Functions of Management
Management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals, and objectives. Management consists of planning, organizing and controlling an organization. Management also refers to people who perform the act of management. Every business has a manager and the manager plays different roles in the organization. Managers in every organization do the same kind of job. The main functions of management are planning, controlling, organizing, and leading. The four functions are important in an organization. The four functions help organizations achieve the objectives set, and vision of the organization. A manager is said to be successful if he leads his company in achieving the objective stated using the means available. Managers should follow the four functions, or steps so as to achieve the success anticipated for future plans of the organization (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006).
The first function of management is planning. Planning is setting the goals, plans and tasks of an organization in a convenient way. In planning managers set goals first, and then define the strategies to use to achieve the goals. After identifying strategies, then they set the standards need to be implement the strategies, and collect the resources to be used. Also managers should assign chores and goals for employees to undertake. There are three types of planning. That is strategic planning, tactical planning, and contingency planning. Strategic planning involves development of long range plan. Tactical planning involves short range plans, and contingency planning involves alternative plans (Koontz,Weihrich, 2006). Strategic planning in an organization involves defining the strategies, directions, and making decisions on how to allocate resources in order to pursue the strategies set.
Various analysis tools are used in strategic planning. These tools include SWOT analysis and PEST analysis. These tools help the organization in achieving the right plan. Strategic planning deals with the following questions. That is “what do we do?” and” for whom do we do it?” Tactical planning is the process of breaking down the strategic plan into specific, short term actions, and plans. A Contingency plan is a plan that is developed for a specific situation or for emergency. Most organizations develop contingency plans so as to prepare for any emergency. Planning in an organization is important as it helps the organization plan how to manage resources. It involves coordination of activities in the organization. Planning is applicable in the organization as managers set goals, and vision in the organization. It involves planning how to carry out activities in the organization. Without proper planning in an organization, it is difficulty to achieve the goals set as there is no proper coordination of activities (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006).
Another function of management is organizing. Organizing involves integrating previous goals into an integrated system, and assigning them to employees in the organization. Managers should establish commands to coordinate activities in the organization. A structural frame is useful in god organization in a firm. Managers are responsible for organizing activities in the organization (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006).
. They organize employees in the organization, and also resources. Organization involves identifying employees needed to carry out a certain job. It also involves identification of resources required in the organization. Organization is important in an organization as it helps managers in coordinating activities in the organization. It helps an organization in having the right number of employees, and the resources required. If an organization does not have enough employees, and resources, then the organization is said to lack proper organization. Thus, organizing in an organization is important in ensuring enough employees, and resources. It also helps in improving productivity in the organization. Organizing is applicable in many organizations. This is because the organizations organize the number of employees required to carry out tasks. They also organize the resources required in the organization (Koontz,Weihrich, 2006).
The third function of management is leading. Leading involves motivating employees to accomplish the target set. Managers always set short term, and long term goals so as to motivate employees. They make sure goals set are achieved at the right time, and in the right manner. Managers should be role models in an organization. They should be influencing, and able to solve problems in the organization. In order, to have good leadership in the organization, managers should act as leaders in the organization. They should supervise employees in the organization well, and ensure that all activities in the organization are carried out well.
Leading in organization is important as it helps in improving productivity. This is because managers in various departments ensure activities in the organization are carried out well. They also ensure that the activities are finished on time. This is through supervising employees in the organization. Leading is applicable in an organization as managers are leaders. They lead the employees by being role models. If an organization does not have good leadership, then it is difficulty to improve productivity. This is because employees in the organization are not motivated, and also managers do not supervise employees. Hence, organizations should have good leadership so as to achieve the goals set. Leadership skills are part of managerial skills each manager is required to have (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006).
The last function of management is controlling. Controlling involves coordinating procedures, and resources in an organization so as to achieve the best. It helps the organization achieve the objective set. To achieve the objective, the organization should monitor the procedures in an organization well. The organization should have proper update of process in the organization. Then the performance should be measured against the guidelines set, and goals. The organization should measure the performance frequently so as to know the progress. Controlling in an organization is important as it helps in providing proper management of processes. Controlling is applicable in an organization in different ways. First, organizations have processes that need to be controlled. The organization has to coordinate procedures, and resources in the organization (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006).
In conclusion the four functions of management are important in an organization. This is because they help managers in carrying out duties in the organization. Planning helps in developing strategies, vision, and goals in an organization. It helps the organization plan how to use resources to achieve the objective set. Leading helps managers to supervise activities in the organization. This is because managers are required to be role models in the organization. Controlling helps the organization to coordinate activities. The four functions are applicable in many organizations as organizations can not do without good management (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006).
Koontz, H., Weihrich, H. (2006).Essentials Of Management.Edition7.Tata McGraw-Hill,