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Immunity


According to the HB foundation, 12 million Americans have in one time been infected with hepatitis B. the US statistics indicates that over 1milliion American are living with HIV and AIDs. Those at the highest risk of infection include gays, bisexuals and males who have sex with other males. It is estimated that 3.8% of the American people are gays, lesbians or bisexual.(Ramon, 2011). This population of people is at higher risk of HIV infections.The relationship between hepatitis B infection and HIV has received a lot of scholarly and researchers attention. Hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus share the same routes of infection.  There is a high prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection in homosexual men and intravenous drug users, regardless of their HIV status. HIV infected patients are likely to become acutely infected with hepatitis B virus than HIV-negative people. (Crowe, Hoy & mills, 1996)According to Trevor 2012, in his research involving adult South Africans, it is evident that sexual transmission of hepatitis B virus may results in new hepatitis infection, super infection and re-activation due to immunosuppressant (Bell, Trevor et al, 2012).


Several research points to the facts that HIV infection increases the risk of opportunistic diseases due to comprise of the immunity integrity of the body. In 2003, Kellerman and others conducted a cohort study to assess the prevalence of chronic Hepatitis B and incidence of acute hepatitis B infections in HIV infected individuals. According to the study, the prevalence of HBV in HIV infected people was 12.2 cases/100 persons per year. The prevalence was different among different races. (Kellerman, Hanson et al, 2003).  The preference of hepatitis B virus infection is frequent in HIV-positive intravenous drug users. (Rodriquez et al, 2000).  In USA, 36% of the reported cases of HIV infections are attributed to drug use. (National center for HIV/AIDs, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB prevention). USA is one of the leading countries in the world in drug abuse. In 2004, 1.0% of the urban population was using intravenous drugs.  (Friedman et al, 2004). The number of IDU in the country continues to increase.  Use of drug increases chances of men to men sex, which is a major risk factor in the spread of HIV and AIDS (center for disease control). HBV co-infection has important impacts on HIV outcomes. The probability of death among individuals suffering from HIV is double for those suffering from chronic hepatitis B. (Chun, Hullsiek et al 2012)


 Conclusion

Gays, lesbians and bisexuals, are the most vulnerable people to HIV infections in USA. Drug abuse is a major contributor of HIV infections. The numbers of gays, lesbians and drug users in USA continue to grow. This may lead to increased spread of HIV in the same population. HIV and hepatitis B have a lot in commonality. HIV increases chances of contracting Hepatitis B due to suppression of the human body immunity. The immunity of HIV-positive persons is compromised leading to high chances of infectious diseases. There is, therefore, need to investigate whether there is any difference in hepatitis infection between the general population and individuals who are HIV-infected.


 References

 Center for disease control and prevention. Drug-associated HIV transmission continues to grow in United State. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov

Friedman et al (2004). Estimating the numbers of IDU in metropolitan areas for structural analyses of community vulnerable and for accessing relative degrees of services provision for injecting drug users.

Http://aids.gov

“Prevalence of hepatitis B and incidence of chronic HBV infections in human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects”. Retrieved from http://www.unboundmedicine.com

Prevalence, patterns, and courses of past hepatitis B virus infections in intravenous drug users with HIV infection. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Ramon Johnson(2012). Gay population statistics. Retrieved from http://gaylife.about.com

Suzanne Crowe, Jennifer Hoy and John Mills (1996). Management of the HIV-infected Patient. Press syndicate of the University of Cambridge.


 

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