Communication in an Organization
Communication refers to the exchange and flow of information from one individual to another. Communication entails a sender sending information to the receiver. Effective communication happens only if the receiver comprehends the information the sender transmits. Many problems experienced in the organization are as a result of poor communication between people which results to communication and affects the goals set. Communication plays an important role in occupational health and safety. Employees and leaders should have excellent communication skills in order to communicate the occupation health and safety policies and information. The excellent communication skills include active listening and talking skills. Employees are supposed to follow the information communicated to them.
Effective communication between occupation health and safety professionals, employees and managers, is essential to ensure they understand each other and the message transmitted. In addition, effective communication between the occupation health and safety professionals and employees and managers prevents accidents by ensuring employees get necessary occupation health and safety information. However, effective health communication is n a major issue in occupation health and safety, and this has affected the implementation of OSH components. Communication in occupation health and safety is affected by silo culture, disaggregation and group think. Organizations have different cultures and sub cultures that affect the behavior of employees and the performance of the organization. Silo culture is common in many organizations and it affects management of organizations and implementation of the OSH components by preventing effective communication. Disaggregation of organizations also impacts occupational health and safety because of subcultures found in different departments and units created. Group think affects the implementation of occupational safety and health components. Group think limits members from expressing their views and hence communication. Therefore, organizations should eliminate group think and silo culture to have effective communication and implement the OSH components.
Culture plays an important role in an organization even in occupational health and safety as it impacts communication. Culture refers to values, beliefs and attitudes shared by different people in an organization. Organizational culture is a pattern of assumptions that are shared by all people in the organization. The beliefs, values and attitudes, determine how the organization functions. The shared beliefs, attitudes, values and assumption influence behaviors of people in the organization. Organizations have different cultures. Some organizations have a strong culture, and others weak culture. In a strong culture, important values in the organization are held strongly and shared by all employees. Members in the organization become committed to the organizational values when they accept them. A strong organizational culture implies organizations in which values and beliefs are shared consistently throughout the organization. Strong organizational cultures have an impact on behaviors of employees in the organization. Strong organizational culture is responsible for guiding behaviors (Brown, 1998).
On the other hand, a weak organizational culture does not encourage shared organizational beliefs, norms and values. Members in organizations having weak cultures find it hard to identify the organizational value and goals. Different departments in the organization uphold various beliefs that are not in line with the main goals in the organization. Weak organizational cultures have a bad impact on members in the organization. The strengths of an organization depend on whether the culture is strong or weak. Organizations having a weak organizational culture have a silo culture. Silo culture is a culture where different departments function with their own members and do not interact with other departments. The departments not willing to cooperate with other departments have their own culture. Occupation health and safety professionals promote silo culture, and this affects their ability to work with other members in the organization. A silo culture is encouraged when employees are afraid of working with employees from other departments and the occupation health and safety professionals. Silo culture is found in organizations that do not have a strong leadership. In addition, silo culture is found in organizations that do not have influential and effective leaders. Silo culture has a negative effect on the organization and the implementation of the occupation health and safety components (Moorhead & Griffin, 2011).
Silo culture is characterized by communication breakdown, politicking in areas that should cooperate and territorial behaviors. Silo culture encourages us vs. them climate in the organization. The climate affects effective communication and affects the implementation of the OHS components. The climate leads to minimal communication between different departments that should be communicating. Additionally, the climate hinders communication at all as nobody communicates and listens. Silo culture affects the health of employees and also their safety as occupational health and safety professionals do not communicate the occupation health and safety policies as expected. This was evidenced in royal Australian Air force between 1970s and 2000. More than 400 maintenance employees working in the Royal Australian Air force were exposed to chemicals after working on the fuel tanks of the fighter bomber aircraft. The workers became ill and others were injured. Investigation to the incident showed that employees was exposed to the toxic chemicals because safety routines were not followed. The safety routines were not followed due to a collection of mindsets and attitudes in the organizational culture. The organizational members had a can do attitude which affected their performance. The attitude was a result of lack of resources and pride in their professional technical ability to avoid following rule and taking short cuts to achieve their goals. The accident could have been prevented by following the safety routine and also eliminating the silo culture (Sims, 2002).
Therefore, silo culture is detrimental the to promotion of occupational health and safety in the organization. Silo culture affects the communication of essential information regarding the safety and health of the workers and results to accidents. Further, silo culture affects collaboration in the organization as employees are not able to work together as a team. Employees do not work and communicate with the senior management including occupation health and safety professionals (Champoux, 2010). Managers should eliminate silo culture in order to promote effective occupational safety management. Managers should promote effective communication between different departments. They should ensure no departments in the organization function independently so as to enhance safety of employees. In addition to that, managers should encourage effective communication between employees from diverse departments. The employees should have outstanding communication skills including active listening and talking. They should listen to each other while communicating. Communication between employees should not be stopped because of their roles in different departments. Apart from encouraging communication between employees, managers should encourage communication between employees and the senior management or leaders to facilitate the management of occupational safety. Communication between employees and managers should be two way. Silo culture promotes one way communication where communication originates from the top management instead of employees. Two way communications will ensure communication originates from employees and top management. This will ensure employees and managers listen to each other while communicating (Doppelt, 2012).
Group think is a psychological behavior that happens in a group in which need to have harmony and conformity leads to incorrect decision making. Group think was developed by William Whyte in 1952 in fortune magazine. William considered group think as a failure of man and not mere conformity. He considered group think as a rationalized conformity. That is an open and articulate philosophy that believes that values of a group are not expedient, but good and right. Irving Janis conducted a study on group think theory. Irving did not cite William but developed the term by analogy with double thinking. Irving used the concept of group think to imply to a mode of thinking that people engage in when concurrence seeking becomes superior in a cohesive in the group and overrides appraisal of alternative actions (Pierson, 2009).
In group think, group members try to minimize conflicts and reach a decision without evaluating alternative ideas. The group members isolate themselves from external influences. Group members are supposed to be loyal by not talking about controversial issues (Eunson, 2012). Group members are not supposed to provide alternative ideas so as to avoid conflicts. Group think affects creativity of members and independent thinking. Group cohesion, poor group structures and situational context determine whether group think will affect the decision making process (Firsyth, 2009). Cohesion among the group members is important in group think as it ensures the group functions effectively. Group cohesion is considered important than the freedom of expression of the members. Structural faults like insulation of the group and failure to have impartial leadership affects group think and decision making (Baron, 2005).
Irving Janis identified various symptoms of group think. Janis claims that group members believe that nothing wrong can happen within the group. Also, the group members believe that the virtues of the group are superior to reproach. Moreover, members in the group categorize other people not members of the group differently. They consider their views unacceptable and hence do not consider their views when making decisions. The members are not supposed to give opinions that counter the opinion of the group (Hogg & Hains, 1998). The group members also suppress their doubts and disagreements so as to agree on a particular issue. Group members are expected to act and reason in a similar manner, and this exerts pressure on them as they cannot behave and think differently. The group is protected from external influence including information from outsiders (Doppelt, 2012).
