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Engineering & Technology (583)

Sunday, 30 March 2014 02:19


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Technology has become intertwined with almost all aspects of business.  IT is not only pervasive, but it is also becoming a primary driver of market differentiation, business growth, and profitability.  Some of the top ten IT trends promising transformation of business include personal cloud, strategic big data, mainstream in-memory computing, actionable analytics, enterprise App stores, seamless collaboration, active defense, software-defined networking, data velocity, consumerization of IT.

Cloud computing is no longer an emerging trend. Companies are seeking to create hybrid capabilities that combines the best cloud elements, mixing on-premise and off-premise IT and integrating cloud with legacy systems and traditional software.

Active defense.

Organizations and businesses will seek to adopt cyberdefense to ensure data security, cybersecurity and network security.  

Strategic big data

Business and organization need to focus on non-traditional types of data and external sources of data.  

Enterprise App stores.

The number of mobile app downloads is predicted to skyrocket within the coming years.  Organizations are expected to deliver mobile apps to employees through application store.

Actionable analytics

With the number of cloud, packaged analytics and big data increasing, organizations will need to perform analytics and simulations on every action taken in an organization.  Companies will use SDN  as a vital technology for delivering flexibility and agility, which are vital components in company differentiation.

Software-defined networking.

SDN is a radical new way of looking at network.  It enables IT to unleash the power of virtualization and makes it to migrate to the cloud.

Seamless collaboration.

There is an increase in social networking, which has brought new life into collaboration. It is expected that every new app will be “social,” which will push companies to create new users experience.

Mainstream in-memory computing.

There are expected changes in design and architecture which will boast performance and response time. This will enable real-time self-service business intelligence.

Enabling consumerization of IT

Consumerization has emerged as one of the key trend in business.   Businesses need to maintain information security and compliance, in addition to create plans and, policies.


IT trend. Retrieved from on 13/9/2013.

Top 10 strategic technology trends for 2013. Retrieved from on 13/9/2013.

Accenture technology vision 2013.  Every business is a digital business. Retrieved from on 13/9/2013.

Wednesday, 26 March 2014 19:18

Impact Of Using The Internet

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Impact Of Using The Internet

             The internet has been able to provide unlimited knowledge. There is a lot of knowledge that people are able to gain when they make good use of internet. The internet can either make someone smarter or damper. This is normally dependent on how a person uses the internet and the way they use the information that is gained from having accessed to the internet. The internet has made the creation and dissemination of sound, images, and text to be cheap, easy, and global. Many people have been having the opinion that suing the internet tend to make someone smarter. However, this is not the idea because the internet usually makes someone to be better informed.

Positive impact

There are very many things that the internet has that when a person decides to use the internet, they get informed about various things. It is possible to have access to certain information when using the internet, which would not be possible, to know if the internet was not available. Students can be able to use the internet in for their studies. There is a lot that teachers do not teach, and the internet can be a great source of this information. The internet is considered as a great source of information; however, it has become the home of political propaganda, illegal material, racism, and other controversial material. When the internet is used in a positive direction, it can prove to be very productive (Shirky, 2010). Anything that has positive effects tends to have some negative effects.

Internet has been used as the most effective means of communication. Online communication has been made possible through the use of instant messages and emails. This has been very effective as it has made it possible for people from all over the world to communicate. Views can be exchanged, working together, and sharing of information. Development of the internet has made it possible for online education and distance learning (Shirky, 2010). There are very many businesses that have been developed as a result of the internet. It is now possible for professionals and managers to work in physically distant location. Thanks to the internet that customers can be able to communicate with businesses. There has been a revolution in how business are now being conducted which has helped in creating a more efficient market.

