Political Science (483)
The Warrantless Wiretapping
The warrantless wiretapping conducted by the Bush Administration in the wake of the 9/11 attacks was totally unjustified. Although the country needed effective measures to curb the threat posed by terrorists, it is extremely essential to act in line with the provisions of the constitution. For instance, the privacy of most citizens was put in jeopardy. This was because of the unwarranted interruptions of communications into and out of the United States. In order to respond to the situation, there are various steps that could have come in handy. Firstly, it is essential for the congress to enact legislation which prevents the president from implementing the warrantless wiretapping.
The congress and the senate are two influential institutions in the country’s decision making framework. Consequently, both of these institutions should play an active role in mitigating the problem (Welch, 2008). Apart from policy reforms by senate and congress, another recommendation pertains to the establishment of a joint taskforce. Such a taskforce would be mandated with the responsibility of identifying the various loopholes evident in the nation’s security systems (C-SPAN, 2013).
The identification of such loopholes forms the basis of developing effective security strategies which conform to the country’s constitution (Grayling, 2008). The taskforce would also come in handy in terms of advising the president about the potential ramifications of warrantless wiretapping. For instance, this kind of practice can easily jeopardize the country’s diplomatic ties with foreign partners (Kowalski, 2008).
The National Security Agency has adequate systems which can facilitate for the mitigation of terrorist activities. Using these systems, the National Security Agency can safeguard the country from potential terror attacks (Bakalian, 2008). Additionally, another essential measure would involve the allocation of adequate resources to the various security agencies.
Both Al Gore and Andrew McCarthy present contrasting opinions as pertains to FISA. The most obvious difference between the views presented by both authors concerns their official stand towards the unwarranted wiretapping of communication (McKenna & Feingold, 2011). While Al Gore does not support FISA, Andrew McCarthy argues in favor of the president’s actions. The second aspect that highlights the difference between the views of both authors concerns their stance on the constitution.
On his part, Al Gore emphasizes that the rule of law must be protected at all costs and by all Americans. In connection to this stance, Al Gore notes that President Bush is not mandated by the constitution to implement policies which do not conform to the constitution (McKenna & Feingold, 2011). On the other hand, Andrew McCarthy argues that the president is mandated by the constitution to establish plans which align to the national interests. In line with this stipulation, President Bush’s unwarranted wiretapping does not violate the country’s law. In terms of similarities, both authors highlight security as a pertinent aspect of national importance.
From a personal perspective, I side with Al Gore’s views on FISA. This is because the president should not act as if he is above the rule of law. While taking the oath of office, he promised to uphold the constitution. It is thus greatly concerning for President Bush to violate constitutional provisions in the name of enhancing national security (Miller, 2008). In the United States, no one has the authority to infringe the privacy of other citizens. However, unwarranted wiretapping is tantamount to the violation of this stipulation.
Bakalian, A. P. (2009). Backlash 9/11, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Press
C-SPAN (2013). “Warrantless domestic surveillance”. Accessed on 9th April 2013 fromhttp://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/200107-3
Grayling, A. (2008). Towards the light, Bloomsbury Publishing
Grayling, A. (2011). Liberty in the age of terror, Bloomsbury Publishing
Kowalski, K. M. (2008). A pro/con look at homeland, Enslow Publishers
McKenna, G. & Feingold, S. (2011). Taking sides: Clashing views on political issues,New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education
Miller, R. A. (2008). United States national security: Intelligence and democracy, New York, NY: Routledge
Welch, S. & Comer, J. (2008). Understanding American government, Mason, OH:Cengage Learning
The 7th President Of The United States
Andrew Jackson was the 7th president of the United States. Andrew Jackson played a crucial role in the 1812 war. In 1801, Jackson worked as a commander of the Tennessee militia. Andrew Jackson, Tecumseh were the main actors in the 1812 war. Shawnee chief Tucumseh instructed the Red Stick creek Indians of Georgia and northern Alabama to attack white settlements. In the northwest, Tecumseh had united tribes who fought against the US citizens. The tribes repelled the European American settlers who came from the lands on the northern side of Ohio. This led to the death of 400 settlers in the Fort Mims massacre. This in turn, forced Jackson to use the American forces. The America forces consisted of Lower creek warriors, US regular, Tennessee militia, Cherokee and Chotaw. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend resulted to death of 800 Red Stick. The American forces and their allies killed more than 800 Red Stick warriors. After winning the war, Jackson imposed the Treat of Foret Jackson. Jackson was offered appointed as the major general of the U.S army after defeating the creek tribes and commanded the seventh district. In addition, Jackson asked for 23 million acres of land from the Indians. The land was located in different places including Georgia and Alabama.1/5 of the land was found in the present Georgia and 3/5 in Alabama. This compelled the creek to agree with Jackson demands.
Further, Jackson attacked the British soldiers in Florida. Jackson fought the Pensacola and compelled the British to leave the area. He also participated in the New Orleans war after British soldiers threatened New Orleans. His soldiers won the war of the New Orleans on 8th January, 1815 after fighting the British soldiers. The war had a negative effect on American and British soldiers. Many British soldiers died during the war. Britain had 2037 casualties and 291 died during the war. Others were wounded (1,262), and other soldiers were missing (484). The American soldiers also had casualties (71). 13 American soldiers died, 19 went missing and 39 were wounded. Andrew Jackson became a hero after the war because of his actions (Armitage, Czitrom, Buhle & Faragher, 2011).
Armitage, S.H., Czitrom, D.H., Buhle, M., & Faragher, J. (2011). Out of Many. Prentice Hall PTR
Thesis: While The U.S Government Has Failed To Fulfill Treaties With Indian Peoples, Indians Faced Political, Lands, Educations And Media Problems Throughout Years.WRITTEN_BY Administrator
Thesis: While The U.S Government Has Failed To Fulfill Treaties With Indian Peoples, Indians Faced Political, Lands, Educations And Media Problems Throughout Years.
The history of Native Americans has continued to be a major topic for non-Indians and Indians alike. This history covers the colonial times up to the 20th century. The Wounded Knee Massacre was on December 29th 1890 in South Dakota in a place near Wounded Knee creek. The massacre was committed by the American military that killed many native Indian Americans. The Native Indians were against the expansion of Europeans to their ancestral lands and territories as well as other offences such as the crimes on their civil rights. The Wounded Knee massacres were as a result of a convergence of factors such as, federal policies, ethnicity and race and reservation politics as defined in terms of both Euro-American and Indian and the tribal consciousness resulting from the civil rights climate, various co-existing struggles and injustices against the Indian people.
These grievances are presented in the conflicts between Russell Means and Richard Wilson, the federal government, and Russell Means/AIM and the Indian Interests verse the national interests of accessing land and energy resources. This paper will show that the Wounded Knee was not simply an Indian experience at the early history of America but an expression of border conflicts that have existed over the years such as poverty level, lack of employment and education opportunities, political challenges, land and media problem that was grappled by the federal government.
During the late 1840s, a lot of silver and gold discoveries were made, and it symbolized the start of serious interests by white settlers in semiarid and arid land beyond Mississippi, where many Indians were forced to leave their land and settled in researches. The federal official established the concentration policy in 1851 to the open land. Tribes living in the targeted lands were forced to sign treaties that wound limit their boundaries for grazing animals and hunting grounds so that they settle in reservations. Dakota became the region for Sioux tribe. The treaties claimed that the provisions and interest of the Indian tribes will not be obeyed as the white settlers became hungry with the fertile lands. Therefore, the promises made to the Indian people were broken by the government, and they ended living as squatters in their native lands. The white land hungry pioneers further demanded the government to give them protection. The continuous cycle of broken promises went on leading to a full-scale war between the Indians and whites that covered most regions in the West (U.S. a Native History, 2009).
