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Samples of Medical Research Featured

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Samples of Medical Research


1.Jyu-lin, C., Weiss, S., Heyman, M ., & Lustig, R.(2009). Risk factors for obesity and high  blood pressure in Chinese American Children. Journal of immigration and minority health ,vol 13, p 268-275

Summary of the article

 The article examines the risk factor associated with high blood pressure and overweight among Chinese American children. The researchers identified factors that caused high hypertension among the children like high BMI, sedentary life and failure to exercise (Jyu-lin, Weiss, Heyman & Lustig 2009).

Research elements

A total of 67 Chinese American children from San Francisco Bay area and their families were used in the study. The children were aged 8 years to 10 years. Data from the participants was collected using questionnaires. The researchers used a cross sectional design.  The study had limitations as the self reported measures affected the results. Also, measurement errors like under estimating food consumption affected the results. The findings can only be generalized to a small population as the participants were not educated. However, the researchers provided detailed information to help the reader understand (Jyu-lin, Weiss, Heyman & Lustig 2009).

Results

 The researchers noted that children who made unhealthy food choice had high BMI and suffered from high blood pressure. Also, lack of exercise led to high blood pressure. Older children especially girls exercised less and were more susceptible to high blood pressure (Jyu-lin, Weiss, Heyman & Lustig 2009).


 Significance to nursing and patient care

 The results of the study are important to nursing and patient care as they help nurses understand how   physical activity and nutrition are linked with obesity and high blood pressure. The findings help develop interventions that are culturally sensitive and hence improve quality of care provided to patients (Jyu-lin, Weiss, Heyman & Lustig 2009).

2.Stark, M., Niederhauser, V., Camacho J., & Shirai L. (2011). The prevalence of overweight and obesity children at a health Maintenance organizational Hawaii. Hawaii medical journal, Vol 70, p 27-31

Summary

The researchers examined the rate of obesity and overweight among children at a health maintenance organization. Children aged 2 years and 10 years were more likely to be overweight and obese (Stark, Niederhauser,  Camacho & Shirai, 2011).


 Research methods

 The researchers used a retrospective   and cross sectional study to examine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among children. They used children aged between 2 years and 10 years. The participants were kindergarten children from public schools in Hawaii.  A total of 554 children were used (Stark, Niederhauser, Camacho & Shirai, 2011).

Results

 The research showed that 19% of the children were overweight and were more likely to become obese. Lack of exercise and eating unhealthy diet contributed to the high prevalence of children who were overweight and also high risk for becoming obese. The result indicated that boys had a higher risk of being obese than girls. The risk factors for obesity were ethnicity, social economic condition and place of residence (Stark, Niederhauser, Camacho & Shirai, 2011).


 Significance to nursing and health care

 The results obtained are important in improving the quality of care offered to patients especially children.  The researchers claimed that regular monitoring and screening is important in preventing obesity among the children. Also, nurses should develop proper intervention to prevent childhood obesity (Stark, Niederhauser,  Camacho & Shirai, 2011).

 3.Hollar, D., messiah S.,& Lopez ,G. (2010).  Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children. American journal of health, Vol 4 p 646-53

Summary

 The investigators determined the effect a obesity prevention intervention implemented at school had on BMI and academic achievement of children from low income families. The intervention had a dietary component, curricula and physical exercise component. The intervention improved student’s grades and also reduced the BMI (Hollar, messiah & Lopez, 2010).


 Research methods

 The researchers used quasi experimental design. A total of 4588 children were used. Also, 4 schools were used as intervention and 1 as control.48% of the participants were Hispanic. Demographic data was gathered in the fall and spring for 2 years and academic data was gathered annually. The validity of the study was affected by external variables that the researchers were unable to control. For instance, the researchers were unable to control holidays and thus might have affected the internal validity of the research. The participants were not selected using random method and thus limited geographical variability. Also, 1 school was used as a control. The researchers did not measure physical activity. The research sample was big and diverse making it easy to generalize the findings (Hollar, messiah & Lopez, 2010).

