Stephen Brooks and Eugene Gholz have analyzed globalization and war. modern economic globalization is different from global commerce because modern foreign direct investment and systems integration methods have allowed companies in different countries to specialize in designing and production of parts, but not complete products. Eugene Gholz has analyzed how globalization of production affects great power security relations. Globalization of production has influenced security of powerful countries in different ways. First, it has helped in the development of weapons. Powerful countries like United States have been able to develop powerful weapons through globalization.
This has made it easy for the countries to attack other countries. Gholz argues that globalization of production has influenced war in different countries as they have been able to attack their enemies. Stephen Brooks has argued about globalization of production both in liberal and realistic manner. He claims that the new type of globalization will have a positive effect on powerful countries in the world. First, the new kind of globalization will lead to commercial peace among the powerful countries like United States. Companies and governments make decisions through various processes of system integration and strategic planning. The decisions made by the companies and governments result to various kinds of international economic relationships.
The diversity of economic connections integrates with different strategic situations that are common in the international environment. For instance, the economic connections combine with difference in geography and the objectives of a country. They also combine with policies and policy history. This results to different constraints on the offensive capability of a country. It also causes an offensive effect on the success of economic benefits gotten from war (Gholz, 2007). The authors argue that conquest in future will have both positive and negative impact. It will lead to economic benefits or any other benefits. Also, it will also affect the success of the countries. Though Stephen Brook argues that globalization will lead to commercial peace, other authors have different views. Authors like Eugene Gholz claim globalization will not lead to a period of commercial peace as stated by Stephen and this will affect production in the countries.
Stephen Brooks and Eugene Gholz believe that globalization is important for success in conquest. This is evidenced by United States and the Soviet Union. The authors argue that United States succeeded in the war because of globalization of production. United States was able to access globalization of production and this made it easy for the country to produce weapon and hence succeeded in the war. On the other hand, Soviet Union did not have access to globalization of production and this hindered it from producing weapons. Thus, this resulted to the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, other researchers do not attribute the fall of Soviet Union with access to globalization only, but economic challenges. The Soviet Union economy was adversely affected during the war and this hindered the country from conquering United States (Gholz, 2007).
Eugene Gholz and Stephen Brooks have similar arguments. The authors believe that globalization in production plays an important role in conquest. Access to globalization in production enables countries to succeed in war. For instance, it helped United States succeed during the cold war. United States was able to overcome the Soviet Union. Access to globalization in future will help powerful countries during war. This is because they will be able to develop weapons and other tools that will help them during war. In addition, the authors believe that systems integration is important in the future of great power War. Gholz and Stephen brook argue that system integration is important among powerful countries as it helps them develop legal issues.
The authors argue that countries should have the tools that are used in production and also the production experience needed to produce weapons. They should also have knowledge of system integration and design skills in order to use the tools well. Countries that have had adequate experience needed to produce the tools and knowledge of system integration have been successful during war unlike those which have not. This is because the countries have been able to develop effective weapons and also use them effectively. The authors have associated the American victory during the cold war with knowledge of system integration, experience in production and effective use of the equipment (Gholz, 2007).
Though the authors have similar arguments, Stephens argument on commercial peace is different from Gholz. Stephen believes that globalization will lead to commercial peace as it will affect the capability of the countries to succeed in war and economic gains of war. This will in turn result to peace in the countries. Gholz believes that it will not lead to peace. Gholz argument on globalization of production and systems integration and their impact on war among powerful countries are stronger than Stephens’s argument. The author has managed to describe the effect of globalization of production, systems integration and their impact well using various countries like US and Soviet Union. Though Stephen analyzes globalization, systems integration and their effect on powerful countries during war, his argument is not strong. Stephen mainly focuses on commercial peace created by globalization (Gholz, 2007).
Globalization has an impact on Russia and China. Globalization has economic and security impact. First, globalization has an effect on economic growth in Russia. Russia has relationship with United States and Europe. Russia’s relationship with United States is not based in trade. On the other hand, Russia relationship with Europe is based on trade. The United States has minimal direct dealings with Russia. However, Russia has a strong relationship with Europe. Europe imports various products from Russia. Russia has various resources that it exports to other countries like Europe. For instance, it has gas and oil. Most of the countries in the world rely on Russia for gas and oil. A large percentage of gas used in Europe is gotten from Russia. Europe imports 40% of gas used in the region. Moreover, it imports oil. The region imports a third of the oil used in the country from Russia. Europe is considered the largest market for products and resources manufactured in Europe.
On the other hand, Russia relies on various European countries. Various investors from Russia have invested in Germany, France and other European countries. This has strengthened the relationship between the two countries. Hence, globalization will enable Russia develop its economy by allowing low of resources, information and even trade (Barysch, 2008).Moreover, globalization will affect security in Russia. Globalization affects security in a country in different ways. Globalization can affect security in the country through loss of power. Countries that do not have laissez faire attitude are affected by globalization. This is because the countries do not allow transfer of information. The countries think that transfer of information will affect security in the country (Shleifer, A &Treisman, D, 2011). On the other hand, countries that have a laisser faire attitude encourage globalization, international trade as this does not affect their security. Moreover, globalization shapes the nature of conflicts and patterns of organized conflicts in a country.