Negative impact

Research has shown that the internet together with its constant interruptions and distraction is making people into superficial and scattered thinkers. People who are now getting used to reading information from links have been found to comprehend less than those people who read the traditional linear text. The research also indicate that people who watch multimedia presentation tend to remember less than those who are getting information in a more focused and sedate manner (Carr, 2010). The negative impact of using the internet is division of attention. The richness in our memories, thoughts, and personalities tend to hinge our ability of focusing the mind and sustaining concentration. Research has also indicated that people who do a lot of media multitasking are known to perform poorly in tests that those who are multitask less. Many people think that people who are intensive multitaskers are likely to gain some unique mental, advantages from their juggling (Carr, 2010). However, this is not true because this people cannot be able to switch between tasks than those people who multitask less frequently.


Shirky, C (2010). Does the internet make you smarter? The Wall Street Journal

Carr, N (2010). Does the internet make you damper? The Wall Street Journal

Tuesday, 25 March 2014 22:46

Mobile Computing and Social Networks

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Mobile Computing and Social Networks

Effectiveness and Efficiency of Mobile-based Applications

Mobile-based applications have become a widespread phenomenon in the modern information and technology sector. They refer to the different internet-based platforms designed for smart-phones and other kinds of personal digital assistants in order to provide users with web experience similar to the desktops or personal computers (Zheng, 2010). The advent of mobile based applications has significantly boosted the capacity of companies to acquire data for different purposes from their consumers. For instance, data from the mobile based applications can be used to assess the popularity of a new product among consumers. It is essential to underline that the mobile based applications have the inherent capacity to generate data from users in real time. This facilitates for high levels of accuracy in the analysis of customer data. The different mobile based applications are characterized by exceptional levels of efficiency in capturing customer, consumer, and geo-location data. This enables the processing server to upload the information without the necessity of using desktop systems. The high levels of efficiency provided by mobile based applications can be examined from different perspectives.

Firstly, the mobile based applications are associated with an excellent degree of portability. In the collection of consumer or geo-location data, portability is among the most fundamental aspects that contribute towards efficiency. This highlights why the mobile based applications are highly effective in terms of facilitating the collection of different types of data (Yang, 2010). The efficiency of these applications can also be examined in terms of the speed of data transfer. Since the mobile based applications are connected to the internet, data is swiftly transferred from the mobile phone to the processing server.

In the information and technology sector, speed is among the most integral ingredients of efficiency. Mobile-based applications are used extensively by millions of people across the globe. This provides an excellent pool from which information for different analytical parameters can be obtained. In view of such excellent demographics, mobile based applications provide an excellent base for the generation of different types of data. This is also fuelled by the extensive popularity of mobile based applications. Due to this popularity, users of smart-phones and personal digital assistants are keen to download the latest applications. This is an essential platform that caters for the excellent degree of efficiency. Most mobile based applications are available from open source websites. In these kinds of websites, the users can access the applications s at no charge. This perspective has also been hugely influential in the enhancement of efficiency for mobile based applications.

Most applications are connected to the different audio-visual inputs such as cameras and video-recorders. This ensures that accurate data about the geo-location of customers can be generated. Due to such accuracy, the standards of efficiency have been significantly enhanced across the different kinds of mobile based applications. In contrast to the desktop systems, mobile based applications are minimally rigid. In view of such flexibility, the data processing systems are greatly enhanced. The interfaces for most mobile based applications are user-friendly. Unlike desktop systems (Simon, 2010), these applications are relatively easy to use. This has also contributed greatly to the high rates of adoption for mobile based applications across the globe. High rates of adoption are integral to the enhancement of efficiency in data generation and analysis within the mobile based applications.

Benefits Accrued by Consumers

The data obtained from mobile applications is not only beneficial to companies but also consumers. Among the most outstanding benefits accrued by consumers is that they can easily compare the effectiveness of a mobile application compared to another. Such comparisons are immensely essential in that they help the consumers to decide the application that adequately caters for their needs.  When consumers access information about the mobile applications, they make accurate choices about the merits and shortcomings of each application. Apart from choosing between different applications, another benefit accrued by consumers is that they are able to enhance privacy. Privacy is a pertinent concern for most people while using mobile phones (Yang, 2010). Mobile applications are massively sensitive to privacy infringement due to the internet connections. However, the data obtained from mobile applications facilitates for consumers to control privacy while using mobile phones. This is also crucial because privacy is directly associated with the security of consumers.