Results

 The research outcome showed that the intervention reduced BMI and improved student’s grades. Students in the intervention had a lower BMI than those in the control school. Hispanic and white children performed well in math (Hollar, messiah & Lopez, 2010).


 Significance to nursing and health care

 The research results are essential in provision of care to patients as they ensure nurses develop proper intervention to reduce the rate of obesity and academic achievement among poor children.  The interventions will improve quality of care school children receive and prevention of childhood obesity (Hollar, messiah & Lopez, 2010).

 4.Perez, G., Bayona, I .,& Rubiales C (2011). Performance of nutritional education programs to prevent obesity in children through a pilot study in Soria. Vol 5 p 1161-7

Summary

 Spain has the highest prevalence of childhood obesity compared to other countries in Europe. As a result, Spanish authorities have established strategies to prevent obesity such as health eating habits in children. The study determines the effectiveness of a nutritional education program in preventing obesity in Soria (Perez, Bayona & Rubiales,2011).


 Research methods

 Children aged 6 and years were used in the study. The children attended public schools in  soria. A total of 5 public schools were used. The researchers used a comparative method where they compared adherence to a Mediterranean diet. The participants were selected well to ensure the results were valid and can be generalized (Perez, Bayona & Rubiales, 2011).

Results

 The results showed that activities coordinated from various agencies in the country can improve eating habits among children. Encouraging good eating habits reduces the prevalence of childhood obesity (Perez, Bayona & Rubiales, 2011).

Significance

 The research findings are important in improving care provided to patients by developing suitable intervention to prevent obesity. Nurses are supposed to educate children on healthy eating habits to reduce rate of obesity (Perez, Bayona & Rubiales, 2011).

5.Miller, D. P. (2011).Maternal Work and Child Overweight and Obesity: The Importance of Timing. Family and Economic Issues journal. Vol 32, pp 204-18

Summary

 The research examined the relationship between maternal work and overweight and obesity in children. Increased work by parents especially mothers leads to increase in obesity in children as parents are not able to take care of the children.


 Research methods

 The researchers used a national longitudinal survey. They used youth child supplement to determine whether the timing of work done by mothers was related to childhood obesity.6855 children  and mothers were used in the study. The study has limitations as researchers were unable to get rich data to observe the mediators. Though the NLYS had a lot information about children and mothers, the mediating variables such as exercise, diet and energy intake were not available. Thus, the researchers did not test the mediating variables. Thus, the research does not provide direct insight on maternal work and childhood obesity.

Results

 The findings showed that maternal work between 9 years and 14 years was connected to increase prevalence of overweight among children aged 9 and 14.  On the other hand, work between 6 years and 8 years reduced the prevalence of obesity between 6 and 8 years and 9 and 11 years.


Significance to nursing and patient care

 The results are crucial in preventing obesity among children and also enhance care provided to children. The results enable nurses to determine the age when children are at a risk of becoming obese and being overweight and hence develop interventions for appropriate ages. It helps also determine how maternal work increase or reduces obesity.

6.Levy S., & et al. (2012) .Effectiveness of a diet and physical activity promotion strategy on the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children. BMC public health , Vol 12, pp 152

Summary

The researchers examined how diet and physical activity can prevent obesity among children. The rate of obesity is high in Mexico and this has forced researchers to identify strategies to reduce cases of obesity. Physical activity and diet can prevent obesity in Mexico. For instance, taking fruits and vegetables reduces BMI and hence obesity (Levy & et al, 2012).


 Research methods

The investigators used 60 schools from Mexico.30 schools were assigned the intervention and 30 acted as control group. A total of 1020 children in 5th grade were used. The researchers selected 17 children from each school. A two phase cluster trial was conducted. The participants were selected well to ensure the research is valid and the researchers were able to show the relationship between the variables. However, the setting of the study might have influenced the outcome. The research was carried out in the school and children do not spend a lot of time in school. Also, the intervention was provided for a short duration (6 months) (Levy & et al, 2012).

Results

 The results showed that diet and physical activity helped prevent obesity among children in Mexico.  The strategies reduced obesity among girls and hence the program should be implemented to reduce the rate of obesity in Mexico (Levy & et al, 2012).