Group think affects communication in organizations and occupational safety management. Group think leads to ineffective communication as members are not able to communicate effectively (Poole, Gouran & Frey, 1999). Communication in a group should be effective to enable group members to attain the group goals. Group members should have communication skills. They should communicate effectively with each other and employ skills such as active listening. Each group member must be allowed to give his/ her views and the other members should actively listen to the members as they speak. Group members should not be prevented from communicating their views regardless of how they affect decision making. In addition, group members should understand each other to prevent conflict. They should understand the weaknesses and strengths of each employee. However, group thinking suppresses communication among members. Group thinking suppresses the freedom of expression as members are not allowed to air their views even if they do not promote cohesion and not in line with the group decision. Group thinking affects effective communication skills like active listening skills. Members do not actively listen to each other as they communicate, and this hinders members from expressing views that are not in accordance with the group goals and decisions. This affects the promotional of occupational safety and health. Occupational health and safety professionals are unable to execute the components of OSH because of groupthink (Eaton, 2001). Group think hinders the professionals, employees and managers from thinking beyond their group and also accepting information from people outside the group. Group thinking affects collaboration between members of different groups in different departments as they do not welcome information and help from other members outside their groups. Though group thinking eliminates conflict in groups, it has an adverse impact on the management of occupational safety and managers and employees should not promote group think. They should encourage open and effective communication between members (Anthony, Mullen, Salas & Driskell, 1994).
Disaggregation in the organization
Disaggregation in the organization affects communication and occupational safety management. Disaggregation is common in many organizations. Organizations have disaggregated for the past years. The organizations have downsized, refocused and disaggregated vertically to improve their performance and avoid hierarchy (Rios, 2012). The disaggregation has enabled organizations to take advantage of horizontal synergies without difficulties. Moreover, big organizations have disaggregated into smaller and independent units. Small units and organizations have become the building blocks of large organizations. The disaggregation is as a result of the advantages associated with small organizations. The disaggregation has improved the operation and performance of organizations. This is because organizations have disaggregated into different departments and units which perform different functions. Though disaggregation is vital in enhancing organizational performance, it has a bad impact on the promotion of occupational safety and health (Donaldson, 2010).
Disaggregation affects occupational safety management as different departments have different cultures. Employees working in the different units have diverse values, beliefs and assumptions that affect their behaviors and relationships. Silo culture in such units and departments affects occupational safety management. The silo culture affects communication between workers and managers. Employees might feel afraid to communicate with each other and also managers. This in turn, affects communication in the whole organization and occupational safety management. Apart from the silo culture, group think in the departments and units formed affects communication and hence occupational safety management. Group think affects open and effective communication as employees focus on maintaining cohesion instead of freedom of speech. Employees in such groups are limited on what to say or convey regarding the group objectives. Therefore, managers should eliminate silo culture in those units and departments so as to promote proper communication and occupational safety management. Also, managers should eliminate group think so as to improve communication and occupational safety (Brown, 1998).
In conclusion, implementing occupational health and safety policies in the organization is crucial as it eliminates injuries and hazards. Organizations have integrated OSH policies and components in their strategies so as to enhance personnel safety. However, OSH management is difficulty in many organizations due to challenges they face. Factors such as silo culture, group think and disaggregation affect organizational management. The factors have affected communication between workers and managers and hence management of the organization. Silo culture promotes ineffective and one way communication which impairs occupational safety and health management. Employees avoid communicating with each other and managers and this hinders effective communication. Group think affects communicating as members do not communicate freely. Group members do not raise ideas and offer alternative solutions that affect the group objective and decision. Hence, occupational safety and health professionals should understand how the factors above affect the performance of the organization and communication. This will enable them enhance their communication skills and eliminate barriers to effective communication. This will ensure the professionals communicate safety routines and information to workers.
Anthony, T., Mullen, B., Salas., & Driskell, J. E. (1994). Group cohesiveness and quality of decision making.Small Group Research,25(2): 189–204
Baron, R. S. (2005). Group think. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology,37: 219–253
Brown, A.D. (1998). Organizational Culture. Financial Times Pitman publishing
Champoux, J.E. (2010). Organizational Behavior. Taylor & Francis
Donaldson, L. (2010). The Meta-analytic Organization. M.E Sharpe
Doppelt, B. (2012). The Power of Sustainable Thinking. Routledge
Eaton, J. (2001). Management communication. Corporate Communications. An International Journal, 6 (4):183 – 192
Eunson, B. (2012). Communication in the Workplace. John Wiley & Sons
Firsyth, D.R. (2009). Group Dynamic. Cengage Learning
Hains, S. C., & Hogg, M. A. (1998). Group identification. .European Journal of Social Psychology,28(3): 323–341
Moorhead, G., & Griffin, R.W. (2011). Organizational Behavior. Cengage Learning
Pierson, J. (2009). Tackling Social Exclusion. Routledge
Poole, M.S., Gouran, D., & Frey, .L.R. (1999). The Handbook of Group Communication Theory and Research. Sage
Rios, J.P. (2012). Design and Diagnosis for Sustainable Organizations. Springer
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing organizational behavior. Greenwood publishing Group
International Studies Association
Whittle, D., Hoekstra, E., Quatro, S., & et al. (2007). The Manager as Change Agent. Basic Books
Case Study:Acquisition Of Pancevo Brewery By The Eden Beverage Group
This case revolves around the acquisition of Pancevo Brewery by the Eden Beverage Group. Although the joint venture sought to enhance the financial performance of the new firm, numerous challenges are evident. Most of these challenges pertain to cultural barriers, change management, and communication. This is in direct relation to human resources. Cultural barriers have an inherent capacity to significantly undermine the performance of any corporate entity. The new venture had to integrate employees from diverse backgrounds. Although most executives from Pancevo Brewery were Serbian nationals, they had to work closely with other expatriates drawn from other nationalities.
Change management is another significant challenge to human resource as pertains to this case. Employees from both organisations had been used to some practices which are traditionally connected with their respective organisations. However, organisational developments in the joint venture focused on change management. Such changes pertain to the wage structure, code of conduct, and trade unions among others. These dimensions of change management are significantly challenging from the perspective of human resource management and international industrial relations. This analysis narrows down on the problems while also assessing the potential causes. This will be largely based on a cross cultural and a human resource management stance.
The human resource challenges evident in the joint venture can be strongly attributed to cultural barriers. Both the two entities have distinct histories from the perspective of employee relations as well as organisational practises. The Eden Beverage Group has strong Turkish roots as evidenced by its listing on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. On the other hand, Pancevo Brewery is characterized by a rich Serbian tradition. These traditions highlight the cultural diversities evident in both organisations. This serves as an outstanding source of human resource challenges for the new venture. Cultural barriers cause challenges from a human resource perspective in different ways (Edwards, 2007). Firstly, the executive and employees from different backgrounds might struggle to agree on numerous organisational issues.
The employees of Pancevo Brewery had been used to social benefits prior to the company’s acquisition by ECG. In contrast, the workforce at ECG had been used to a culture of performance-based remuneration. Due to these kinds of differences, employees from the diverse backgrounds might struggle to adapt to the organisational culture in the new corporate establishment. In most cases, people from different cultural backgrounds are characterized by distinct values and approaches to tasks. When employees have conflicting values, it is considerably complex for them to agree on numerous issues. This perspective is a massive challenge to the joint venture especially from a human resource management point of view (Guest, 2010). The organisation can struggle to work towards its goals if the employees are characterized by distinct values. Cultural barriers can also significantly hamper the efficiency attained within the decision making process. For a multinational entity like the Eden Brewery Group, each decision has extensive ramifications on overall performance.