The benefits of mobile application data on consumers are also manifested by its capacity to preserve personal data. Consumers can safeguard their records or data through the mobile applications. For instance, an individual might preserve information about surfing history on particular issues. This highlights how the data from mobile applications helps in storing personal data or information. Data generated from the application can play a massive role in enhancing the consumer’s networks. This is because the users are able to access information about different people from the mobile applications. In order to have the best internet experience, consumers must compare the speeds and efficiency of different mobile applications. This is achieved through the mobile applications data accessed by consumers. For instance, consumers can compare the download speeds of different mobile applications. This is beneficial in terms of enhancing the overall internet experience (Simon, 2010).

Another significant benefit realized by consumers is that they can monitor numerous profiles on different social networks via the mobile applications. The 21st Century is characterized by numerous social networks. Monitoring information in these social networks can be immensely challenging if desktop systems are used. This is because of the inadequate flexibility provided by the desktop systems. However, the management of different social networks is significantly enhanced when mobile applications are used by consumers. This is an indicator of the massive benefits associated with mobile applications data to consumers.

Challenges of Developing Applications that run on Mobile Devices

Developers of mobile based applications face numerous challenges because of the small screen size of mobile devices. The efficiency of the mobile applications is strongly dependent on the ability of developers to handle or cope with these challenges. Among the most notable challenge is the issue of data encryption. The encryption of data is a pertinent element of developing mobile based applications. The small screen size of mobile devices complicates the process of data encryption because of space limitations. A developer must identify a strategic approach for handling the complications associated with the encryption of data for the different types of mobile based applications.

Encryption of data plays a massive role in terms of ensuring that the information of users is protected from potential hacking. While encryption is relatively easier in the computer programs, this is not necessarily the case in the mobile applications (Zheng, 2010). This indicates why the encryption of data is among the most predominant challenges in the development of mobile applications for the devices with small screens. The second outstanding challenge is the need to integrate a lot of features in one mobile application. Consumers in the modern market for information technology demand the integration of multiple features in one mobile based application. The development of such an application is challenging because of the limited size of screens on mobile devices. In essence, consumers want to access similar features on both their desktops and the mobile devices. Some applications such as internet browsers are fundamentally designed for computers.

Converting these applications to run on mobile devices is thus a massive challenge for the developer. Features such as database management systems require a sizeable screen in order to serve the intended purpose. This indicates why most developers struggle while designing mobile based applications for devices with small screens. Another notable challenge pertains to the sensitivity of maintaining the right balance in terms of quality and performance of mobile applications. In most cases, the small screen size of mobile devices compels the developer to forego some attributes while designing an application for mobile devices. The omission of some features might have extensive implications on the overall standards of performance of the application. In most cases, such omissions are associated with low quality of mobile applications. In view of such aspects, it is always a major challenge for developers to design a mobile based application that runs effectively as it does on desktop computers (Simon, 2010). Apart from quality maintenance, another challenge faced by developers of mobile based applications involves compatibility.

The performance or efficiency of a mobile application is strongly influenced by compatibility. A mobile based application might be of the highest quality but be incompatible to the mobile phone. Compatibility issues mostly arise because of the capacity of the mobile phone as compared to the specifications of the application. Due to such challenges, developers are forced to adjust the size of the mobile device in order to enhance the compatibility. Dynamism of technology serves as another pertinent challenge facing the development of mobile based applications. The technology sector is highly dynamic due to the numerous innovations. The incorporation or integration of these changes into the mobile applications is increasingly challenging for most developers. In essence, these changes necessitate for the introduction of a totally new application. Consequently, these challenges prompt the developer to design another application from scratch.

