ltd.

 
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