All these perspectives indicate how cultural barriers have curtailed the human resource framework at Eden Weisser. In order to address these challenges, the organization’s human resource executives must develop comprehensive frameworks for training all employees. Through training, all employees are enlightened about the pertained role played by cultural diversity within an organization.
In addition to cultural barriers, communication is another challenge evident in the case study. When ECG acquired Pancevo Brewery in 2003, a joint transition team was established. The team was mandated with numerous duties. For instance, this team was responsible for overseeing organisational integration. In line with such roles, communication is a sensitive aspect. Without adequate communication mechanisms, the joint venture would struggle to attain the different organisational goals. The human resource frameworks in any organisation are strongly dependent on the available platforms for communication (Rao, 2008). The transition team at Eden Weisser was characterized by specialists drawn from different fields. The absence of effective communication is among the most conspicuous causes of the problems faced by the organisation’s human resource systems.
The communication platforms should be established in a way that enables even the subordinate employees to express themselves. This perspective is massively influential in terms of streamlining the efficiency of decision making. The communication strategies used by the human resource managers also influences the organisation’s public relations framework. In the wake of the acquisition, the organisation embarked on an extensive rebranding framework. For instance, the organisation was involved in a re-launch of the Weisser brand. Such a rebranding process requires adequate communication tactics (Dowling, 2008).
However, the organisation did not establish comprehensive mechanisms for streamlining internal and external communications. Consequently, these aspects highlight communication as a significant cause of the challenges experienced by the human resource mechanisms at Eden Weisser (EW).
Change management encompasses the processes which form the basis of significant transformations within an organisation. In the absence of adequate mechanisms, change management can be considerably challenging. This mostly applies to the implementation phase. After the acquisition process, the employees in this organisation faced uncertainty in terms of job security. Previously, the employees at Pancevo Brewery were entitled to numerous social benefits. Although the wages were significantly lower, the standards of job satisfaction were exceptional (Briscoe, 2012). However, the acquisition of the company by EBG created another dimension for remuneration and reward of employees.
In line with the new provisions, employees of EW would be paid based on performance. Inevitably, this created an element of job insecurity among most employees. This can easily demoralise employees and thus compromise their performance. In order to mitigate such challenges, it is pertinent to establish effective mechanisms for change management. Through change management, some challenges such as dissatisfaction among employees can be averted. Some of the most profitable organisations across the globe are characterised by exceptional mechanisms for change management.
Disparities in Earnings
The joint venture comprising of the two breweries is characterised by disparities in earnings. For instance, the average worker rates are ten times less than the earnings given to the high ranking executives. In line with this perspective, disparities in earnings have significantly undermined the levels of job satisfaction among employees. Such a scenario is a massive challenge for any human resource manager. Although the performance of organizations is among the most pertinent goals, it cannot be achieved without motivating employees (Edwards, 2007). Consequently, the human resource executives must act accordingly in order to address such a challenge. Although the top executives should earn more, the disparities should not be so high. The high disparities in earnings can also undermine the effectiveness of internal communication mechanisms among employees of different ranks. The attainment of the relevant organisational standards can also be undermined significantly by the disparities in earnings (Guest, 2010). This is because some employees consider themselves irrelevant to the overall targets being pursued by the organisation.
Strategies for International Human Resource Management
The strategies used for international HRM are massively influential towards the overall performance attained by a multinational entity. The acquisition of Pancevo Brewery by ECG led to the creation of a multinational entity whose activities span across six nations. With business and commercial interests across different countries, it is vital to develop adequate strategies for international human resource management. At the international level, cross-cultural perspectives are immensely pertinent. For instance, the organisation must use an international HRM strategy that accentuates on the values of cultural diversity within an organization (Edwards, 2007).
The employees of the joint venture were drawn from different nationalities. It is thus imprudent for the organisation’s human resource system to be biased in any way. Additionally, it is essential for the organisation to consider the values of the different cultures while making decisions as pertains to the marketing strategy. Such an approach helps a multinational entity in establishing a foothold in the different market. It is also essential for any multinational entity to assess the human resource standards used within an organisation. This is an essential aspect especially in terms of boosting the company’s performance in the foreign markets. The beer industry is strongly dependent on the ability of the organisation to execute sales strategically. This perspective accentuates why the joint venture needs to implement adequate mechanisms for international HRM. For instance, aspects such as communication must conform to the respective human resource practices in the host country (Dowling, 2008). Conforming to such standards is also pertinent in terms of enhancing that the company secures adequate licensing. Countries in the Balkans and Eastern Europe have stringent frameworks for human resource management. Consequently, EW must conform to such standards.
The case study narrows down on the causes of the various human resource challenges experienced by the Eden Brewery Group after acquiring Pancevo Brewery. The Eden Beverage Group has strong Turkish roots as evidenced by its listing on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. On the other hand, Pancevo Brewery is characterized by a rich Serbian tradition. These traditions highlight the cultural diversities evident in both organisations. This serves as an outstanding source of human resource challenges for the new venture. Cultural barriers cause challenges from a human resource perspective in different ways. Firstly, the executive and employees from different backgrounds might struggle to agree on numerous organisational issues. Without adequate communication mechanisms, the joint venture would struggle to attain the different organisational goals. The human resource frameworks in any organisation are strongly dependent on the available platforms for communication. The transition team at Eden Weisser was characterized by specialists drawn from different fields. The absence of effective communication is among the most conspicuous causes of the problems faced by the organisation’s human resource systems.
After the acquisition process, the employees in this organisation faced uncertainty in terms of job security. Previously, the employees at Pancevo Brewery were entitled to numerous social benefits. Although the wages were significantly lower, the standards of job satisfaction were exceptional. However, the acquisition of the company by EBG created another dimension for remuneration and reward of employees. The acquisition of Pancevo Brewery by ECG led to the creation of a multinational entity whose activities span across six nations. With business and commercial interests across different countries, it is vital to develop adequate strategies for international human resource management.
Edwards, T. (2007). International human resource management, Pearson Education
Guest, D. E. (2010). Human resource management and performance, Human Resource Management Journal, 21(1)
Rao, P. L. (2008). International human resource management: Text and cases, New Delhi: Excel Books
Dowling, P. J. (2008). International human resource management, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Briscoe, D. (2012). International human resource management, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Innovation, Design, and Creativity Essay
The current technological changes and global forces have developed clear information to different business firms in the market. In order to be profitable enough in the market, any firm requires innovation so as to establish its competitive advantage over others. Innovation impacts services, products, strategy, and process that a company tends to apply. Below are two organizations that have been using concepts of innovation, design, and creativity in their day to day work application. The paper will look at Microsoft Corporation and Elias group in the evaluation of the above aspects, (Eardley & Uden, 2010).
The Elias Group is a small nonprofit making business that operates on the benefit of US government. The organization operates via the General Services Administration where it ensures that the government has been supplied with necessary goods. It is a group that has experienced ups and downs on the duration it has been working with the US government. There innovative ideas have always been working with suppliers who doesn’t fail when given tenders and selecting those suppliers who are have potential to deliver on time and with all specifications. For many years, Elias group has been in the industry of developing contracts and working with firms that want to contract the US government. The group has used to the concept of creativity where it has developed a strategy of linking firms that want to get business contracts or supply goods to the US government. This company has developed an environment which allows it survive in the market without being involved in the activities of its clients, (Eardley & Uden, 2010).