From a different angle, it is essential to highlight competition as a challenge in the development of mobile based applications for small screened devices. Due to intensive competition, developers seek to outdo each other by introducing applications that are uniquely designed for particular sizes of screens. This is a shortcoming because it can easily compromise the quality of mobile based applications.  

Methods of Determining the Platform to Support

In the design or development of mobile based applications, the identification of which platform to support is an essential aspect. This is because different platforms support different mobile based applications. The efficiency of an application can be compromised if it is installed in the inappropriate platform. Various methods are available for determining which platform to support. The manufacturer is one of the best methods of deciding which platform to support. This is because some manufacturers develop applications for a given platform. For instance, Microsoft mostly develops mobile based applications that can only be supported by Windows phones. In such a scenario, the application might not effectively function in am iPhone (Yang, 2010). Similarly, Apple develops mobile based applications that are mainly supported by iPhones and some smart-phones. Consequently, such applications cannot run effectively on Windows phones.

The manufacturer or developer of each mobile based application usually specifies the devices which can support it. Such information is essential in terms of deciding which platform can best support a given application. This method is straightforward, and can thus be easily used by any consumer. Additionally, some developers customize mobile applications for certain platforms. When a mobile based application has been customized, it can only be installed in the specified platform. This emphasizes the significance of assessing the developer’s information while acquiring mobile based applications. Apart from manufacturer information, the second method of deciding which platform to support is compatibility. Some mobile based applications are compatible on more than one platform (Simon, 2010). In contrast, others are only compatible is a single platform. Compatibility is used by most users while selecting an application that can be supported by their respective platforms. In most cases, it is always essential to select an application that is compatible on multiple platforms.  This is usually an indicator of a high degree of effectiveness.

Methods of Providing High Availability

The provision of high availability is among the most essential aspects in the modern information technology sector. The use of off-shelf hardware components is a common platform used by most organizations to provide high availability. In essence, the off-shelf hardware components are associated with the provision of the required software components for high availability.

Apart from off-shelf hardware systems, another method used in the provision of high availability is replication. This method comes in handy when some components of the mobile application system are not available in the right levels in some areas. In such instances, replication facilitates for the establishment of a remote storage. Such an approach goes a long way towards ensuring high availability. Software engineering is the next commonest method used in the provision of high availability. In essence, software engineering focuses on the development or design of the missing components. This method is characterized with an excellent degree of efficiency (Zheng, 2010).

Another platform for providing high availability is based on solutions that are heavily reliant on low quality hardware components. While this method is relatively cheap, it is minimally reliable because of the faulty nature of redundant software. However, this method ensures accessibility and affordability of the solutions to most users. The employment of multiple computer processing units is also a significant method used in the provision of high availability solutions. In this kind of plan, some units serve as backups and hence ensure the continuity of the different mobile applications. While choosing the best method for providing high availability, various factors such as cost and efficiency are considered. In most cases, the cheap methods are associated with minimal standards of efficiency while the expensive methods are highly effective.

Methods of Making Mobile Devices more Secure

The security of mobile devices is a pertinent concern for all consumers. In essence, security applies to the physical mobile device and also the data transmitted via the device. Among the most notable methods of securing mobile devices is the use of security codes. Security codes apply to all types of devices including the personal digital assistants. Most users prefer this method because it is relatively straightforward and less rigorous compared to other approaches. An advantage of using security codes is that the users can change them from time to time (Simon, 2010). This is because there are no limitations for the number of times during which an individual may change the security code of his or her mobile device. Another advantage of this method is that it does not require extensive knowledge in complex technology. This is a crucial reason behind the method’s popularity. Despite these advantages, the use of security codes to protect mobile devices has some demerits. For instance, other people can hack into a consumer’s device if he or she misplaces the security code.

In some cases, most users have the tendency to use common words and numbers as their security codes. This is highly susceptible to hacking. The second method of securing mobile devices is the avoidance of counterfeit applications. Counterfeit applications are widespread across the internet especially in sites that specialize in open source software. Most of the counterfeit mobile applications contain risky viruses that cause the mobile devices to crash. In other instances, some applications help hackers to access personal data in a mobile device. It is thus essential for consumers to avoid the counterfeit applications in order to protect their mobile devices.