There were over 180 reservations in the west by mid-1880s for hosting about 240, 00 American Indians. The last tribe to be confined in these reservations was the Sioux people because they fiercely fought v to retain their ancestral land ad freedom. The 1889 treaty led to the creation of other six small sized reservations in the Dakotas regions. These reserves were Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Cheyenne River, Standing Rock, Rosebud and Pine Ridge. The tribe’s people of Sioux suffered immense losses especially in their crop between the summers of 1889 and 1890. All the bison were killed by the white settlers and further brought bitterness, disease epidemic and poverty to the Sioux people (U.S. A Narrative History, 2009, Kutler, 2003). Many challenges still face Indian American people to this very day. These challenges include, education, political media and land problems. Therefore, though the U.S government failed to fulfill its promises to Indians While the U.S government has failed to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples, Indians faced Political, lands, educations and media problems throughout years.
History of the Native American and politics
The Native American history is tragic and astonishing. At the time of European arrival, there were approximately 90 million natives Americans who lived in the American soil. Stories of their origin indicate that the Native Americans travelled during the ice age to a land bridge via Bering Sound. They came from Siberia into the land now known as Alaska. They gradually migrated southward across the land to reach Mexico and beyond. When Christopher Columbus arrived in the American soil, he encountered the Native Americans and was quick to refer to them as Indians who could have landed in America from Indies. These Native Americans have also been labeled American Indians and Indians. They have moved to various regions of America to form many nations and tribes.
The natives have well adapted to their geographical locations and made proper use and conservation of the available natural sources. The Native Americans believe on the value of land respect and the abundant gifts it offered for their survival. Their first encounter with the white people was welcoming, but soon they learned of the white people agenda of conquering their land, and were brutally attacked and killed through sophisticated weapons and the deadly diseases they introduced. This arrogant attitude of white people leads to the introduction of Indian Removal Act (1830), Indian Wars and the worst massacres ever the Wounded Knee in South Dakota. Women, children and men were slaughtered.
The U.S government established program for relocating the natives. There was also the Trail of Tears which brought illnesses, exposures and starvation to many Cherokee. The homes of the natives were also taken and children were forced into schools as a way of civilizing them. The white further forced the Native Americans to abandon their cultures and heritage. Since 1897 many of the Native Americans have been residing in reservations allocated to them by the government. These are areas which have the highest rate of poverty levels. The employment rate five times higher that the overall the United States population. The community plagued with a high rate of suicide and alcoholism. This is a community that was once of resourceful and vibrant people. They have been humiliated, removed and robbed of all the things they possessed and knew. Efforts have been made through the years to Christianize, civilize and Americanize the Native American people, but have stayed steadfast to maintain their heritage (Washburn, 1986).
- Indian Political problem
On February 27th 1973, a large number of Sioux residents occupied Wounded Knee, in South Dakota. The American Indian movement was formed, and its main concern was to impeach the Tribal Council chairman on Pine RIDGE Reservation. This marked the start of internal tension among the Native Americans. The Independent Oglala Nation called for the removal of its chairman known as Richard Wilson and to restore the tribal government as per the agreement of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. The chairman was accused mismanaging funds collected by the tries men and was not concerned with tribal affairs. The community was also angered by the chairman’s nepotism, infliction of violence and terror to all those offending him and violation of civil rights. Under Wilson’s regime, there was a lot of property destruction, beating, looting violent deaths and firebombs.
Wilson was accused of offering jobs t6o the mixed blood people and the full blood especially in government and council jobs so as to support the whites and U.S government interest. Such decisions aggravated internal tensions among the Native American communities. The intra-tribal conflicts were between the mixed blooded who were part of Chairman Wilson council and the traditional full blood Indians (Wilson, 2001). The internal conflicts that arose in the reservations have created two opposing forces that are isolated from other problems facing the Indians. The historical root of this force posse other potential conflicts among the Native American tribes. This can be seen when the federal policies such as the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (IRA) and the Dawes Allotment Act Of 1887, which created internal reservation conflicts and competition for the limited services and resources (Wilson, 2001)? Other events, which also led to internal conflicts, are the light prison sentences to white perpetrators who murdered Yellow Thunder and the return of AIM leader Russell Means who murdered Oglala Raymond.
The Native Americans have been fighting for their self-government and political independent institutionalization as part of their political agenda. “Sovereignty of Native American people is closely related to the government to government type of relationship. The United dealt with this issue of Native Americans in May 19996. This was through the State department when they held a consultation meeting prepared by the United States and taking the United Nations position concerning a draft declaration.
This meeting aimed at discussing issues on the rights of Indigenous people as an issue within the international arena. Before this meeting, there was the government to government relationship in the way the U.S government related with Native Americans via the war department. In 24, the first Bureau of Indian Affairs was established. In the following years, it was institutionalized as a domestic concern. It was until in 1873 that the first straight forwards legal position of Native Americans was formed after the Montana District court case of United States v. Blackfeet Tribe.
Repressive of Indians In congress
The traditional Indians in the very beginning expressed their concerns to the Congress such as violence as well as fear of terror in the reservations. They also aired out issues of corruption, violence and civil rights violations to the white House and Congress (43). However, these concerns feel in deaf years. About 150 complaints that the Native Americans filed on civil rights violations were ignored. The government’s attention was only that AIM and Russell Means be under intense surveillance by the Justice and FBI department. Due to this lack of concern by the government and congress on the situation in Pine Ridge Reservation it sent a message to Oglala on the need to mobilize and organize.
- civil rights activist
Another aspect that led to the Wounded Knee war was the collective and individual ethnic renewal among minority groups and Indians. This awareness led to the formation of pan-Indian movement that formed, mobilized and organized itself to address the grievances faced by Native Americans imposed on them by the U.S government. There was also the civil rights climate across the country by other minority groups that inspired Indians to put aside their internal differences and establish a united effort (8). Through this awareness of ethnic expressions and renewal, they managed to express their grievances against federal issues and policies based on their rights treaties agreements in reservations via Russell Means. Furthermore, due to the fact that the U.S government had ignored the residents of Pine Ridge Reservation to help them, the Independent Oglala Nation called for AIM to help stop the abuses and violence by Wilson (Rottenberg, 2013)
- land problems
General Allotment Act of 1887
The US government made attempts to suppress Indian resistance so as to have access to their tribal resources and land. The federal government was obsessed with AIM and Russell Means as revolutionaries and had to be always under intensive surveillances to check their activities. The strong presence of FBI and the military operatives near and on reservations showed the federal’s strong position. The Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 called for the enrollment on reservations so as to gain allotment imposes terms for the limited services and resources. Through this act, the communally held land was divided into small potions to individual Indians so as to eliminate traditional ownership by the community and for people to engage in farming. The allotment Act also allowed Indians to be American citizens.