Another company that has worked positively with the current technology changes in the Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Company has applied the concepts of design, creativity, and innovation in its process, products, and services that it offers to its clients. Each and every time Microsoft Company uses the concept of innovation to work on new ideas on how to develop new services, software, and products to the market. There are several competitive firms in this industry, but Microsoft Company has always performed well. Microsoft has always been creative in its operations, and that is why most people value and prefers services offered by Microsoft. It has attracted many and has worked on strategies on how to win customer loyalty. In comparing design, creativity, and innovation, it is clear that innovation is the profitable implementation of an idea, and that is what Microsoft has been doing in order to have a competitive advantage in the industry, (Eardley & Uden, 2010).
As a manager, it's vital, to understand so as to ensure that activities in the organizations are working in accordance. Microsoft and Elias group have all engaged in the innovation for their business process. They have been improving their business by way of introducing new services, revamping old process, and introducing new products. In order to stay ahead of competition, these businesses have realized the use of innovation. Innovation impacts services, products, and strategy of any given organization. This is what gives an organization an edge for establishing competitive advantage in the market, (Eardley & Uden, 2010).
Eardley, A. & Uden L. (2010). Innovative knowledge management: IGI Global
Performance Management System
1.Performance management systems in an organization have different purposes. Performance management systems provide two way feedbacks. In addition, performance management systems aid in staff development. In this case, managers identify areas in which workers have weaknesses so as to improve their performance through training. A good performance management system focuses on employee development. This ensures regular development of capabilities and competencies which improves employee performance. Further, performance management systems help in documentation so as to meet the legal standards. The performance management system satisfies the requirements of different stakeholders at various levels (Robbins & Decenzo, 2007).
There are different ethical concerns of performance management systems including discrimination of employees during performance evaluation. The evaluation criteria used in an organization can result to discrimination of workers. For instance, trait oriented, and subjective performance methods lead to discrimination as they are hard to quantify. Organizations should use objective criteria when evaluating workers to avoid discrimination (Robbins & Decenzo, 2007).
Human resource management department should ensure the performance management system is ethical. They should ensure the performance management system satisfy the needs and various stakeholders including employees. The human resource management department should reconcile the expectations of different stakeholders and objectives of the performance management system. In addition, the performance management system should adhere to legislation governing employment of employees and performance to avoid ethical dilemmas (Rao, 2007).
2.There are different appraisals methods including group order ranking and paired comparison. In group order ranking, workers are placed in a classification that reflects their relative performance. Group ranking ensures employees in the organization are recognized based on their performance. In this case, the employees are not compared with each other. However, it results to unhealthy competition as employees compete to be the best (Robbins & Decenzo, 2007). In paired comparison, every individual is compared to every other final ranking based on how many times the employee is a preferred member in the pair. Paired comparison aids managers in identifying the most talented and least talented workers in a group. It also creates a high performance culture as employees improve continuously. However, it leads to unhealthy competition and discourages teamwork and collaboration. The appraisal method used in my organization is paired comparison as employees in the organization are compared with each other. The method is effective as it enables the organization determine talented employees in a group and those note talented and hence improve their performance (Decenzo, 2009).
3.There are different categories of rewards. That is intrinsic versus extrinsic, financial versus non financial and performance based versus membership based. Intrinsic rewards result from the job itself like personal satisfaction. Extrinsic rewards result from outside including benefits; money and promoting Intrinsic rewards have a significant and beneficial impact on employees than extrinsic. Financial rewards consist of monetary rewards and non financial rewards make life on the career attractive. Non financial rewards have a greater impact on employee performance than financial as they make the job attractive and hence enhance performance (Robbins & Decenzo, 2007). Performance based reward depend on a job criteria, and membership based rewards are offered to all workers. Intrinsic rewards are more successful in the business environment as they focus on improving personal satisfaction and hence job satisfaction among employees. This in turn, improves their performance as employees fell satisfied, part of a team and has a feeling of accomplishment (Taylor & Torrington, 2009).
There are different benefits offered to workers, but I value the health insurance benefits as they enable me to access medical services and this improves my health and performance. Organizations should offer benefits to their workers as benefits improve the performance of the employees. The benefits are given according to the employee performance. Employee benefits affect the organization negatively or positively depending on how they are offered. Providing benefits to workers motivates them to perform better, and this in turn improves the organizational performance. On the other hand, failing to provide benefits leads to poor performance among workers as they are not motivated. This affects the organizational performance (Wright, Gerhart, Hollenbeck & et al, 2013).
Wright, P., Gerhart, B., Hollenbeck, J., & et al. (2013). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. McGraw Hill education
Taylor, S., & Torrington, D. (2009). Fundamentals of human resource management. Financial Times Prentice Hall
Decenzo. (2009). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. Wiley India Pvt limited
Rao. (2007). Human Resource Management. Excel Books India
Robbins, S.P., & Decenzo, D.A. (2007). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. John Wiley & Sons
Effective Case Management Plan
The establishment of an effective case management plan for congestive heart failure hinges on the nature of plan. In line with this, there are three major components of the overall case management. These components are the clinical pathways, published guidelines, and best practices. Each of these perspectives has immense influence towards the efficiency attained with the overall case management plan. Different researchers have established different mechanisms as pertains to best practices. In this analysis, the various perspectives concerning best practices will be put into perspective. This also applies to the frameworks for clinical pathways and published guidelines. Through such an approach, the analysis will provide an excellent framework for the overall case management plan. In essence, this will from an exemplary blueprint for the alleviation of congestive heart failure.
The development of any health management plan requires a proactive framework. Stakeholder involvement is among the most essential aspects of such a framework. The involvement of all stakeholders is instrumental towards the mitigation of conflicts. In the health care sector, simple conflicts can have undesirable repercussions. This accentuates the essence of including all stakeholders within the case management plan (Cox, 2010). In addition to conflict mitigation, the involvement of all stakeholders is essential towards enhancing the outcome of the decision making process. This is because of the different skills and talents as pertains to the treatment of congestive heart failure. Decision making is among the most sensitive aspects addressed in best practices. All decisions must enhance the overall case management plan rather than undermine it. This perspective will form an integral aspect of the entire case management plan. The second aspect of best practice is the integration of evidence-based practice. The framework for evidence based practice is instrumental in terms of boosting the overall quality of the case management plan. Evidence based practice has numerous advantages. Firstly, it goes a long way towards mitigating the occurrence of mistakes. A simple mistake in health care practice can have extensive ramifications on the patient’s health. This perspective also applies to congestive heart failure (Weed, 2010).
However, evidence based practice ensures that such mistakes do not occur within the case management plan for congestive heart failure. The second merit of evidence based practice concerns the ability to establish the treatment approaches which have the best outcomes. Through evidence based practice, it is will be considerably easier to identify the manner in which other health care facilities have implemented an overall case management plan. This is instrumental towards the establishment of treatment mechanisms which have the relevant standards of accuracy. Congestive heart failure has long been researched upon by many people. Due to such research mechanisms, there is extensive information concerning the best treatment approaches. For instance, it is always essential o establish a treatment mechanism which facilitates for rapid response. This is because of the sensitivity of symptoms for patients suffering from congestive heart failure. In line with this, the perspectives on rapid response will be incorporated into the overall case management plan. Another aspect concerning best practices is the issue of resource allocation. The availability of adequate resources is instrumental towards the enhancement of the treatment frameworks for congestive heart failure.