Tracking serves as another effective method of securing mobile devices. This method encompasses a specialized program that is installed in the mobile device in order to help in determining the geographical location. In essence, the tracking system can be monitored from a laptop or desktop computer. Tracking systems are massively essential in the protection of expensive mobile devices such as smart-phones and tablets.

There are various advantages of suing tracking systems in the protection of mobile devices. One of these merits is that the tracking systems are characterized by an exceptional standard of efficiency. This is because the method uses data and signals from the mobile devi0ce in order to detect its geographical location (Yang, 2010). This system is in-built and remains active even when the micro-chip in the mobile device is changed. Despite such advantages, this method is associated with high expenses and is thus unaffordable to most users of mobile devices. Encryption of data is another platform that helps in protecting mobile devices from hacking. Data encryption is achieved through the use of specialized programs. Only the owner of the device can interpret or access the encrypted data. This method is massively effective since it protects the mobile device from being hacked.

Compared to other methods of securing mobile devices, encryption is significantly cheaper. Consequently, this method can be used by most users to protect their mobile devices. Keeping the Bluetooth switched off is also another common approach to the security of mobile devices. The Bluetooth must only be put on when the user intends to share data with a genuine device. This method is less complicated and also characterized by an excellent level of efficiency. The use of secure internet connections can also contribute immensely towards the safety of mobile devices. This is because some connections might be malicious especially across wide area networks.


Simon, P. (2010). The next wave of technologies, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Yang, L. T. (2010). Mobile intelligence, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Zheng, P. (2010). Smart-phone and next generation mobile computing,  San Francisco,CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publications

Friday, 28 February 2014 20:57

Computer Consultant Assignment

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Computer Consultant Assignment


  1. Concerns with Windows 7 UltimateInstalling Windows 7 Ultimate: Graphical Illustration
    1. Current Concerns
      1. Only advanced users are convenient with Windows 7. Most users have difficulty using Windows 7 and so revert to XP
      2. It cannot be easily upgraded from XP. Complex procedures are involved in upgrading the operating system from Windows XP to 7.
      3. It can only run on highly configured systems. It can only install on high-end machines.
    2. Concerns Down the Line
      1. It requires at least 1GB of free hardware space. Mr. Green’s stand alone computers have free hard ware space of only 350 GB. This is sufficient at the beginning, but exhaustion of free memory space with time will slow down the system.
      2. Various old software programs that are in existence currently will not work on Windows 7. This creates a problem in finding software programs that are compatible with the new operating system.
  2. Description of the Installation Process
  3. Concerns with Experimenting with Windows 7 Ultimate
  4. Windows 7 Ultimate Features
    1. Starts programs easily, faster, and quickly locate files
    2. Runs multiple XP business programs as separate downloads
    3. secure and simple connection to company networks
    4. Has back-up and restore feature
  5. Migration StrategiesSteps in installing two Windows-Based Operating Systems on One Computer
    1. Plan And Assess.
    2. Design and Build
    3. Deploy
    4. Manage and Support
  6. Reason for choosing a particular hard disk partitioning style, disk type, and file system

      Windows 7 Ultimate is a more stable and cleaner version of Windows Vista and XP (Halsey, 2010). Its design is aimed at accommodating day-to-day users and large corporate offices. Windows 7 is an operating system with stunning visuals, pins, touch screen support, snaps, and many other stunning features. A Random Access Memory of 1 GB of is sufficient to run Windows 7 contrary to Windows Vista, which requires much higher RAM capacity. So, memory is not an issue with Windows 7. In case of a computer crash, Windows 7 has the capability to analyze and establish the cause of system failure, in order to prevent re-occurrence of system failure, in the future.