Apart from this act gave power to the Interior Department to lease or sale Indians tribal land to non Indians such as white ranchers, developers and other interested parties. Indians who did not practice farming or those who did not use their land well ended up becoming homeless as they were forced out from the allocated land and sold to other white settlers. Generally, the Dawes Act managed to bring changes to reservations by breaking down large tracks of land owned by the Indian community, allowing non Indians to poses land, and determining the Indians degree by forcefully assimilating Indians. The policy brought much poverty to Indian people by increasing cultural erosion, poverty m, loss of ancestral lands and fractioned inheritance problems.
In the 1970s he Pine Ridge Reservation was inhibited by 11, 000 Oglala people that covered about 4000, square miles. The tribal government was in control of more than one and half million acres while the whites were in charge of one million acre... Later 83% of the Indian land was sold or released to white ranchers. The owners of this land were forced to move to a reservation camp in Pine Ridge to a town where they could seek for an alternative source of income. Those at rural residents managed to maintain their Indian traditions, but still had to be moved to reserve camps in towns and were separated, not just from their lands but also from their traditional values (Nabokov, 1991). At these reserves, they faced unemployment problems and increased rate of poverty.
The issues faced by Native Americans in the 20th century American politics as still the same as those experienced by this community in the 18th century. These are hunting and fishing rights, water and land rights, civil and criminal jurisdiction and religious freedom. These problems arose because of the self governing Native American tribes who used their land and waters for fishing and hunting without asking permission from anyone. They had used the natural resources before the arrival of Europeans to the shores of America. The Indian people had their own inherent right with no need of legitimating and validation from new comers on how to use their water and land. This combined with other conflicting legal issues led to a complicated relationship between the government and the Native American tribes. These issues have continued to be wrestled over the country’s history on issues of shifting government policies, tribal sovereignty and broken treaties, as well as, the interpretation of these treaties.
Force to go to white schools
In the effort of the white settlers to gain access to much of the territories in North America, there were a lot of massacres and wars as a means of forcefully displacing Indians from their land. One of these wars was the Trial of Tears. The Indians were also imposed treaties and restricted their rights to food and water. Once the Indian land was occupied and incorporated to the whole of the United States many were sent to reservations. It is at these reserves that they were forced to attend the white schools as a means of reeducating them the white ways. Their freedom to worship was restricted because their culture was viewed by whites as primitive and savage. The whites saw that through educating the Native Americans they will be Americanized and civilized according to the white settler American economy, culture and values.
Not speaking their native language
Through education, the white European settlers in support of the federal government saw the need to assimilate the Native Americans. They were placed in reserves where they could receive job training, government resources and were to serve the military. The federal government also thought that by urbanizing the Native Americans, it would be easy for them to be adsorbed and assimilated in the mainstream of America and deal with the Indian problem. The goal was to assimilate the Native Americans and separate them from their heritage and cultural identity including the use of their languages. Through education, they were restricted from learning their own languages and cultures (Buken, 2002).Other challenges faced by the Indians were congestions in reserves due to population increase, violate on their civil rights and failed promises by the government.
On February 27, 1973, the protest and Wounded Knee began, and the people prepared fully understood that they were getting into a major fight. This was a fight to show that the Indians were no longer willing to live by the injustices that they have suffered from many years in silence. It was a fight to survive. The media gave the news about t roadblocks that had been established to restrict supplies from getting into Wounded Knee. The federal government responded by shutting off telephone and electricity services. This news spread other regions, but the news was in support of the federal government who were the occupiers. The media misrepresented the facts by not focusing on Native American but only concerned with the militant occupiers. The role of the media was to restrict facts.
This paper has shown various grievances that the Native Americans ha since their first encounter with Europeans, the events preceding the Wounded Knee have been shown. These events are the main sources of conflicts between the Native Americans and the U. S government. The failed promises and breaking of treaties had made many Indians suffer in the hands of the U.S Government. Since time immemorial, they have faced challenges of such as education, political, broken promises (Lewis, 1995).
Nabokov, P. (1991). Native American testimony: A chronicle of Indian-white relations from prophecy to the present, 1492-1992. New York, N.Y: Viking.
Wilson, R (2001) Russell Means/Lakota in the New Warriors. Edited by R. David Edmunds (Lincoln, Nebraska, 2001): 155.
Lewis, D. (1995). Native Americans and the environment: A survey of Twentieth.American Indian Quarterly, 19(3), 423.
Johnson, T. R. (2007) The Native American civil rights movement. New York: Chelsea House.
Johnson, T. R. (1999). Contemporary Native American political issues. Walnut Creek [Calif.: AltaMira Press.
Buken, G. (2002). Construction of the Mythic Indian in Mainstream Media and the Demystification of the Stereotype by American Indian Artists. American Studies International, 40(3), 46.
Rausch, D. A., & Schlepp, B. (1994). Native American voices. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books.
Rottenberg, J. (2013). The woman who spoke for brando. Entertainment Weekly, (1243/1244), 92.
Washburn, W. E. (1986). The assault on Indian tribalism: The General allotment law (Dawes Act) of 1887. Malabar, Fla: R.E. Krieger Pub. Co.
China in Central Asia
Since the beginning of 2000, China has become a vital payer in central Asia. Central Asia had initially been divided between Russia and US, but with the presence of china the risk of destabilization has subsided. The presence of china in central Asia has had profound effects on the economic status of the region. China has introduced a voluntary implantation policy which seeks to consolidate political influences in central china. China has also managed to find a new market for its products in central Asian states. The ability of finding market has created a scenario where the whole of Russia could open up to the world (Swanstrom, 2007).
The Chinese government is also strongly making efforts to merge shanghai corporation Organization (SCO) and the Eurasian economic community so as to create a strong economic frontier for central Asia. China is also involved in assisting central Asian states such as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. China’s economic investments into Central Asian states are based on the fact that many western countries remain skeptical on making investments in these nations which they consider volatile and politically risky. China has immersed itself in central Asia where it has made investments in infrastructure by opening up highways, railroads and hydroelectric power. China has also made investments in mineral resources. China’s realization of central Asia has seen the initiation of Chinese military program in the region. For instance, central china serves a buffer zone between Russia and US hence the need to control the region (Sachdeva, 2006). China military presence in central Asia also strives to eradicate the settlement of separatists that may cause political chaos in the region. China is also taking special interest in the vacuum that the US military will leave behind once they evacuate from state such as Afghanistan. China is keen to see that militants and extremist do not take over the region by increasing its contribution to afghan military security.
India will be watching China’s influence in central Asia. India’s interest in central Asia is based on the fact that the region is closer to India and any events can directly affect India. China and India has always been concerned with the basic balance of power with the two nations experiencing tense relationships. Tension between the two nations has always affected their relations and influenced crucial matter such as military involvement, security and decision making processes. China and India has had a history of rivalry, mistrust and occasional cooperation (Sachdeva, 2006). The interests of china in central Asia will thus be of concern to India. Central Asia regions such as Tajikistan are of strategic importance to India as the region is close to Indian borders as well as close to its energy resources. The nation that manages to exert its power in central Asian states will have to have strong relations with India. With this in mind, India remains concerned over the presence of China as a strong influence. India considers china to have the same political, economic and political capabilities as India thus the probability of China ceases control of Central Asia is unnerving. India will thus strive to form relations with strategic central Asian states as well as make investments in the region (Mohan, 2012). India’s concern is that it has never been seen as a main competitor for central Asia with nations such as Russia, US and China looking like the key players.