Resources such as medication and the equipment for treatment are necessary in streamlining the outcome of the entire plan (Perez & Cohen, 2010). In contrast, inadequate facilities and resources can significantly hamper the capacity of the case management plan to yield the anticipated outcomes. This framework accentuates the essence of gathering adequate resources within the implementation phase of the plan.
In addition to best practices, the second major component of the case management plan pertains to the published guidelines. In essence, this encompasses the various guidelines stipulated for the development or establishment of any case management plan for congestive heart failure. One of the most notable aspects of the published guidelines is the issue of patient confidentiality. In handling any kind of patient, the highest standards of confidentiality must be used. This provision immensely applies to the treatment of congestive heart failure and other cardiovascular complications. In line with this aspect, all the patients involved in the case management plan will avoid privacy infringement. Any kind of infringement can have undesirable ramifications on the outcome of the entire management plan (Perez & Cohen, 2010).
Published guidelines are also clear on the enhancement of patient outcome. In line with this stipulation, the wellbeing of the patient should always be prioritized. This implies that all decisions within the case management plan should conform to the various health care needs of a patient. For instance, the nurse should not perform certain procedures against the will of the patient. This is tantamount to the violation of the various published guidelines for the case management plan (Weed, 2010). Another critical aspect of consideration with regard to the published guidelines is sensitivity to medical procedures. The different stages and phases of the case management plan should conform to the stipulated medical guidelines. This is an essential aspect towards the attainment of best outcomes for patients suffering from congestive heart failure.
The case management plan will be aligned to various clinical pathways. This mostly applies to the fundamental practices and procedures used in clinical practice for patients with cardiovascular complications. For instance, it is essential for the nurse to take accurate records concerning the patient’s condition (Perez & Cohen, 2010). The accuracy attained while collecting such records forms the basis of the entire case management plan. When the patient records are not accurate, it becomes considerably complex for the physician to make the right prescriptions. Accurate medical records are also essential with regard to future references.
The analysis encompasses a framework for developing the overall case management plan. The three major components of the plan are the clinical pathways, published guidelines, and best practices. In the health care sector, simple conflicts can have undesirable repercussions. This accentuates the essence of including all stakeholders within the case management plan. In addition to conflict mitigation, the involvement of all stakeholders is essential towards enhancing the outcome of the decision making process. One of the most notable aspects of the published guidelines is the issue of patient confidentiality. In handling any kind of patient, the highest standards of confidentiality must be used. This provision immensely applies to the treatment of CHF. In line with this aspect, all the patients involved in the case management plan will be not be subjected to- any form of privacy infringement. These dimensions illustrate how the case management plan will be aligned with the health care needs of patients with congestive heart failure.
Cox, C. (2010). A guide for nurse care managers, iUniverse
Perez, R. & Cohen, J. S. (2010). Integrated case management manual, New York, NY:Springer Publishing Company
Weed, R. G. (2010). Life care planning and case management handbook, Taylor & Francis
We shall base the argument on the educational setting. Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory is an approach used by most leaders in their leadership styles. According to this theory, successful leaders should not use one leadership styles, but should change their leadership approach depending on the environment they are working or the maturity of the people they are involved. Based on the job to be completed, using this theory, it is easier for the leader to determine on where to put more emphasis either on the employee relationship side or the task side. There are several benefits of situational leadership approach such as easy to use and easy to understand. These strengths of the model help leaders use the approach. One of the main limitations about the model is that leadership does not entirely focus on the process of decision making rather it focuses on inspiring people to change their ways of doing things. Another limitation is that the approach does not clearly distinguish between what is known as management and leadership. It also focuses much on what the individual in charge does, (Claude, 2009).
In a situation where two teachers taught their class using different ways helps us explain the concept clearly. The class that was taught using situational leadership had a different performance compared to a class that was taught using conventional way approach. It was discovered that the two experiments indicate that there was a difference on the maturity level of students. According to Hersey and Blanchard model, students who were taught using this model performed better as compared to those students that were taught using the conventional approach, (Paul & Kenneth, 2010).
Claude, L. G. (2009). The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 8, pp. 285-291
Paul H. & Kenneth, H. B. (2010). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
What are Innovation, Design, and Creativity?
Every organization or entrepreneurship exists to resolve challenges, which indicates that each and every individual or business has the opportunity to advance new resources and solutions for growth or maturity. Within an organization, the terminologies design, innovation and creativity are used frequently while the business associates are conducting business. In order for one to delve into understanding those terminologies, one must comprehend the meaning behind each and every terminology.
Design perceives at common things with new eyes and working out on how they can be made superb or better. Designing is all about challenging existing methods, techniques and technology. Design is the touchable result, such as the end product of design such as a bicycle, van, or a computer. It is an ingenious activity and is the process by which information is transformed into a touchable result. The touchable things are like (products) while the non-touchable things are (services).
Creativity refers to the grace to ideas that come to the mind, divine inspiration, Bain storming, lateral thinking and the natural aptitude, which directs concentration towards removing psychological blocks and barriers. Creativity is part of human cognitive thinking that helps him or her to come up with new and unique ideas. Furthermore, creativity calls for hard work and intense thinking aimed at producing new solutions.
Innovation according to Julie Malone-Cline can be defined as “the frame of the mind “or the act of developing ideas, which are unique in nature. For example, through innovative thoughts Bill Gates was able to come up with the Microsoft software computers, which are still in use up to date. Additionally people are still innovating windows softwares such as windows 2012. That is what is termed as innovation.
These terms emerge to have the equal meaning, but they differ slightly. Innovation is advancing or developing on an idea that is already existing while Creativity is an individual’s ability to crop up with a new and matchless idea. Design is almost similar to innovation, but it can apply to an idea that has not yet existed or already exists. In our organization, design is set for employees such as web developers or designers who design new websites for clients and the organization. Creativity is a term that applies to all employees since it helps the associates to break job monotony and prepare new ways of doing things. Innovation is left for people who develop fresh ideas, which are used in advancing and creating new ventures on the organization’s business activities.
Malone J (2009) Innovation, creativity and Design, retrieved on 8/4/13 from http://knoweverythinginfo.blogspot.com/2009/10/innovation-creativity-and-design.html
Nursing Leadership/Change Analysis Paper
Nursing leadership is imperative to effective change of any institution as long as the leadership has what it takes to bring change. In a healthcare institution, professional experience of all the stake holders is also extremely fundamental since it is the reagent to efficient and effective change in the entire organization. A change opportunity, which is either current or anticipated, depends on the kind of leadership and the style of leadership that is applied or will be applied in order to yield effective and quality results. The quality of assurance in any organization depends on the leadership as well as the subordinate performance. This means that if the leadership of the institution is counterproductive; the subordinate performance will follow suit. However, when the leadership fails to perform efficiently the counterpart or the supporting staff might fail to perform, as well. This paper’s purpose is to offer effective analysis of integrated course readings and professional experience in discussing a change opportunity (current or anticipated) in the workplace and the leadership required to facilitate this change. Therefore, the change my healthcare organization is integrating is standardized, documentation with Clinical Practice Model (CPM).