Significance

 The research will help in prevention of obesity in Mexico especially in children by encouraging them to exercise regularly and eat healthy. Nurses should develop nutrition and physical activity intervention to prevent obesity among children and improve their health. They also educate teachers on obesity prevention to ensure children get proper care (Levy & et al, 2012).

7.Castetbon. K.,&  Andreyeva, T. (2012) Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys. BMC Pediatrics Vol 12, p 28

Summary

The investigators determined the connection between obesity and motor skills among children aged 4 years, 5 years and 6 years in US. Obesity affects motor skills as obese children have poor motor skills compared to children with normal BMI.  Reducing obesity can improve motor skills among children aged 4 to 6 years (Castetbon & Andreyeva, 2012).


 Research methods

 The researchers used cross sectional method. A total of 5100 children aged 4 years and 4700 children aged 5 to 6 years were used. The researcher’s assessed height, weight and motor skills of the children. The study is biased as the children used lived in good conditions unlike those excluded. Also, assessing the motor skills differently could have led to ambiguity and affected results. The cross sectional method made it hard for the researchers to determine the relationship between the variables.  However, the study contributes to current literature on childhood obesity and motor skills (Castetbon & Andreyeva, 2012).

Results

 The researchers noted that the rate of obesity among children was 15%. The connection between obesity and motor skills depended on the kind of skill. Obese girls and boys scored lower than normal children in hopping and jumping. The results showed that only motor skills directly connected to body weight were affected (Castetbon & Andreyeva, 2012).


 Significance to nursing and patient care

 The research is vital in preventing childhood obesity and improving motor sills among children. Nurses are supposed to develop interventions to prevent obesity and enhance motor skills affected by obesity (Castetbon & Andreyeva, 2012).

8. Majumdar, S., Ostrenga, A., & Payne, C. (2011). Pharmaeconomic impact of obesity in severe hemophilia children on clotting factor prophylaxis in a single institution. Hemophilia

Summary

 The research was aimed at determining the cost of reducing weight using prophylactic factor among patients with hemophilia (Majumdar, Ostrenga & Payne, 2011).


Research method

 They used children who had hemophilia as participants to determine the cost of reducing weight using prophylactic factor (Majumdar, Ostrenga & Payne, 2011).

Results

 The researchers noted that the cost of treating hemophilia among 20 children can be reduced by $2,000,000. In order to reduce the cost, nurses should identify children with hemophilia and are likely to be obese and provide interventions to reduce the risk of obesity (Majumdar, Ostrenga & Payne, 2011).

Significance

 The research outcome will help reduce the cost of treating children with hemophilia by reducing the risk of becoming obese. Nurses are supposed to develop obesity prevention programs to prevent obesity among hemophilia children (Majumdar, Ostrenga & Payne, 2011).

9.Croft, G .(2011) . Obesity in looked after children: findings of a local audit and strategies for intervention. Adoption and Fostering, vol 35, no 2,p86

Summary

The researchers examined whether obesity was a problem in looked after children in London borough of Camden (Croft, 2011).


Research method

 The researchers used a retrospective cross sectional study to examine obesity among looked after children. 271 children aged more than 2 years were used in the study. They assessed the BMI of the children (Croft, 2011).

Results

 The rate of obesity was high among looked after children especially adolescent girls. The researchers noted that looked after children were likely to become obese than children who are not looked after (Croft, 2011).

Significance

 The research findings are significance to nursing care and patient care as they ensure looked after children get proper care to prevent obesity.  The findings will help nurses develop appropriate intervention for the looked after children (Croft, 2011).

10. Rappaport, E.,Daskalakis., C & Andrel, J .(2011). Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children. J sch health, vol 81,no6,p341-344

Summary

 The researchers examined how obesity led to absenteeism in school in Philadelphia. They used urban school district to determine the connection between obesity, socioeconomic status and absenteeism (Rappaport, Daskalakis & Andrel, 2011).


 Research method

165,056 students from grade 1-12 were examined. They examined their BMI and classified obesity according to CDC age and sex percentiles. They reviewed 291,040 records for the children (Rappaport, Daskalakis & Andrel, 2011).