Mohan, M. (2012). China and India Today. Retrieved from http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/china-and-india-today-diplomats-jostle-militaries-prepare
Sachdeva, G. (2006). India’s attitude towards china’s growing influence in central Asia. China and Eurasia forum quarterly. Vol. 4(3); 23-44
Swanstrom, N. (2007). China’s role in central Asia. Journal of global dialogue. Vol.9 (1-2)
Current Issues in America
I would support that regulations in any given environment help the economies work better.Evidence shows that the US government has established strategies in which it uses in regulating private and public enterprise. Economic regulations fall into two categories either indirect or direct which are used to control prices, they reduce the level of corruption, and work on strategies to act on the issue of antitrust law which focuses on strengthening market forces for an economy. Regulations help the government prevent monopolies practices such as raising electric utilities prices beyond the level that customers will be affected as well as make the firm realize unreasonable prices. The government should also extend the issue of regulations so as to control areas that may contribute to economy depression. It is through economic regulations the government manage to establish systems that stabilize prices in different areas, (Feingold, & Mckenna, 2009).
Another reason why I support regulations by the government is to enhance or achieve social goals in the society. It is through government control over the private sector public health and safety is maintained. Regulations help in maintaining a healthy and clean environment for the society. Without regulations and control of the government, the economy can distort the flow of capital. This may lead to an inefficient use which at the end may cause serious and corrections in the economic recession like the one that occurred in 2008. The role of government regulatory regime is to work in an environment that promotes the development and economic growth. This has generated interest among practitioners and researchers on the aspect of economic growth. It is through government regulatory regime undistorted policy environment is established for efficient market operation, (Feingold, & Mckenna, 2009).
Feingold S. & Mckenna G. (2009). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Political Issues. McGraw-Hill Publishers
Responsibilities of Citizens
The Country might have some shortcomings regarding the responsibilities of citizens. This can be as a result of delayed democracy and lack of achieving the professed goals of justice and liberty; however, that does not guarantee the citizens to bleach their responsibilities of keeping peace and observing tranquility (McKenna G& Feingold S, 2011). The Citizens should believe in their unique mission aimed at sustaining peace needed attain developments and growth in the entire nation. According to the book “Taking Sides” the American’s are a chosen people like the Israelites in the bible. As a matter of concern, the American dollar recognizes the supremacy of God through the caption of a pyramid with a detached eye on top with some inscription that God has favored Americas. The Americans have a responsibility to sustain their loyalty and allegiance to their nation since they are favored by the highest God. Furthermore, it is their responsibility to ensure that they honor their pledge of allegiance to God (McKenna G& Feingold S, 2011).
When we visualize the historical events that shaped the world peace and those that brought honor in the world, there is always some distinct part where America can be recognized for its relentless support for the peace of the world. During the Second World War, America played the role of restoring peace and promoting harmony between the fighting nations. This responsibility is a significant example of responsibility and trust expected to come from citizens since without cohesion and peace within the borders of a nation the nation is faced by an enormous destruction and downfall in the future. The light to all nations came as a result of the mantle God gave to people to establish a new social order. This social order should be focused of uniting people in one common bond combined by peace tranquility and development.
McKenna G& Feingold S (2011) Taking Sides: Clashing views on political issues Published by McGraw Hill
Prior to the establishment of outlets or any business investment in a foreign country, it is crucial for the company to analyze the various attributes which may influence its performance. Conventionally, most companies embark on a SWOT analysis for the potential business value in the new market. Although the SWOT analysis is immensely significant, companies must embark on detailed analysis that focuses on specific aspects of performance. Political risk is among the most sensitive aspects which influence the performance of companies in foreign destinations. As Axetem, Inc. seeks to establish a customer care center and a factory in a developing economy, it must perform a political risk analysis. This facilitates for decision making, and hence helps in determining economic feasibility for the investment.
Political risk refers to the potential perils occasioned by dynamics in the political climate of a country. Although political risk mostly applies to the developing economies, the industrialized nations are not exempt (Howell, 2007). Business and economic performance in any country is influenced extensively by the prevailing political climate. In a stable political climate, there are minimal interferences in the daily operations of corporate entities and other forms of businesses. Consequently, political stability forms the basis of robust economic activity. The world’s most established economies are characterized by excellent political systems. For instance, the robust German economy has been founded on excellent political mechanisms. The same case applies to other model economies including the Scandinavian nations, Japan and Luxembourg.
In contrast, political instability complicates the ability of companies to implement their plans as expected. Additionally, companies established in unstable political climates can barely make profits (McKeller, 2012). Such situations are evident in the third world countries. Politics is an inherent aspect of economic performance and hence the success of multinational entities. The quantification of political risk is based on numerous factors. These factors include the system of government, standards of democracy, the stability of political institutions, independence of the judiciary, and the levels of transparency among others. Each of these factors can either enhance or hamper the degree of political stability in a country.
When the political risk is high, it is imprudent for a foreign company to invest in such an economy. High levels of political risk are associated with high chances of losses for a corporate entity. On the other hand, low levels of political risk are associated with excellent financial performance. For a multinational corporate entity like Axetem, Inc. it is prudent to venture into an economy whose political risk is low. There are high chances for such a venture to yield financial gains. However, it is extremely perilous for the company to venture into a nation whose political risk is high. Such ventures can barely yield the expected outcomes from a financial perspective. Political risk is thus an influential factor that determines the approach taken by a company in decision making (Brink, 2004). Additionally, political risk influences the tactics used by a company with respect to strategic planning.
Sources of Political Risk
Military coups stand out as notable sources of political risk. The political risk is massive in a country that is susceptible to military coups. This situation applies to numerous economies within the developing world. A military coup destabilizes the entire economy and thus cripples business operations. The second notable source of political risk is the change of government. Change of government is highly sensitive especially if the transition process is not transparent. Change of government creates political uncertainty which in turn hampers economic activities. In contrast, a smooth transition process facilitates for excellent economic activity such as investments and expansion of retail outlets. Government interference is another source of political risk (Howell, 2007). This occurs when authorities are reluctant to create an enabling climate for business operations. This hampers the ability of foreign multinationals to establish themselves successfully in such countries.
Types of Political Risk
There are various types of political risk. Distributive risk occurs when a government establishes stringent regulatory frameworks which seek to maximize revenues from foreign corporations and business investors. Catastrophic political risk occurs when significant political conflicts such as coups occur in a country. This type of political risk is catastrophic because it brings almost all commercial activities to a halt (Brink, 2004). Catastrophic political risks are more significant because they can lead to extensive losses for a multinational entity operating in that country.
Political risk encompasses the hazards occasioned by political tensions, uncertainties, and conflicts in an economy. The level of political risk is considerably high in countries which do not have stable political systems or institutions. Although venturing into a developing country can have excellent financial gains, political risk might compromise the company’s performance. Axetem, Inc. should only carry on with its foreign investment plans after performing an analysis of the political risk. There are various sources of political risk in any given economy. Uncertainty in presidential elections can easily heighten the level of political risk. Other sources include inter-ethnic clashes, corrupt political institutions, and military coups among others.
Brink, C. H. (2004). Measuring political risk: Risks to foreign investment, Burlington,VT: Ashgate Publishing
Howell, L. D. (2007). The handbook of country and political risk analysis, PRS Group
McKeller, R. (2012). A short guide to political risk, Burlington, VT: Gower Publishing Limited
$1a) Purpose (mission, goals, & objectives)
Weed-and-seed is a government program that seeks to reduce and control levels of crime within communities (Casangrade, 2012). The program focuses on reducing crimes such as drug abuse, violent crimes, prostitution, and gang activity. The weed-and-seed programs acknowledge the need to integrate law enforcement with social services. This based on the recognition that crime is a social problem and thus can only be addressed through social remedies rather than legal measures.