The change emphasized in this paper is the quality of nursing documentation through a systematic review analysis of some academic Journals focusing on CPM systems. Wang, Hailey & Yu (2011) Journal review has endeavored to focus on quality of nursing documentation and approaches, which is an exact assertion of the change witnessed in our organization. The nursing documentation in this organization has continually developed with increasing studies on the nursing process. A variety of audit instruments has been used to evaluate nursing documentation processes, which have continually yielded positive outcomes especially after the introduction of the electronic documentation style. Patient’s information is secured on the computer systems every time a diagnosis has taken place as the reference for future reference and as a procedure used incurring further examinations on the diagnosis. This kind of documentation is also essential for quality assurance and ample evidence of the superb services provided by the professional healthcare staff.
Our healthcare institution has invested heavily on technology since auditing and specialized diagnosis on patients require intensive or thorough treatment using high tech system in order to gain effective and sufficient services to patients suffering from various illnesses. The anticipated change in this healthcare organization will be focused on improving some kinds of documentation, which are faulty especially as a result of lack of data accuracy. This will be improved through the application of electronic documentation systems in healthcare with the capacity to increase aggregation and the accuracy of information by a more uniformed and structured of data documentation. In addition, the organization will also endeavor to evaluate the quality of audit instruments from theoretical, technical and conceptual perspectives. As a matter of truth, conceptual evaluation and analysis of measurements standards assists in improving the comprehension of the definitions of quality of nursing documentation and to verify ambiguous concepts and reach precise operational attributes.
During the change operation activities, our nursing leader and the organization administrator had to get ample time in making the change decisions since some of the changes were not to be effective immediately they had to be worked upon in phases. For example, making a decision on improving documentation through acquiring high tech systems called for a series of signatories in a bid to get the final authorization of acquiring these documentation systems. This decision took several hours discussion on the system’s efficiency and quality assurance they shall provide immediately after they have been purchased. The Administrator had to decide on the various priorities regarding the anticipated change in comparison to the need for change. The need for quality assurance and effective services to patients influenced the administrator’s decision making since he had to adhere to the policies and the mission of the entire healthcare organization. The administrator made radical decisions on the improvement on audit instruments for purposes of providing quality services to all patients at any time a need cropped up. This decision helped in ensuring quality assurance and direct engagement of the nursing staff in ensuring honorable services have been provided to all patients. Additionally, more the administrator ensured that, through the electronic data systems, additional data would also be collected from family and patients when evaluating nursing attributes and report recording (Saranto& Kinnunen, 2008).
Organizational leadership is an extremely challenging position for many people. An administrator is expected to offer final decisions on particular issues spotted in the every organization. The barriers to the organization’s technological advancement affect a variety of healthcare institutions, as well as, other kinds of institutions in different fields. First and foremost, acquiring the documentation instruments or technical system involves hefty or bulky financial investments. This financial need is usually a task that requires a series of authorization in order for it to be effective and counterproductive. The administrator has to prepare an executive summary or proposal for the project before it has been read for approval and implementation. This proposal has to be convincing beyond any doubt since for private healthcare institutions, as well as, the public institution the administration staff has to convince the donors or the top leadership about the efficiency, effectiveness and quality assurance of their proposed project. The biggest challenge to this change is that it is not guaranteed that the executive team will appreciate the proposal; they might decide to turn down the request because of various reasons that are only known to them. The only way to prevent resistance and foster ownership of change is creating quality and appealing proposals or changes that would win the judge’s approval. Furthermore, understanding and focusing on the priorities suitable and precise for the proposal; before tabling the final proposal.
Participative or democratic leadership style will be the best in this case since it involves the leader including several more employees in the decision making. Nonetheless, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. This style enables the leaders to select changes that are democratic and essential since they have been delegated by both sides the employers side and the employees side. This style shows a sign of strength, rather than weakness and employees, as well as, the leaders will respect the final decision or verdict of their discussion. It is also enables the employer to acknowledge the skillful and talented employees that are helpful in making or contributing their effective opinions of change to the organization.
The most useful change theory to accomplish the change would be Kurt Lewin’s change theory. This is a change theory that focuses on the psychological and physical change in human systems (Lewin K, (2011). The theory consists of three distinct and essential stages, which include; Unfreezing, movement and refreezing. The movement stage involves a procedure of change in mind, behavior and feelings in some kind of liberating or more productive repercussions.
Lewin K (2011) Nursing Theories: Change Theory retrieved on 8/4/13 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/change_theory.html
Wang N, Hailey D & Yu P (2011) quality of nursing certification and approaches to its evaluation: a mixed-method methodical review (Journal of advanced nursing) Pg 1-18
Saranto K & Kinnunen U (2008) evaluating nursing documentation research designs and methods: systematic review Pg 464-476
Critical Incident Management
Role of Scenario-Based Planning and Its Influence on Institutional Strategic Management in Justice and Security Organizations
A critical incident is a situation or event that threatens people, businesses, homes, or community (Jones, Kowalk, & Miller, 2000). Critical incidents comprise occurrences such as natural disasters (tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods), hostage situations, group defiance of government authority, and high magnitude criminal activities including terrorism (U.S. Department of Justice, 2004). A quick response to critical incidents safeguards the nation from massive consequences of events of this magnitude. In a more general definition, a critical incident is any event requiring swift, decisive response involving multiple components outside of the normal course of routine activities. In the context of U.S. security, recent critical incidents include the 2001 New York bombings and Anthrax attacks by terrorists.
From the point of view of security and justice management systems, a typical event of a critical incident is defined by the following factors.
$1· Significant loss of life, a significant damage to property, significant injuries.
$1· Threats or acts of violence against social or government institutions.
$1· Demands application of substantial amount of resources.
$1· Attracts close public attention and scrutiny through the media
$1· Requires close coordination among government law enforcement agencies, emergency relief agencies, and state or local prosecutors.
$1· Requires continuous communication with high-level personnel at the Justice Department
In the current status of high foreign and domestic attacks on citizens, public safety and security has become a priority for individuals and government (Logan, 2013). An example of the common scenarios anticipated is a bullied student going berserk and shooting fellow students in class. In view of terrorism and the numerous active-shooter incidences in churches, schools, work places and other social places, each day presents opportunities where lives are at risk. Government, businesses, schools, churches, and others should prepare to mitigate or prevent these occurrences. Scenario-Based Planning (SBP) is one technique that allows organizations to act on possible critical incidents. It involves risk assessment and analysis, formulating of what-if scenarios and testing for preparedness, and developing pro-active and reactive measures.
Scenario-Based Planning involves assessment, planning, management, and control of potential critical incidents (Logan, 2013). This is what is called the APMC methodology. Scenario-Based Planning enables understanding of the circumstances and conditions surrounding the incidents to create strategic response actions, and to manage the multi-disciplinary teams of participants while controlling the environment within specified parameters. Successful application of SBP minimizes detrimental effects and provides additional information so as to improve the desired results should the incident re-occur. Basically, Scenario-Based Planning is the identification of potential risks and creation of effective plans and solutions should the threats be realized. SBP is the perception of how today’s decisions can affect alternative future environments, with respect to human safety and security (Jones, Kowalk, & Miller, 2000). The essence is to allow those responsible for safety and security to formulate viable response plans based on anticipated events. It also enables the evaluation of failures so that corrections can be made during the response process without suffering actual loss.
Influence on Strategic and Institutional Management
First responders to critical incidents include law enforcement organizations, health care professionals, and fire departments (U.S. Department of Justice, 2004). Security and justice organizations have responded through changes in planning and training. Critical incident management necessitates the development of directives and plans for responding to critical incidents. This requires continuous modification of planned actions based on evaluation of their effectiveness. This necessitates improved coordination and information sharing among response partners and potential victims. For instance, first responders and potential victims are required to practice, and perfect response actions expected of each party should the event occur.