Results

The investigators noted that obesity was not connected with absenteeism except in children who were extremely obese. Race and poverty led to absenteeism unlike overweight and obesity(Rappaport, Daskalakis & Andrel, 2011). Hispanic and Africa Americans children were more likely to be absent from school compared to Asians.

Significance

 The findings are essential to nurses as they help in developing and evaluating public health programs aimed at reducing childhood obesity (Rappaport, Daskalakis & Andrel, 2011).

 11. Melanie, K. L.,  Panagiota, Y, K., & Villarruel, A. M. (2011) . Factors associated with obesity in Latino children: a review of the literatureHispanic Health Care International, Vol 9, no 3,p 127-136

Summary

 The investigators reviewed studies conducted before on rate of obesity among Latino children. They determined factors that led to high rate of obesity and overweight among Latino children. Environment, diet, physical activity and genetics led to obesity and overweight (Melanie,  Panagiota & Villarruel,2011).


 Research method

 The researchers reviewed past studies on rate of obesity among Latino children. The size of samples and lack of enough data on confounding factors affected the research results. The research used a large sample of Latino children and Latino subgroups. Also, and inclusion of Spanish and English participants ensured the research is valid (Melanie,  Panagiota & Villarruel,2011).

Results

 The researchers noted that diet, environment, physical activity and genetics led to high rate of obesity among Latino children. The parents BMI affected the weight of the children as high BMI in parents led to high BMI in children. Unhealthy diet and lack of exercise caused obesity (Melanie,  Panagiota & Villarruel, 2011)

Significance

 The research findings will help in prevention of obesity among Latino children by designing suitable intervention and hence improve their health (Melanie,  Panagiota & Villarruel,2011).

12. Kuhle, S., Kirk, S., & et al (2011). Comparison of ICD code-based diagnosis of obesity with measured obesity in children and the implications for health care cost estimates. Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 11, p. 173

Summary

 The researchers compared the measured obesity and IC D code of obesity. Health care professionals use data from administrative health databases to prevent obesity and they should understand the ICD code of obesity (Kuhle & Kirk & et al 2011).


 Research Method

The researchers used longitudinal administrative health data from Nova Scotia province in Canada. They compared measured obesity and ICD code of obesity. They also calculated the sensitivity and specificity and then estimated the cost of the ICD based obesity and measured obesity (Kuhle & Kirk & et al 2011).

Results

 The results showed that ICD code obesity was 7.4% from 2002 to 2004. Those with high BMI had a high health care utilization and cost (Kuhle & Kirk & et al 2011).

Significance

 The ICD diagnosis of obesity underestimates the rate of childhood obesity and overestimates the cost of care between obese children and non obese children (Kuhle & Kirk & et al 2011).

13. Kakinami L & et al (2010) . Association between different growth curve definitions of overweight and obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children. CMAJ, Vol 184 ,p 539-50

Summary

 The investigators compared the connection between the definition of overweight and obesity using WHO and CDE curve. They also determined the cardiometabolic risk factor.  The two curves define obesity and overweight differently and hence affect prevalence of obesity (Kakinami & et al, 2010).


 Research methods

  A total of 2466 children aged 9,13 and 16 years from  Quebec in Canada were used. Their BMI percentile was calculated using the WHO curve and CDC curve (Kakinami & et al, 2010).

Results

 The researchers noted that the Who growth curve did not have any discriminatory advantage compared to CDC curve. The BMI scores were higher in WHO curve compared to CDC curve.

Significance

 The study findings will help in measuring obesity and overweight using the two  curves and hence reduce the prevalence of obesity. This will ensure nurses develop the right intervention to prevent obesity (Kakinami & et al, 2010).

14. Sukho ,L.,& Kater, E . (2012). Active intervention program using dietary education and exercise training for reducing obesity in Mexican American male children.Health Educator, vol 44, no 1

Summary

 They examined the effectiveness of an active intervention program provided for 10 weeks. The program consisted of dietary education and exercise training (Sukho & Kater, 2012).