The first goal of the weed-and-seed program is to enable communities to minimize drug and violent crime through forging cooperation between law enforcement agencies, community members and local organization (Reno & Fisher, 2009). The second goal of this program is to improve the quality of life residents of the selected areas by reducing crime and establishing economic and social programs. The third goal is to promote the long term wellbeing of the communities.
The weed-and-seed program has three main objectives. The first objective is to establish comprehensive strategies for combating crime. These strategies should encourage participation of multiple agencies and members of the community (Casangrade, 2012). Pioneers of this program noted that the problem of crime cannot be addressed by a single body or agency. Thus, the program was introduced to promote cooperation between different agencies and bodies. These bodies include; prosecution departments, the judiciary, local and state law enforcement agencies, federal law enforcement agencies and community institutions. The program also seeks to establish comprehensive strategies for dealing with crime. Pioneers of the weed-and-seed program noted that previous crime prevention program did not take an all inclusive strategy in dealing with the crime menace (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). Some of the programs concentrate on providing legal solutions while others concentrated on providing social solution. The weed-and-seed program provides comprehensive strategies that incorporate both legal and social strategies for addressing crime.
The second objective of the weed-and-seed program is to integrate and coordinate new and existing initiatives and concentrate resources so as to maximize the outcome of these initiatives (Casangrade, 2012). The pioneer of the weed-and-seed program noted that there were numerous programs that were acting in isolation in attempting to solve the problem of crime. The lack of coordination and integration among these initiatives introduced challenges such as inadequate resources, duplication of tasks and lack of efficiency. Integrating the existing initiatives will bring resources together and ensure that the resources are optimally utilized in addressing crime. This will enhance the outcome of these programs.
The third objective of the weed-and-seed program is to increase the participation of community members in the fight against crime (Casangrade, 2012). The program encourages law enforcement to work with community members in identifying and prosecuting criminals. It was noted that community members are in the best position to provide information concerning criminal activities that take place in their area. The program also seeks to involve community members in planning and execution of the seeding programs. The community members assist the agencies involve in identifying and fulfilling the needs of the community.
$1b) Description of the policy or program history and main changes
The weed-and-seed program was introduced in 1991 to provide the country with a comprehensive approach to dealing with gang activities, drug abuse and trafficking, and violent crimes (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). The weed-and-seed program is implemented at the federal, state and local level. The program targets areas that experience significant crime problem. The weed-and-seed program has been implemented in 150 communities within the United States (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). The responsibility of coordinating and overseeing the overall weed-and-seed program lies with the Executive Office for Weed-and-seed (EOWS). EOWS is an office within the Justice Program office.
The weed-and-seed program entails two main tasks. The first task is to identify individuals who participate in crime and remove them from the community (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). This is the law enforcement bit of the program. The law enforcement agencies act in collaboration with area residents to identify and prosecute criminals. The second task is to establish community activities that will restore the community. The program establishes projects and activities that enable community members to overcome the effect of crime. The restoration activity mainly consists of economic and social program that are meant to strengthen community values and institution and empower the community members.
The weed-and-seed program encompasses four essential components. Law enforcement is one of these components. Efficient law enforcement strategy is needed so as to weed out perpetrators of crime from the community (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). Thus, the program seeks to provide resources that facilitate the law enforcement process. Community policing is also an essential component of the weed-and-seed program. Community policing is a concept that seek to promote cooperation between community members and agencies of law enforcement. The weed-and-seed programs emphasize on the need to involve community members in the process of law enforcement. Community members are in an excellent position to provide law enforcement agencies with information that vital to the identification of crime.
Crime prevention is also a vital component of the weed-and-seed program. The pioneers of the programs noted the significant of taking proactive measures toward preventing crimes (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). These measures include enlightening community members on how to prevent crimes, encouraging community members to report questionable dealings, addressing social issues that lead to the escalation of crime and many other measures. The last component of the weed-and-seed program is restoration. Crime causes a significant disturbance to the community in which it has taken place. This disturbance may result in the state of unrest, bitterness or resentment within a given community. The weed-and-seed program seeks to restore the state of harmony and peaceful coexistence by introducing programs that promote economic and social stability.
Funding is one of the significant challenges that the weed-and-seed program has encountered (Reno & Fisher, 2009). The weed-and-seed program has become a defunded program in recent times. The program has not received funding since 2009/ 2010 fiscal year. Hence, no new sites have been selected in the last three fiscal years threatening the existence of the program.
Another challenge experienced in the implementation of the weed-and-seed program entails the establishment of dedicated partnerships (Reno & Fisher, 2009). The weed-and-seed programs require the cooperation among numerous stakeholders with different interest. It requires a lot of effort to harmonize the interest of all these stakeholders.
$1c) Types of benefits
The most essential type of benefit provided by the weed-and-seed program is security. Security is a basic right for every citizen. Community members have a right to live and conduct their business in a secure and safe setting (Reno & Fisher, 2009). The weed-and-seed program seeks to eliminate crime from the community by identifying criminals and prosecuting them.
Another essential benefit of the weed-and-seed program is the revitalization of the economy of an area. Lack of economic opportunities is among the factors that lead to high level of crime. The weed-and-seed program introduced economic programs that are directed towards promoting the economic development of an area (Reno & Fisher, 2009). Enhancing security and safety also present an area with an environment that promotes economic growth.
The weed-and-seed program also improves the image of an area. Areas, where crime is a serious issue, tend to generate negative perception about these areas (Reno & Fisher, 2009). Consequently, such areas cannot attract investments or economic activities such as tourism. The weed-and-seed program helps residents to restore a positive image of their living areas.
$1d) Eligibility requirements
The department of justice makes several considerations in order to determine communities that should receive funding from the weed-and-seed program (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). One of the considerations is the level of crime within the community. The aim of the program is to address significant crime problem. Thus, there must be adequate information to prove that a given community is experiencing a significant level of criminal activities.
The size of the community is another factor that the department of justice takes into consideration while selecting grantees. The Department of Justice Guidelines stipulates that a community must have a population of between 3000 and 50,000 people so as to qualify for this program (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). The local community must also buy-in to the program. There must be an indication that the local community members have been drawn in the planning of the initiative and are willing to support this program.
$1e) Benefits of providing a service
Communities in which the weed-and-seed program has been implemented have benefits in several ways. One way is by experiencing a reduction on dug and crime cases (Reno & Fisher, 2009). The weed-and-seed program has proven to be an effective way of addressing the crime menace. Involvement of the community in law enforcement activity has enhanced the identification of criminals and facilitated the prosecution of these criminals. This has resulted in the reduction of crimes within communities. The program also takes proactive measure of ensuring that crimes do not take place. The seeding program also helps to eliminate social-economic problems that contribute to the prevalence of crime. The programs present economic opportunities to community members thus reducing dependence on illegal activities such as drug trafficking and prostitution.
The weed-and-seed program also enhances the law enforcement presence within a given community (Reno & Fisher, 2009). The weed-and-seed program promotes cooperation between law enforcement agencies and community members. Thus, law enforcement agencies are able to get accurate and reliable information concerning criminal activities. This enhances the efficiency of the law enforcement process.