In view of the positive benefits of applying SBP techniques, security and justice organizations are setting new standards of public safety and security (Logan, 2013). The standards are intended to enhance partnership between the government and private organizations including schools, churches, business, and other organizations that are likely to be the potential venue for critical incidents (U.S. Department of Justice, 2004). Security and justice institutions must develop strategic plans that guide these institutions with regard to preparedness for potential incidents and effective response in case of an actual occurrence of the anticipated events. The role of potential victims should be reflected in the institutional strategic plans (Logan, 2013). They must receive awareness training on coping mechanisms outlined in the critical incident response strategies. Safety and security provision take participatory approach. Every person plays a role in public safety and security as warranted by the relevant government, state, and local security and justice authorities.
Jones, R.W., Kowalk, M.A., & Miller, P.P. (2000) “Critical Incident Protocol: A Public Private Partnership”. Michigan State University
Logan, P.W. (2013) “Critical Incident Management: Scenario-Based Planning in Critical Incident Management Strategies” The Investigator’s Perspective, Jan. 9, 2013
U.S. Department of Justice (2004) “Review of the Critical Incident Response Plans of the United States Attorney’s Offices” Washington, DC: Author
Essay Question 4: Viability of Delinking Strategy
Globalization has resulted in the integration of economic systems and the development of global economic system. Economies of countries have become intertwined, and countries have been compelled to compete against each in order to control a significant share of the global economy. Globalization theorist argues that this has result in enhanced efficiency and competitiveness among countries thus leading to overall enhancement in universal living standards. However, opponent of globalization argue that globalization has resulted in the development of a dependency relationship between poor and rich nations. According to dependency theorists, rich nations are established a parasitic relationship whereby they utilize resources from developing nations within providing them with meaningful compensation. The rich nations have also established mechanism that would ensure that the status quo is maintained. The consequence of this relationship has been the widening gap between the rich and poor nations. Globalization opponent suggest that the only way that the developing countries can escape this relationship is through delinking. This essay has evaluated the viability of this strategy.
The concept of delinking has been proposed by dependency theorists. Dependency theory argues that globalization has led to further impoverishment of poor countries and further enrichment of wealthy countries (Chapman, 2008). Dependency theory suggests that the relationship between the developed nations and the poor nations is that of dependency. Wealthy nations fuel their growth with resources from poor nations, at the expense of these poor nations. The poor nations remit their wealth to the developed nations and receive minimal compensation. The theory suggests that the developed nations have developed strategies of maintaining the status qui so as that the dependency relationship can continue. These subverting strategies include; sanctions, grants and free trade agreement. The argument advanced by dependency theorist has been supported by Ali (2008) in his book Pirates of the Caribbean: Axis of Hope.
Ali’s (2008) book attempts to portray the dependency relationship that existed between the United States and Caribbean countries. In one of the chapter, Ali discusses the dependency relationship between the US and Venezuela. Venezuela discovered massive reserves of oil making it a large producer of oil. This attracted attention from industrialize countries such as the US since oil is a vital economic commodity. Ali described how the US controlled the Venezuelans political system for many years in order to benefit from the oil reserves. Meanwhile, the country received minimal compensation for these resources. As the United State continued to benefit from the Venezuelan oil, the living standards of Venezuelan did not change. Ali uses symbolism as he equates Venezuelan economic potential to a “fierce bull” which was led to a slaughter house by a canning donkey. The “cunning donkeys” refers to political leaders installed by developed country to advance their interests at the peril of the local people. Ali’s (2008) book explains the attempts made by the United States to maintain the status quo. Ali points out the attacks launched at Hugo Chavez by the United States as one of the attempts to preserve the status quo. Ali’s (2008) describe the election of Hugo Chavez into power as the freeing of the fierce bull. The book continues to explain that the United States were not happy and resorted to strategies that were aimed to haul Chavez out of office.
Dependency theorists have reinforced their arguments with statistics of inequality. Marfleet is one of the dependency theorists that have used economic statistics to support the dependency theory. Marfleet (1998) argue that, since the 1970s, the developed nations have become wealthier while the poor nations have become poorer. Marfleet compared the GDP changes between the developed countries and developing countries. He noted that the GDP of developed countries had recorded significant growth while developing countries have experienced economic recession. According to Mafleet’s (1998) statistics, the GDP per capita for the US grew from $14,000 to $20,000 between 1970 and 1995. Meanwhile, the GDP per capita for Niger declined from $554 to $275 within the same period. Mafleet (1998) also noted that the position of poor countries in global trade had shrunk from 24.1 % in the 1970s to 20% in the 1990s. Poor nations are also faced with crippling debts from international financial institutions. Mafleet (1998) concludes that globalization has only served to increase inequality rather promote human interest.
Dependency theorists argue that the only way of to eliminated the dependency relationship is for the developing countries to delink from the developed countries. Delinking strategy focuses on isolating a country from the global economy and emphasize on strengthening the internal structures (Chapman, 2008). Dependency theorists suggest that the international institutions and developed countries are the largest inhibitor to the development of third world countries. Amin describes delinking as a concept that entails abandoning all the values associated with western countries and adopting economic, political and social values that favor the developing countries (Chapman, 2008). Delinking places least emphasis on comparative advantage of countries and places a lot of emphasis on introducing political, social and economic reforms that favor national interest. In general, delinking implies cutting off a nation from the conventional ways of doing things.
Amin explains that delinking is essential for countries that want to overcome inequalities that are introduced by capitalistic principles (Chapman, 2008). Amin portrays capitalism as a system that seeks to increase profits by all means and uses all manner of theories to justify its activities. Amin has questioned globalization theories that suggest that globalization would lead to free movement of capital, expansion of market forces and greater efficiency thus resulting in the universal improvement, in terms of the standards of living. Amin does not believe that capitalism and globalization have achieved these goals. It has instead widened the gap of inequality. Instead of establishing competition among countries it establishes competition countries. Globalization has given rise to competition between the elite class and the low class across the globe. The elite class within the developing countries collaborates with elite class within developed countries to establish policies that preserve the status quo. The consequence of this relationship is the widening of the gap between the elite class and the low class across the group. This argument is supported by Ali’s (2008) story about the Fierce Bull and the Cunning Donkeys. The story elaborates how the elite class in Venezuela collaborated with the elite class in the USA to impoverish the Venezuelan people. Amin argues that whenever the capitalistic system is in place, individual interest will come in the way of people driven development. Amin suggest that adopting an inward looking approach is the only way to overcome inequality. Third world countries need to abandon neo-liberal economic, social and political formulas that are designed in Western capitals and start establishing their own systems and structures. This is what the delinking concept is about.
The concept of delinking seeks to create autonomous states that do not depend on the global system to survive (Chapman, 2008). According to proponents of the delinking concept, this is the only way the third world country will free themselves from the parasitic relationship established by globalization. The concept suggests that third world economies should focus on developing economic activities that not export oriented. Third world countries should instead focus of developing production system that target the local economy. This means that countries should focus on obtain internal sources of finances rather focus on foreign investment and markets. It also means that countries have to redistribute income in order to boost the purchasing power of the local economy (Chapman, 2008). It also implies that countries should increase regulation of both the public and private sectors.
