Similarities and Differences between Marxism and Communism in China
China experienced its dark period during the warlordism period. It was after this period that communism began in China. This was pioneered by Mao Zedong. Zedong had been influenced by the Marxism philosophies and that is what led hi to introducing communism in China. China had to accept the Karl Marx philosophies of communism and the ideas of Zedong since this came at a period when the country had suffered a lot. This suffering had been in terms of extreme levels of poverty, starvation, and loss of a lot of innocent lives which left the country in grief. The country therefore saw the introduction of communism by Zedong as a great way of making changes. It was long after the civil war that there was a prevailing of the Zedong’s communism.
Under Zedong’s power, communism became powerful in China. In his theory, Karl Marx says that the basic communism ideology is that people should enjoy the fruits of their labor. However, this does not happen in a capitalist economic system. In such a system, there are two distinct classes of people and these are the nonworking owners and nonowning workers. This then showed that the poor would work for the rich but its only the rich or powerful who would be entitled to benefits. Thus, in such a system, there would be a wide gap between these two groups of people and it would keep on widening. If workers could possess their fruits of labor, then this alienation would come to an end and thus there would be no divisions of class.
In the same way, communism in China started as a movement that would pave way fro proletariat liberation. This is the group of people in the society who as Karl Marx described did not enjoy the fruits of their labor. Their existence was only dependent on the labor demand and despite this, they would not fully enjoy what they labored for (Chambre & McLellan, 2011). This shows that the communism in China followed Marx’s ideas because Marx in his capitalism stated that capitalism would result to the unity of proletariat. This implies that there would be no more provision of cheap labor and that the people would be united and thus ensure that they can exercise their rights.
It is the need to make elaborations of the Marxist theory that resulted in adaptations like Maoism. This is the theory of Zedong in the liberation and introduction of communism in China. Though in China some equality was achieved, it did not benefit all. There are still those people who greatly suffered from poverty. According to the Marxist theory, workers are only paid to give their families support. This is just a bare minimum salary. Thus, the worker does no have any control over the work that they do. This shows poverty since the people live ‘from hand to mouth.’ The communism in China was based on production and ownership. This according to Karl Marx implies that communism should be labor according to how one is able to but not according to their needs. Thus, people should not be paid just to sustain their families but according to their labor levels.
In the Marxist theory, Marx had the believe that for communism to gain its desired success, it had to be gradually implemented. This is the same process of gradual implementation that was followed in China. For instance, Zedong gradually introduced communism in China. This went on until the country saw movements that were fostered strongly on the path towards communism. Zedong had the belief that it was by making the peasants the center of revolution that communism could be achieved. This way, it is from this revolution that the government would be built. In China, it was clearly pointed out that there would be no revolution if the peasants who were considered to be poor were not there.
Marxism encompasses various theories. In Marxism, it is the economies that drive history. Therefore, due to this the working class suffered from exploitation by the capitalists. These ones make money from the poor people. The believe that Marx had is that at some point, the working class would rise and thus fight for freedom. This would then lead to the creation of a new political system. This is also the believe of communism in China. At first, the people of China had suffered from poverty and deaths and thus there was the believe that communism would free them from such suffering (Rise of communism in China, 2011). This theory of Mark appears to be fighting for the people. Further, it tries to prevent the people and especially the lower in the society from being taken for granted and thus misused.
The communism in China led to change in the land distribution. For instance, it was that the people had a social obligation. They were allowed to use their surplus by the government without limitation (Communism in China, 2011). This then gave the farmers in the country motivation. They were motivated to make more produce that what was set since they could make their own personal gains. The communism that Zedong introduced in China was that people did not shift to the cities. Rather, the support was based on the rural areas. The same way, according to Marx, where economic recessions occur, and the working place have the power to benefit from their labor and the full product. This then implies that the capitalists who rule the area do not take the surplus. Therefore, the advocated communism in China is in this way same as Marxism.
Both communism in China and Marxism appear to be anti-Christian. During the capitalist regime, the worker was alienated and miserable but still sustained the beliefs that they had in religion. This is what led to Marx defining religion as the response that people make towards the pain associated with being alive. He went further and said that religion was responding to the suffering on earth. According to Marx, “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the feeling of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless circumstances” (Marsh, 2004). Thus, the character of the proletariat explained the universal suffering and this is what made provisions for the religion need.
However, there are some slight differences between the communism in China and Marxism. For example, the communism variations that are observed in China appear more totalitarian and authoritarian that is observed in Marxism. Further, Marx needed a transition that would occur from socialism to communism. This then implies that Marxism is not something that was expected to come to an end. On the other hand, Zedong started communism in China. However, this only ended with him. After his death, communism died too. For instance, Deng Xiaoping, Zedong’s successor had different views as compared to Zedong’s. This was especially in matters dealing with the economy. Xiaoping’s believe was that to achieve economic growth, China had to take part in a market that was freer.
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Communism in China, (2011). Retrieved from April 8, 2011 from: http://www.gowealthy.com/gowealthy/wcms/en/home/articles/travel/culture/Communism-In-China-WBBDG6ZFB4.html.
Marsh, C. (2004). Socialism and spirituality/religiosity. Retrieved on April 8, 2011 from: http://www.des4rev.org.uk/exetersocialists/socialismspirituality.htm.
Rise of communism in China, (2011). Rise in communism in China. Retrieved on April 8, 2011 from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367344/Marxism.
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