The weed-and-seed program also promotes the living standards of a community. Crime undermines the living standard of any given community (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). The weed-and-seed program helps to establish decent standards of living among communities by eliminating crime. A crime free environment also promotes the economic development of an area. Business thrives in areas where security is guaranteed. Thus, the weed-and-seed program provides additional economic opportunities by eliminating crime. The seeding initiatives also help the community to establish economic and social systems that work.
The weed-and-seed program also promotes cooperation and coordination in the fight against violent and drug related crimes (Reno & Fisher, 2009). There are many stakeholders who are committed towards ensuring that communities live in a safe environment. In the past, these stakeholders have undertaken various initiatives to combat crime. However, these initiatives did not have a significant impact on communities because they were undertaken in isolation and small scale. The weed-and-seed program seeks to bring all these stakeholders together and coordinate the activities of fighting crime. Cooperation helps to consolidate resources and thus ensuring that enough resources are available to combat crime. Cooperation also ensures that the problem of crime is addressed in a holistic manner.
The weed-and-seed program has also established a high level of organization within communities (Gonzales & Schifield, 2011). Organized communities are secure and economically prosperous. The weed-and-seed program encourages organization at the community level by calling on the community members to work together in fighting crime. The cooperation among community members is extended to other development issues.
$1f) Sources of funding/Financing and spending
The weed-and-seed program is funded by the federal government through the Department of justice (Casangrade, 2012). The Department of Justice issues awards to the United States Attorney’s Office (USAO). The Court Service and Offenders Supervision Agency (CSOSA) receives the funds on behalf of USAO and disburse the funds in line with guidelines and budgets provided by the Department of Justice. Other organizations also provide funds to support weed-and-seed programs (Casangrade, 2012). These organizations may include; religious organizations, community based organization and many others.
g. Outcomes and effectiveness of the Weed-and-Seed Program
Surveys have indicated a downward trend in the cases of crimes in areas where the weed-and-seed program is implemented. This is an indication that the program has been effective in the realization of one of its goal. The goal of the weed-and-seed program is to reduce crime in an area. Most of the areas that have recorded a downwards trend, in the rate of crime, have also recorded improved economic activities. This is because the issue of crime and economic development are intertwined. Insecurity leads to high levels of uncertainty, and thus discourages investments.
However, studies have also revealed that the weed-and-seed programs had different levels of effectiveness in different areas, in terms of realizing its objectives. Hanandez (2005) identified a number of factors that affect the effectiveness of the weed for seed program. The setting of the community is one of these factors. Community with establish economic and social infrastructure exhibit high levels of success in terms of realizing the goals of the weed-and-seed programs. Areas with geographical and economic advantage had high chances of succeeding in the realization of the program mission. Concentration of funds is another factor that determines the effectiveness of the weed-and-seed program. Areas that received adequate funding for their initiative, and in which the funds are direct towards a small population, tend to enjoy a high level of success than areas without adequate funding.
The design of the program is also a vital determinant of the success of the program. The weed-and-seed program requires a mix of weeding and seeding programs that will provide a comprehensive and responsive solution to the precise problems of a given area. The success of this program is dependent on the capacity of the established initiatives to respond to the precise needs of the area. The last factor that was identified by Hanandez (2005) is leadership structures within the communities. Communities that are highly organized have a high chance of realizing the program’s goals than communities that least organized.
Casangrade P. (2012). National Weed-and-seed Programs. April 16, 2013. http://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/gun_violence/sect08-e.html
Gonzales A. & Schifield R. (2011). Weed and Seed Implementation Manual. April 16, 2013. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/210242.pdf
Hernandez N (2005). Operation Weed and Seed. April 16, 2013. http://www.engagingcommunities2005.org/abstracts/Hernandez-Nelson-final.pdf
Reno J. & Fisher R. (2009). National Evaluation of Weed and Seed. April 16, 2013. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/175702.pdf
A Critical Essay On Conflict Of Visions Of Social Processes
Understanding the Role of Visions synopsis
The political opinions are one of the interesting things in every society since you will find the same populace line up on opposite sides of dissimilar issues. The issues themselves may have no inherent attachment with each other. The issues may range from education spreading to drug law issues, to monetary issues to development issues. Interestingly, the same people can be found conspicuous at each other from differing directions of the political demarcation repeatedly. The politicians disclose differing opinions on particular issues, but when they are viewed with a critical eye they seem to be arguing from incredibly dissimilar premises. These dissimilar premises frequently understood are what offer the steadiness behind the recurring opposition of individuals and teams on several unrelated issues. They have dissimilar visions of how the universe works. It would be superior to say that people should dole out with visions entirely, and only work with reality. However, that can only be an assumption of stereotyping vision of all. The actuality is far too intricate to be understood by any given mind. Visions are like atlases that steer us through a triangle of bewildering complexities (Sowell T, 2007).
Like atlases visions have to leave out many concrete features in order to enable us to concentrate in a few key paths to our objectives and goals. There are tendencies of confusing visions with reality since vision is indispensible, but hazardous and closely similar to reality. A vision is extremely close to actuality since is envisioned through a reality encounter that prompts an individual to formulate it. Researchers also describe a vision as a pre-analytic psychological act premeditated as an actuality that can be uncovered when its due time for disclosure comes. Others argue that it is the sense people conceive before it is systematically constructed and disclosed as the final outcome being focused upon. The vision can also be termed as a theory, much less deducted from any particular repercussions as hypotheses to be tested against evidence. A vision is an individual’s sense of how the universe performs. The natural system of the world work in a unique pattern that makes people wonder who operates it as perfect as it appears on the humanly eye. Some primitive people will envision the way the natural objects like the moon and the sun move and conclude that to be a spiritual occurrence. Nonetheless, scientists like Isaac Newton had a hugely different perspective or vision of how the world works since they envisioned the world in a factual perspective. Furthermore, scientists have developed hypothetical foundational arguments that are backed up by well researched facts and figures explaining their point of view (Sowell T, 2007).
On the social context, Rousseau had an extremely dissimilar vision of being causation from that of Edmund Burke. The scientists view for sociological ideologies argues from a comprehensive and authentic reasoning, which factors in realistic arguments. Visions are the foundations on which theories are built or founded. As a matter of concern, a majority of theories approved by authorities depend on the vision embarking the ideology or argument about a given situation. Many theories are products of an envisioned subject matter focusing of a deliberate step of action. In addition, the visions are extremely subjective; however, well-constructed theories have vivid objective validity. During the worst war attacks and repercussions of Hiroshima that demonstrated vision, people learnt that vision is no just vision rather is it embarked by actions, which demonstrate factual activity supporting vision. The attack demonstrated an enormous reaction of vision turned into realism and action. This action demonstrates the validity of a vision empowered by activity. The logic is a vital element in the process of turning a vision into a theory of action.
Visions to some extent appear to be simplistic although that is a term commonly reserved, for other people’s visions, not as viewed in this argument. The social visions must be perceived with a detailed and analytic view since it encompasses theoretical ideologies, which appear to be impractical. The untainted vision may not be the center of the most successful and impressive theories, much less than the most valid ones. Consequently, more untainted visions may not be more revealing as to unspoken premises than are the more intricate theories. The role of vision it to idealize the theoretical understanding of issues which impact people lives especially social and political lives. Marx’s theory of capital on vision has seen how identical premises worked in less complicated model of genuine argument from re-known researcher Godwin William.
