Diabetes Patient Education
The rate of type 2 diabetes in the world is increasing rapidly because of various reasons. First, unhealthy eating habits among individuals in different ways have led to increase in the rate of type 2 diabetes. Unhealthy behaviors such as physical inactivity and insufficient monitoring of blood glucose have led to increase in diabetes cases and complications. Healthcare providers have used different methods to treat and prevent diabetes. Pharmacological treatment lessens hyperglycemia and hypertension. Apart from pharmacological treatment, lifestyle changes have led to an increase in physical activity levels. Diabetes self management education helps in the management of diabetes. Diabetes self management education entails teaching patients’ how to utilize self care strategies for metabolic control and enhance the quality of life by preventing complications. Diabetes self management education is considered an important intervention that enables patients to actively participate in the management of diabetes. Diabetes self management education should be included in the treatment of diabetes (Sidani & Fan, 2009).
The research focused on describing diabetes self management education in terms of various elements including dose, mode of delivery, teaching techniques and type. In addition, the research examined the differences between intervention elements in relation to results of self management, knowledge, metabolic control and behavior. This enables Sidani and Fan (2009) to provide practitioners with adequate evidence to enable them understand the designing of diabetes self management education intervention. The authors used randomized, controlled trials that determined the effectiveness of diabetes self management education intervention on self-care, behavior, metabolic control and self management. The randomized controlled trial is important in understanding the effect of interventions on the desired outcome as it minimizes selection bias (Sidani & Fan, 2009).
(Sidani & Fan, 2009).
Sidani & Fan (2009) used 50 studies .25 of the studies were au of authored between 2001 and 2006. 24% of the studies were authored between 1996 and 2000. 26% of the studies were published between 1990 and 1995. The studies were carried out in different regions such as North America, Europe and Asia. Different diabetes self management intervention elements were examined. The interventions were grouped as mixed which consisted of various combinations of behavioral, psychological and educational types. The interventions were provided using didactic and interactive teaching techniques. They were offered via face to face communication with the provider in a mix of a single format or more formats. The diabetes self management education interventions comprised of more than one topic on diabetes self management. The interventions were delivered over different sessions (Norris, Lau, Smith & et al, 2002).
The findings from the study showed different mean effect sizes for knowledge, metabolic control and self management behaviors. The mean effect sizes for knowledge, metabolic control and self management behaviors included 1.29,5 of 7, 3 of 6 respectively. The indicators of self management behaviors and metabolic control were of a moderate size. Behavioral types of diabetes self management education interventions had bigger effect sizes than other self care behaviors. Psychological interventions had limited effects on self care behavior and metabolic control. Mixed interventions had a bigger effect for knowledge. Mixed interventions had a moderate effect for metabolic control. Moreover, education elements had a moderate impact on knowledge. Further, mixed teaching methods had a bigger effect on metabolic control and knowledge. On the other hand, the effect size for self care behavior was bigger for interactive teaching (Mensing, Boucher, Cypress & et al, 2007).
Determining the effectiveness of different components of diabetes self management education helps in the design, planning and creation of diabetes self management in the future. Several components of the diabetes self management education were evaluated. That is intervention type, teaching techniques, teaching strategies, dose of intervention among others. The findings showed that diabetes self management education interventions enhanced self care management in type 2 diabetes patients. In addition, the interventions improved metabolic control. Face to face interventions were effective in improving knowledge and metabolic control. The dose of intervention had a different effect. Interventions that had many sessions improved knowledge. However, interventions with many sessions did not have an effect self management behavior. Incorporating booster sessions improved the success of the intervention in maintenance of needed change (Ellis, Speroff, Dittus & et al, 2004).
The research findings can be applied in a diabetes population. The research outcome show the importance of diabetes self management education interventions. The intervention enables nurses and other health care providers to educate patients with diabetes about diabetes management skills. In addition, patients learn more about diabetes management and metabolic control and this enables them to actively participate in diabetes management. Therefore, the intervention is vital for the diabetes population give the increasing cases of diabetes (Sidani & Fan, 2009).
Ellis, S.E, Speroff, T., Dittus, R.S., & et al. (2004). Diabetes patient education. Patient Educ Couns; 52:97-105.
Mensing, C., Boucher, J, Cypress M, et al. (2007). National standards for diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Care. 30 (1):S96-S103.
Lau J., Norris, S.L., Smith, S.J., & et al. (2002). Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care.25:1159-1171.
Sidani, S., & Fan, L. (2009). Effectiveness of Diabetes Self-management Education Intervention Elements. Canadian journal of diabetes,33(1):18-26