The economic, political and cultural pressures linked with globalization are challenging to countries that do not have good governance and this affects security in the country. This is because it results to conflicts. Moreover, the opportunities offered to business enterprises by open integrated international markets affect the country’s security. The opportunities lead to creation of illicit economy and results to terrorist activities. The terrorist’s activities in the country are associated with technological advances. Improvement in communication technology has led to creation of new business opportunities and also terrorists activities that affect the country’s security and security in other nations (Moeller, 2008).
Further, globalization will affect china security. Globalization has affected balance of power in the country. China does not have a laisser faire attitude and this has made it hard to embrace communication technology as it affects security. China developed a strategy to embrace information technology without affecting its authoritarian regime and security in the country. However, things have changed greatly as most people in the country have subscribed to internet services and also use cell phones. The number of people who had subscribed to internet services in 2002 was almost52.5 million. The number of people having cell phones increased in 2008.the number of cell phone in the country in 2008 was 500 billion (Kirshner, 2008). Globalization has led to free flow of information in the country than before. The state control has not been affected by the flow of information in the country; however, internet tension is common in the country. Also, it has led to economic growth in the country.
The country has managed to maintain strong trade relations with various developed and developing countries. The country has exported products and services to such countries. It has also imported products and services from the countries. This has made china one of the best economies in the world. Globalization has affected relationship between china and United States (Jonathan, 2008). China and United States have a poor relationship and this could affect security in the country. China does not support US diplomatic relations and this has resulted to conflicts between the two.
The poor relation between the two has forced china to exclude United States from Asian economic and security affairs. Eliminating America from Asian economic and security matters will affect economic growth in china. This is because china will not be able to trade with other Asian countries in the region. This will in turn affect its economy (Henry, 2011). Thus, China and United States should develop a good relationship so as to avoid poor economic growth and security issues. They should try to trade together and look for complementary interest and develop them. This will promote economic growth between the two nations and also avoid any kind of conflicts and tension. The countries have experienced tension for the last few years because of their differences. There is no differential impact on globalization in the two countries (Kirshner, 2008).
People have different views about the impact of globalization on US power and supremacy. Some people think United States will not remain the most powerful country globally because of globalization. They claim that globalization has led to free flow of information which influences power. The information flow might impact power and then affect America power and make other countries powerful like china, Brazil etc. However, researchers claim that power diffusion might be more dangerous than power transition in an information age and only countries that are well developed are likely to succeed during the information age. United States will not be affected by globalization and it will remain the most powerful country in the world according to various studies. The country will remain the most powerful in the world during the information age because of various reasons. First, United States is likely to remain the most powerful country in the world because of its strong military base.
United States has a strong military power and this has made the country powerful for the last few decades. The country has managed to maintain its security, political power and economic power through military activities. In addition, it has also used its military power to help other countries and also attack other countries. United States provides military support to various countries like Afghanistan, Iran etc. The strong military power will make the country successful unlike Japan, China and Brazil. China does not have the military capability to eliminate United States in East Asia and the world. Also, china is not able to eliminate US from East Asia because it will affect its economic growth.
China depends on the Asian countries to market its products and get resources. Also, china power is being contested by various countries like Japan and India and this makes it hard for China to super pass US. This will be an advantage to US as it will remain powerful. United States has also established strong relations with other countries like Japan and India and this makes the country more power (Joseph, 2010).
Moreover, globalization is not a threat to United States power and supremacy because of economic power. United States is the largest economy in the world. The country has managed to record a strong economic growth for the last few years and this has contributed to its economic power. Most people argue that china will super pass US in future. Authors have written different books expressing their views about china. For instance, Martin Jacques has written a book titled “When china rules the world: The end of the western world and the birth of a new global order” to show the position of china in future. China’s economy is expected to super pass United States economy by 2027. However, United States will remain the most powerful economy in the world in 2027. This is because china does not have enough power resources like United States.
In addition, china faces many challenges that affect development. The Chinese gross domestic product will not pass the US gross domestic product by 2030 even if the economies in the two countries are equal. Though the countries will be equal in size in 2030, they will differ in terms of composition. China is not well developed like United States. The country has a large section that is not developed. Also, the economic development in the country will be affected by the one child policy when affected. Immigration has contributed a lot to US power and supremacy. United States has a large number of immigrants and this has increased population in the country. Additionally, it has the best education system in the world. The university education and secondary education set global education standards and also meet global standards. Thus, the country is able to produce a qualified labor force that contributes to economic growth.
Further, globalization will not affect US power and supremacy because it is political stability. Some of the developed countries like China are not politically stable and this affects development. For example, China is not able to solve democratic issues political participation that affects per capita income (Joseph, 2010).Different policies developed by US government might affect US power and supremacy. This is because people have different views about the power and supremacy in future. Some think the country will be superposed by china, Japan and even Brazil, but others do not. This has affected policy development in the country. Policy makers should develop the right policies to avoid affecting the power and supremacy of United States. The policies developed should promote power and supremacy by enhancing economic growth, political stability and good governance. They should also encourage good foreign relations as the kind of relationship US has with other countries determines its success both economically and politically. Using the foreign policy wring will impact the country economic growth and political development as it will not be able to trade with other countries (Joseph, 2010).
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