Social visions are significant in numerous ways. The most common is that policies founded in a certain vision of the universe have repercussions that spread through society and echo transversely the years, or even crosswise generations or centuries. Vision set the schema for both action and thought. Visions cover the essential large spaces in individual knowledge. Hence, the enormous knowledge found in various people such as the religious initiators, scientists and philosophers got their wisdom and knowledge from vision and empowered them to what is currently witnessed by people as acceptable knowledge. Vision is the flag bearer of most idealistic encounters in the world today. A majority of the famous philosophers and theorists like Plato and Aristotle envisioned on their philosophical encounters to provide what today is termed as their legacy or piece of knowledge. The vision is the greatest motivator towards immense delving into researchable ideas (Sowell T, 2007)..
The political fights of the day are a potpourri of unique mass emotions, corruption interests, personality clashes among other numerous factors. Hitherto, the enduring historical trends have certain steadinesses that reflect certain visions. In most cases, unique interests prevail to the extent that they can mobilize support from the general public’s responsiveness to visions, which can be invoked against a given policy. From the position of an individual motivation, theories or ideas may be simply the chips with which momentous interests, demagogues, and opportunists of numerous sorts play the political sport. Nevertheless, from a wider perspective of history, these personalities and associations can be viewed as simply carriers of ideas, much as the ants involuntarily carry their pollen playing an essential role in the splendid design of nature while chasing a much slimmed personal agenda or purpose. In the same way, there are politicians who earnestly engage in the same endeavors with the aim of benefiting their individual interests, but end up benefiting other people in the process. For example, a politician might petition an infrastructure development agenda in the parliament with the aim to benefit a particular group of people, but in the process he benefits the entire country through a national deployment of infrastructural development (Sowell T, 2007).
Constrained and unconstrained visions
The social visions differ in their basic concepts of the nature of human. An individual from another planet who sort information about human beings from gathering locally written information would be hardly recognize human since he appear the same as described several years past. The contrast would be slightly smaller since the information share almost equal data that focuses n issues of the same origin but shared by different and contributors or authors. The contribution of different authors create the difference in the ideas shared which in most cases help people to contribute different kind of notions, which help disclosing diversified levels of data disbandment. The abilities of different people are identified on different occasion, and styles addressing various topics such as political issues, philosophical and social theories, which are built on different visions. Man’s mental and moral natures are perceived so in a different way that their respective concepts of knowledge and of institutions differ, as well.
The social vision is conceived differently, both as to results and mechanic. The unconstrained vision entirely believes in government control of the economy; while constrained vision believes in the free market. Hovering over the custom of the unconstrained vision is the certainty that idiot or depraved choices clarify the troubles of the world and that wiser or moral and humane policies are the solution. By contrast, the constrained vision perceives the evils of the universe as deriving from the unhappy and limited choices available provided the inherent intellectual and moral limitations of human beings. Here, Sowell’s claims are not meant to define, rather merely to describe some significant characteristics of the two visions. Sowell takes up the task of description soon after in the book, when he feels all set to try to fit real thinkers into his two classes (Sowell T, 2007).
The key criteria for distinguishing constrained and unconstrained visions are the mode of discretion, and the locus of discretion. The locus of discretion simply means whom it is in the society that gets to make significant social choices. In the unconstrained vision, it is the government officials who make them for society as a united entity. In the constrained vision, each personality makes choices about the small portion of social acquisitions in which he or she is immediately involved, generally speaking; each individual makes decisions about their own property, rather not anyone else’s. The significant hardship in a conflict of vision is that regardless of his endeavors and strength to categorize the philosophical scale objectively Sowell’s own vision gets on the way. This takes him to attribute far enormous internal constituency to the dissimilar perspective than they actually possess. The enormous thinkers create a different view of the argument paused by Sowell. The ideology he sells is spectacular since it focuses on the political discrepancies affecting the current political structures. Sowell’s arguments on political changes are taken positively by some thinkers while others differ with him completely. Furthermore, Sowell’s basis his argument on the fact that changes are expected in the future. The current political stands are not the final display of the perfect stand expected from them. There is a need for changes and restructuring of the political orders, which are current and prevailing.
Sowell T (2007) A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political Struggles Retrieved on 5/4/13 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=NwrWDM8FW04
Should Former US President George W. Bush be tried for War Crime? Iraq War
George W. Bush was the 43rd president of the United States. He took over the presidency when Americans were facing terror attacks from the Al-Qaida. The most devastating event, during Bush’ term, was the September 11, 2001 bomb attacks, in New York City. The attack occurred when the Al- Qaida terrorist hijacked 4 passenger planes and crashed 2 of them into the North and South Towers. Many Americans lost their lives in the attack. Determined to avert any future attacks, President Bush came up with new policies of fighting groups, which posed threats to the United States. According to Pillar (2006) The 2003 Iraq invasion saw US military attack Iraq with the intention of flushing out terrorist and their sympathizers. Iraq invasion was brutal and resulted to thousands of lives lost. It is with this perspective that the idea that former president bush should face criminal charges is upheld.Bush should face war crimes in relation to Iraq invasion as the invasion was brutal and resulted to loss of military and civilian lives. Bush’ administration also failed to adhere to the principles of the sovereignty of a country, Invading Iraq and without concrete evidence of weapons of mass destruction.
President Bush should be tried for War crimes
President George W. Bush administration issued various strategies to counter the terror attacks. The response to the terror attacks included unlimited spying on Americans and foreigners, opening of a detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, in Cuba, detainees being denied the law due process, and extraction of intelligence through enhanced techniques of interrogation, which were later considered torturous (Pillar,2006). Bush, in his mission to fight terror groups, declared war against Afghanistan and all countries that harbored terrorists. According to Rountree, (2010) President Bush turned his attention to the terrorist leader Saddam Hussein, asserting that Hussein had artillery of mass destruction. In 2003, Bush’ administration invaded Iraq, deposed Hussein; unfortunately, no weapons of mass destruction were found (Rountree, 2010).
Breach of International Principles
The Invasion of Iraq in March 2003 was an indicator of America’s breach of public international principles. President George W. Bush’ determination to suppress these rogue states saw him direct American troops to invade the region. According to Iraq Veterans against the War Winter (2008) Bush’ directive for the United States soldiers to attack Iraq was against the principles of state sovereignty. The invasion led to the removal of Sadam Hussein from power as the president of Iraq. (Iraq Veterans against the War Winter, 2008). The idea of fighting Iraq by the Americans displayed a picture of a powerful nation determined to satisfy its own selfish interest.
According to Wallensteen (2007) critics of the war argue that US invasion of the middle-east countries was so that American could capture the oil wells and reserves (Wallensteen, 2007). The U.S. army was now engaging in a war characterized by antiterrorism and invasion of the targeted countries. According to Tucker, (2010), the United States, had been planning to construct the pipeline, but there was a need for change in the regime before the pipeline could be constructed (Tucker, 2010). During this time, none of the so called antiterrorism ambition was achieved in Iraq as Osama Bin Laden was never found. The only success that the American war achieved was the establishment of oil and gas pipelines throughout the country.