Research method

30 Mexican Americans male children from Laredo, Texas were used. The participants were aged between 8 years and 12 years. They were grouped into 3 groups. The first group was educated on nutrition. The second group was educated on exercise and diet. The third group was not educated, but members were encouraged to train themselves and have control (Sukho & Kater, 2012).


 Results

The findings indicated that children who were educated on exercise and diet had low body fat and visceral fat. Also, they understood the importance of physical activity unlike the other participants (Sukho & Kater, 2012).


 Significance

 The results show that exercise training and nutrition education can reduce the rate of obesity in risk groups (Sukho & Kater, 2012).

15. Benson, L., & Mokhtari, M. (2011). Parental Employment Shared Parent-Child Activities and Childhood Obesity. Vol 32, pp 233-44


 Summary

 The investigators determined the effect parental employment had on the BMI of children (Benson & Mokhtari, 2011).

Research method

 The researchers used parents and children as participants to determine how parents work affect children health. They measured the BMI of the children (Benson & Mokhtari, 2011).

Results

 The researchers noted that parental work had an effect on children BMI. The number of hours the parent worked had an effect on the health of the child. This is because the work affected the quantity and quality of time parents spend with their children. The work affected students reading and increased the risk for chronic diseases (Benson & Mokhtari, 2011).


 Significance

 The researchers call for parents to plan on how they will spend time with their children to reduce the risk of becoming obese and improve their health. The findings will enable nurses to develop intervention to reduce childhood obesity among children who do not spend time with their parents (Benson & Mokhtari, 2011).


  Reference

Benson, L., & Mokhtari, M. (2011). Parental Employment Shared Parent-Child Activities and Childhood Obesity. Vol 32, pp 233-44

Castetbon. K.,&  Andreyeva, T. (2012) Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys. BMC Pediatrics Vol 12, p 28

Croft, G .(2011) . Obesity in looked after children: findings of a local audit and strategies for intervention. Adoption and Fostering, vol 35, no 2,p86

Hollar, D., messiah S.,& Lopez ,G. (2010).  Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children. American journal of health, Vol 4 p 646-53

Jyu-lin, C., Weiss, S., Heyman, M ., & Lustig, R.(2009). Risk factors for obesity and high  blood pressure in Chinese American Children. Journal of immigration and minority health ,vol 13, p 268-275

Kakinami L & et al (2010) . Association between different growth curve definitions of overweight and obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children. CMAJ, Vol 184 ,p 539-50

Kuhle, S., Kirk, S., & et al (2011). Comparison of ICD code-based diagnosis of obesity with measured obesity in children and the implications for health care cost estimates. Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 11, p. 173

Levy S., & et al. (2012) .Effectiveness of a diet and physical activity promotion strategy on the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children. BMC public health , Vol 12, pp 152

Majumdar, S., Ostrenga, A., & Payne, C. (2011). Pharmaeconomic impact of obesity in severe hemophilia children on clotting factor prophylaxis in a single institution. Hemophilia

Melanie, K. L.,  Panagiota, Y, K., & Villarruel, A. M. (2011) . Factors associated with obesity in Latino children: a review of the literatureHispanic Health Care International, Vol 9, no 3,p 127-136

Miller, D. P. (2011).Maternal Work and Child Overweight and Obesity: The Importance of Timing. Family and Economic Issues journal. Vol 32, pp 204-18

Perez, G., Bayona, I .,& Rubiales C (2011). Performance of nutritional education programs to prevent obesity in children through a pilot study in Soria. Vol 5 p 1161-7

Rappaport, E.,Daskalakis., C & Andrel, J .(2011). Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children. J sch health, vol 81,no6,p341-344

Stark, M., Niederhauser, V., Camacho J., & Shirai L. (2011). The prevalence of overweight and obesity children at a health Maintenance organizational Hawaii. Hawaii medical journal, Vol 70, p 27-31

Sukho ,L.,& Kater, E . (2012). Active intervention program using dietary education and exercise training for reducing obesity in Mexican American male children.Health Educator, vol 44, no 1


 

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