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Friday, 05 April 2013 13:57

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Question 1: Benefits of the Simplified Approach

OSI reference model emerged way prior to the creation of TCP/IP network model. The OSI reference model was created by the Advance research project agency (ARPA) for the sole purpose if logically grouping the similarly working network components into different protocol layers. The advent of the internet gave rise to the necessity of creating a protocol suite that is streamlined to address the need of ever-advancing internet. Hence, the TCP/IP network protocol suite was created. The suite aimed at addressing most, if not all the problems that associated with the OSI reference model (Mansfield & Antonakos, 2009).

 One of the key benefits of the simplified approach is in terms of credibility. It is clear that the TCP/IP network model is more credible compared to the OSI reference model. Additionally, TCP/IP model supports internet working while OSI model does not support internet working. Another primary benefit worth noting regarding the simplified approach is that TCP/IP is effective in dealing with intense data traffic. The model easily handles novel applications such as print and file services as well as the World Wide Web. It is evident that TCP/IP network structure was dictated by the needs of the Defense department. The model was initially designed for a Defense Department, ARPANET, which is a resource-sharing network with the goal of minimizing the research costs. The network model was a success because there it worked reasonably well with ARPANET and the competition was not strong (Mansfield, 2009).

 Despite having a number of benefits including support for internet working, the design of TCP/IP network model unknowingly traded off security for the sake of reliability. The model’s structure lacks any from of security mechanisms. This means that the model depends fully on the security of computers that are linked to it. The structure of the network model has inherent security flaws resulting to connection hijacking, Crackers for Denial of Service (DOS) attacks and other security concerns. An excellent example of such attacks includes the routing attacks. This form of attacks makes use of the Routing Information Protocol, a valuable component of TCP/IP model. The key function of Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is distributing routing information within networks like advertising routes from local networks. A key similarity between RIP and the TCP/IP network model is that both of them lack an inbuilt authentication (Mansfield, 2009). When there is an RIP attack, the origin of data is replaced with its destination.

 Question 2:  A Security Clearance

The United States government needs a level of security clearance that is at least the same as classified information so as to make sure that an individual’s access to information is evidently consistent with the interests of the nation. The need-to-know is also essential because it ensures that a prospective recipient uses the classified information to help in legal governmental role or function (Schienfeld, 2011). The damage that can be perpetrated by a trusted insider who betrays a governmental institution is minimized by the practice of need-to-know. It is therefore, clear that an appropriate level of security clearance and need-to-know is used by the government for maintaining security. The primary purpose of classifying information is protecting the objectives of national security (Schienfeld, 2011). Hence, release of information to individuals without considering their level of security clearance and “need-to-know” would result to considerable damage to national security.


Mansfield, K., & Antonakos, J. (2009) Computer networking from LANS to WANS,

Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage Learning

Schienfeld, G. (2011) Necessary Secrets: National Security, Media and Rule of Law. W.

W. Norton 


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