Former President Bush should face war crimes as the invasion of Iraq by the United States antiterrorists unit was not justified. It was never proven which nations funded the 9/11 attacks and a claim that it was Iraq was baseless. This raises the critical debate on the justification of the reason why Iraq became the target country. There was more convincing case against Saudi Arabia, but the United States government singled out on Iraq. US advisors accused Bush’s administration of lying about the actual supporters of the Al-Qaeda. According to Arnold (2011) these accusations made the U.S. government accuse Saudi Arabia of involvement in the terror attacks. However, President Bush did not withdraw his America’s ambition to invade Iraq (Arnold et al., 2011). The war on terror was to be directed on antiterrorism attacks and not capturing oil resources in Iraq. This was not the case with the George W. Bush management of the antiterrorist attacks, thus made people think otherwise about the intentions of the antiterrorist attacks on the Arabic countries and the success of the mission in general.
Former President George W. Bush inflicted pain and human suffering to Iraqi civilians. The invasion was a directive of Bush, and it exposed Iraqi civilians to unimaginable levels of torture and cruelty (Foreign Policy Journal, 2012). According to the Foreign Policy Journal, Bush is guilty of war crimes in Iraq. In 2012, the Kuala Lumpur war crimes tribunal tried President George Bush and Tony Blair for war crimes. The Kuala Lumpur trial attracted many witnesses who provided firsthand account of inhumane acts that they were exposed to during the Iraq war. The witnesses gave accounts of the brutal events of torture by US and British soldiers. The testimony, which was included in this hearing, was that of Moazzam Begg, a Briton who was an ex-Guantanamo detainee. An Iraqi woman named Jameelah Abbas Hameedi also gave her torture experiences in the Abu Ghraib prison (Foreign Policy Journal, 2012).
America found itself in conflict with Arabic countries during Bush’ term as the U.S. president as most Arabic nations felt US attacks were discriminatory. The war on terrorism seemed far away from being won during his time as the president as he concentrated on other interests other than the genuine fight. The economy of the US was shaken by the Iraq war. The entry of Obama’s administration presented a new dawn for America as the war against terrorism intensified leading to capture and death of Osama Bin Laden.
Evidence that President George W. Bush should be tried for war crimes in relation to his approval of invasion of Iraq is immense. However, there are critics who argue that President George Bush should not be tried for war crimes because of the US Invasion of Iraq. According to Daly (2009) Sadam Hussein was a threat to national security. Former Iraqi’s president Sadam Hussein was considered a threat to international security due to allegations that he was a terrorist sympathizer (Daly, 2009). There were allegations that Sadam Hussein was manufacturing and supplying terrorist with weapons of mass destruction. However, it turned out that there were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. President George Bush should not be tried for war crimes as his decision to approve the invasion was based on various intelligence reports that indicated the presence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
The argument of Iraq’s invasion due to the threat that Sadam Hussein posed cannot be used as a factor that exempts George Bush from war crime charges. It is a fact that Saddam Hussein was not cooperating with the international community. However, President Bush would have explored other alternatives before considering military action. Military action is the last reprieve after a country attempts non-military actions. For instance, George Bush could have commissioned additional sanctions against the government of Saddam Hussein.
The imposition of additional sanctions could have easily discouraged Hussein’s administration from participating in the development of terrorist weapons (Pillar 27). Imposing sanctions on Iraq would mean that the nation would have been cut off from the rest of the world in terms of business and relations. Iraq would have suffered with regard to lack of imports as well as export venues. The US would have garnered the support of other nations that were against the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction as well as terrorism. A global rally against Iraq would have eventually forced Sadam to surrender the weapons (if he had any), as well as the terrorist groups that were suspected to be hiding in Iraq. Sanctions do not involve violence thus George Bush had an excellent non-military alternative for handling Saddam Hussein.
Critics also argue that Sadam Hussein was a terrorist sympathizer hence the deaths that occurred were as a result of war against terrorism. Critics argue that president George Bush should not be tried as the death that occurred during Iraq’s invasion was inevitable. It is undeniable that the 2003 Iraqi invasion was responsible for many deaths. However, the deaths in Iraq were not caused by terrorism, but hard attacks by US soldiers. The deaths of over 3000 civilians in the 9/11 attack was due to terrorist attacks. However, violent invasion on Iraq thus resulting to the death of thousands of civilians is not justified. According to Feaver (2006) the loss of lives in Iraqi would have been prevented had the war not been approved. It is irrational, therefore, to claim that the Iraq invasion was not responsible for the deaths. It is a fact that, the American forces used heavy artillery to launch grenades and other explosives across Iraq (Feaver 19). The Iraq invasion thus led to loss of lives of civilians, and destructions of infrastructure. Prior to the invasion, Bush and his administration must have been aware of the destructive consequences of their invasion.
Whereas Saddam Hussein was a sadist, tyrant and dictator with a high probability of colluding with terrorist against the western nations, killing innocent people can never be justified (Daly 175). Irrespective of the security threats posed by the Iraqi government, the majority of the Iraqi population was largely innocent and did not deserve to die. It is estimated that approximately 7000 Iraqi civilians had died by the end of the invasion on May 2003. This perspective highlights the necessity of filing charges against President Bush for atrocities committed against innocent Iraqis. It is also inaccurate for the writer to assert that the killings in Iraq were caused by militant Islamists. The militant Islamists were simply trying to retaliate to the attacks by foreign forces led by the Americans.
Critics also argue USA is not bound by the Rome Statute hence implications of war crime against President Bush are baseless. In essence, this implies that citizens of the United States of America cannot be charged at the International Criminal Court. The fact that US are not bound by the Rome statute does not mean exempt President Bush from war crimes charges. The international community has excellent mechanisms, such as United Nations, which would go a long way towards charging President Bush for human rights violation in Iraq. According to Surlis (2003) President Bush should serve as an example to other world leaders who violate human rights in different ways, because of their country’s status as a dominant political and economic force (Surlis 601). Although President Bush does not qualify for war crimes charges at the ICC, this cannot be used for justifying his involvement in the Iraqi war. The International Criminal Court is just one of the many judicial institutions that can facilitate for trials against suspects of human rights violation.
Most of the arguments that critics present against Bush’ war crime charges are primarily based on rhetoric and not substantive evidence. Rhetoric and not substantive evidence cannot be used to justify why President Bush should be exempted from war crime charges. The undeniable fact that Iraqi invasion resulting to thousands of deaths that could that otherwise been avoided. In war crime charges, the highest decision making authority is morally and legally culpable (Pillar, 26). Based on this rationale, President Bush must bear responsibility for the mass killings in Iraq. He was at the forefront of supporting the invasion and authorized the killing of innocent Iraqis. President Bush demonstrated his lack of care over the wellbeing of humanity, by singling out Iraq and leaving out other countries that could have been viable suspects in the fight against terrorism (Yoo 569).
The fight against terrorism is a process that requires a high level of intellectual capacity and dedication. When other selfish motives are introduced, the goal towards such a mission is lost. America’s determination to invade Iraq was suspect, and the fight against terrorism appeared not to have been the only reason for the invasion. The need to acquire oil wells and resources appears to have been the strongest force behind the invasion. Unfortunately, selfish interest led to loss of lives, displacement of people and destruction of property and infrastructure. President Bush should face war crime charges for orchestrating the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Supporters of Bush’ actions provide unreliable assertions in an attempt to exonerate the atrocities witnessed in Iraq. Reasons such as the need to capture Sadam Hussein as he was a sympathizer of terrorist do not justify the death of thousands of innocent civilians.
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