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Monday, 27 May 2013 06:46

Precautionary Principle Assignment Featured

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Precautionary Principle Assignment 


Precautionary Principle Assignment: Type your answers directly into the form in the space provided. Support your answers with citations when needed and enter your references in the last section of the form.

Each answer should be a well developed paragraph of 5 or more sentences, include references where needed to support your answer(s).

In your own words, define and explain ‘internal validity’ and give an example:

 >> “Internal validity”, refers to the legality of underlying supposition in scientific research studies, which is commonly done through experiment and experimental legalities. Researchers commonly use scientific experiments, and oftenly manipulate a variable “independent variable” to find out what effect it would cause on another variable “dependent variable”.  For example, when there is a claim that “all dogs are not black” because the claimer can make the claim that A, the independent variable, causes B, which is the dependent variable.

Why do we use the word “causes”? It is because we are explaining that the independent variable (A) leads to a change in the dependent variable (B). Furthermore, if an experimental study discovered that learners that turn up to radio lessons in addition to their teachers get better marks than those learners that only turn up to lessons, we may argue that the radio lesson attendance (the independent variable) raises the exam performance and that is “the dependent variable”. Visualizing at the idea that A causes B is significant, for the reason that, internal validity is about being able to validate that A truly caused B.  This is quite different from external validity due to its focus on dependent and independent variable.      


In your own words define and explain ‘external validity’ and give an example:


 >> External validity refers to the legality of universal underlying supposition in scientific research studies, which is oftenly done through experiment and experimental legalities. Furthermore, it can also refer to the degree to which the outcomes of a research study can be generalized other people and extra situations (Mitchell, M& Jolley, J. 2001). Suppositions on the foundations to results relationships based on a particular  scientific research processes external validity if they may get generalized from the peculiar and eccentric settings events and participants to other populace s and circumstances (Brewer, M. 2000).

 Contributory suppositions possess high levels of external validity expected to apply the target populace research, for example from which the sample was derived from and also called populace validity.  The eternal validity is threatened by how the researchers might be wrong in making presumption on generalization.  This is because generalizability gets restricted when the independent variables depends on other factors; hence all threats to external validity work together with the independent variable. External validity does differ from the internal validity due to the fact that external validity focuses more on generalizability while internal validity dots on independent and dependent variable.   


For this assignment, you are assuming a role as an occupational health and safety officer for a large paint manufacturer:

 ‘When you review the company’s records you notice that an unusual number of early ‘middle aged’ male employees (those between the ages of 28 to 38) who come into contact with the chemical seem to either have left the company or use more sick days on average each year when compared to other employees of the company who do not come into contact with the chemical’.



Are you justified in using the Precautionary Principle for dealing with this issue:  What is your reason and is your reason based on internal or external validity?


>> Precautionary principle would be adamantly fundamental for dealing with this issue. This is because according to the precautionary principle researched by United Nations educational, Science and Cultural Organization (2005), confirms that it is important for human life to be protected from harmful industrialization element.  Most of the governments have undertaken measures in guarding and protecting their country’s environment. The polluters are caught up in polluter pay principle (PPP) used to protect the environment and its ecosystems. By appreciating the fact that human life is imperative and it must be protected, there must be measures to be taken to check on the employee’s problem. This means that precautionary measures (active control) to protect the affected male workers must be taken immediately.

Preventing is better than to cure, hence this male workers vulnerability to get contact with this jeopardizing chemical will be stopped. Furthermore, other measures will be taken to ensure that these chemicals are neutralized to avoid more danger to the workers. This situation would be dealt with basing on the internal validity since the independent variable (the chemicals) causes dependent variable (sickness) to the workers aged between ;28-38. As a matter of fact, this is already a confirmed issue as accessed by the officer in charge of manufacturing.  On passive recommendation, the company would seize to employ males of their late twenties and thirties to avoid cases of sickness caused by Titanium Glycol chemical.           


Identify 2 recommendations that you as a safety officer would want to put in place for managing the potential risks associated with male employees coming into contact with Titanium Glycol. Have one of your recommendations use an ‘active control’ and the other recommendation use a ‘passive control’.


 >> Allan S. and Kenneth R. McLeroy(2008) The importance of External validity Journal article Am JPublic health V.98 (1)

Brewer, M. (2000). Research design and issues of validity. In Reis H. & Judd, C (eds) Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge University Press

Jens E. Fenstad (2005) United Nations educational, Science and Cultural Organization: The precautionary Principle; World Commission of the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and technology (COMEST) Retrieved on 25th Sep 2012 from


Mitchell, M& Jolley, J. (2000)  Research design explained (4th Ed) New York : Harcourt




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Last modified on Monday, 27 May 2013 07:02
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