Viability of the Delinking Strategy
The delinking concept as explained by Amin is not viable. Amin creates an unrealistic vision of the future where countries are self contained and self sufficient. This expectation is unrealistic. It is difficult for a country to survive and develop in isolation. This is because no country has all the resources it requires for development of its society. Middle Eastern countries have rich energy resources but depend on imports for food. Countries are intricately dependent on each other because each region has unique resources. The developed countries such as the United States are finding difficulties in finding unskilled and semiskilled labor force. These countries have been compelled to rely on immigrants for labor especially in the agricultural sector. Such dependent relationships will always exist among countries. The idea of a country existing by itself is not viable. Proponents of delinking strategies propose that countries should look inward for sources of capital but do not explain how this capital will be obtained.
Poor state cannot afford to delink themselves from the rest of the world. Many poor countries are endowed with rich natural resources. However, these countries require capital, expertise and the appropriate technology so as to efficiently exploit these natural resources. Currently, the economies of the third world countries are not adequately developed and thus the countries may not find adequate capital to enable them to exploit their resources. Similarly, third world countries lag behind in term of development in the fields of science and technology. Thus, they may lack adequate expertise and technology to efficiently harness their natural resources. Isolation and delinking means that the developing countries may have to wait for many years before they can develop adequate technology and expertise to harness their natural resources.
Poor countries also need a market for the natural resources. Poor countries are characterized by low purchasing power among its citizens. This introduces a challenge in terms of finding a market for raw materials. Lack of adequate capital has also reduced the capacity of these developing nations to establish industry that will convert raw materials into consumable products. For instance, Zambia has rich copper deposits. However, the company does not have adequate industry to turn the copper into finished goods. Thus, the country has to rely on the external market so as to cash in their raw materials. It may many years before the country develops the industry that would use the copper to make finished products. This brings us to the conclusion that the developing nations cannot live in isolation.
Development is not limited to the economic aspect only. There is also the social aspect. Scholars often associates development with the economic performance of the country. However, development is broader than just economic progress. Development must also result in the enhancement of the people’s living standards. This means that there must be improvements in other areas such as education and health. Though there are still significant disparities in terms of the health status in the rich and poor nations, the contribution of western nation to the enhancement of health in the developing nations cannot be understated. Due to integration and globalization, scientific knowledge and technology has diffused into the developing nations thus assisting them to deal with health issues. The same also applies to education.
Surin (2012) argues that it is possible for countries in the Caribbean to delink. Surin (2012) argues that the concept of delinking may become viable if the Caribbean states unite and form regional blocs. This would ensure that their economies become least dependent on the western market. Surin (2012) argument may not work as most of the Caribbean countries share similar economic resources and economic conditions. Tourism is one of the vital economic activities in the Caribbean regions. Countries within this region are competitors within the global tourism industry. It is difficult for these countries to turn this relationship and provide markets for their own touring resources. Similarly, the Caribbean people are characterized by limited purchasing power and thus may not provide sufficient market for the tourism industry. The same case applies to many other developing nations. Most of these countries produce similar agricultural products and compete against each other in the global market. It is difficult to establish a market amongst them since most of them produce similar goods.
Globalization or Bad Governance
Dependency theorists argue that the inequality gap between the developed and some developing nations has widened after the onset of globalization. However, there are questions on whether globalization is the main cause of the burgeoning inequality. Globalization theorists suggest otherwise. Globalization theorists support the free market model where countries are encouraged to open up their market and become equal players. Globalization theorists argue that market liberation promotes efficiency among countries thus encourages them to become more competitive within the global scene. This has been visible in a number of countries. Economic giants have emerged among the developing nations.
China is among the nations that have made significant improvements due to liberalization. China reintroduced free market economy system in 1979 after 30 years of a centralized economic system (Yiping, 2010). In 1979, the Chinese economy was collapsing due to the protectionist policies. During the 30 years of isolation, people could not feed themselves while the economy was on a stand still. The Chinese government decided to open up the Chinese economy in 1979, and the “China Miracle” happened. The economy of China grew by an average of 9.8% between 1979 and 2009 (Yiping, 2010). Hundreds of millions of Chinese people were lifted from poverty to middle income status. The GDP of the country grew to become the second largest in the world. The liberalization policies had transformed an inefficient country into one of the most globally competitive countries in the world. Manufacturing organizations are shifting their manufacturing base to China. Even when developed countries were experiencing economic meltdown in 2008, the Chinese economy was still growing.
Several other countries have also undergone a similar transformation. Brazil has become a significant global economic player in the last 10 years. The country’s exports grew by 150% between 2000 and 2006 (Polaski, 2009). The Brazilian economy has shifted from dependence of primary production activity to a service and industrial oriented economy. The service sector now constitutes 53% of Brazilian GDP while manufacturing constitute 30% of the GDP. India, Turkey, Russia, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore are some of the other countries that have experienced tremendous growth due to the liberation of the economies (Almeida, 2010).
Evidence suggests that the poor economic performance among some of the developing nations is attributed to poor governance rather than globalization. The success cases discussed in the previous paragraphs are evidence that globalization can enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of countries. Countries such as China, Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey and Thailand have become economically prosperous after the integration of the global economy. This dispel the notion that globalization has disadvantaged poor nations and provided an undue advantage to wealthy nations. Developing countries should focus on addressing their governance structure so as the can gain from globalization. Isolation and delinking would result in worsening of economic conditions within these countries as it happened in China between 1930s and 1979.
Delinking concept entails cutting off a country from the global economic system. This implies that a country that wants to delink must reduce its reliance on the global market. It also means that it must find ways of raising capital within the country. This makes the concept of delinking least viable for poor nations. This is because poor nation are characterized by low purchasing power. Thus, it may be difficult for a country to create a local market that is sufficient to support the economy. Similarly, the poor countries lack adequate capital, expertise and technology. This limits their capacity to exploit the rich natural resources. They must dependent on external country for capital, expertise and technology in order to exploit these resources and grow their economy. This is the only way that the developed country can become efficient and have developed the required capacity for them to become globally competitive. Other developing countries such as China, Brazil and India have managed to establish themselves in the global economy by opening up their economies.
Ali, Tariq (2006). Pirates of the Caribbean: Axis of Hope. USA. Verson Publishers
Almeida, Paulo (2010). The BRICs’ role in the Global Economy. April 25, 2013. http://www.pralmeida.org/05DocsPRA/1920BricsRoleEnglish.pdf
Chapman D. (2008). Delinking: Current Strategies of the EZLN. April 25, 2013. http://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2008/chapman.pdf
Marfleet, Phil (1998). Globalization and the Third Work. The International Socialism Journal. 81
Pieterse, Jan (2009). Globalization and Culture: Global Melange.
Polaski, Sandra (2009). Measuring the Gains from Trade. April 25, 2013. http://carnegieendowment.org/files/brazil_global_economy.pdf
Surin K. (2012). Can There be a Delinking Strategy for the Nations of the Caribbean? The Global South Journal. 6 (1): 55- 65
Szirmai Adam (2010). Developing Countries and the Concept of Development. April 25, 2013. http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/17639/excerpt/9780521817639_excerpt.pdf
Yiping, Huang (2010). Dissecting the China Puzzle. April 25, 2013. http://en.ccer.edu.cn/download/6803-1.pdf