      To begin the installation process for Windows 7, insert Windows 7 DVD in the computer’s DVD-Rom drive and put on the computer. The progress bar appears when Windows 7 boots up. The next screen that appears allows the person who is stalling the Windows 7 to setup settings including language, currency format, time, and keyboard or input method. After choosing the desired settings, the next screen gives options for installing and repairing. For new installation select “install now” and click next. On the next screen, read through the license terms, select agree, and click next. The next screen has two options: upgrade and custom.  Since you are installing a new operating system, click custom and, then next. In the next screen, select installation location from the drive options on the screen. After selecting the installation location, the installation process starts, copying all the essential files.

      Windows 7 installation will go through various steps of setup and reboot the system a few times. The PC will attempt to boot from DVD since it is the default boot device. Do not press any key so that the installation continues with the PC rebooting from the hard drive. After this, the PC will be ready for use. From here, you can choose computer name and user name and create a password for security purposes.

      Windows 7 is faster than Vista and XP. It is packaged with exciting features, has a great look, and uses your computer system resources better. Therefore, performing group policy projects and troubleshooting with Windows 7 is faster and exciting. However, there are problems involved with new users including upgrade programs and complete disappearance of some features. Therefore, that the consultant will have with Mr. Green, it is important for Mr. Green to make up his mind whether he wants Windows 7 system because reverting back to the earlier version of the operating system is complex, and may involve loss of features.

Windows 7 Ultimate has features that support networked systems

      Migrating from Windows 7 Enterprise from Windows Server 2008 requires careful planning and consideration of certain factors. In order to take advantage of the fundamental enterprise features of Windows 7, organizations are required to identify and put in place supporting technologies (Dell, 2010).

In migrating from to Windows 7, applications designed for earlier systems may not run on the new system. Therefore, as part of the process of planning to migrate, it is fundamental to develop an inventory of applications so as to eliminate non-useful or redundant applications and create a list of those that must be migrated.

Determine hardware readiness to facilitate the design of the migration process. This is done through well-documented, results-driven and repeatable testing process. This is done to check compatibility of applications.

Old processes are inefficient and expose organizations to hidden costs. In addition, broad deployments are expensive. These are factors that must be considered when implementing deployments across the organization, automation and best-practices can ensure fast, consistent, and stable deployments.

The process of migration does not end after windows 7 enterprise is installed. Ongoing support and management are key elements that support maintenance of healthy infrastructure.

      To create a dual-boot system with XP and Windows 98, first, ensure that you format the hard disk with the correct file system. Next, install the OSs into separate volumes starting with Windows 98 then windows XP. Each operating system should be installed in accordance with the standard installation procedures.

      This is because each operating system is installed on a separate volume (Bolt, Siechert, & Stinson, 2010). Formatting an operating system with a wrong operating file causes the system not to start because each operating system has its specific supported file system.


Bolt, E, Siechert, C. & Stinson, C. (2010), “Microsoft Windows XP Inside Out Deluxe (2nd ed.)”, Microsoft Press International

Dell (2010), “Windows 7 Migrating Guide”, Dell Power Solutions, 2010, Issue 1

Halsey, M, (2010), “Troubleshooting Windows 7 Inside Out”, Microsoft Press


Thursday, 27 February 2014 19:31

Innovation, Social Change And Commercialization

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Innovation, Social Change And Commercialization

Different social evolution theories elaborate the close relationship between technological innovations with societal changes.  Some milestone technology inventions such as invention of iron   smelting, invention of the steam engine and the development of computer are just but examples of technological innovation that have brought massive changes in the society. Technological innovations have affected all spheres of human life.  They have been closely linked to economic processes such as the formation and extension of markets, political processes, social processes, organization of communities and the formation of ideas.

Innovation is crucial to economic growth of companies and managers have intensified their focus on promoting innovation in the workplace within organizations. According to Avital et al (2007),  the role of information technology can serve as an agent of social changes in  communities.  The connection between innovation, technology and societal changes is well documented by different scholars.  The history of information technology is one of constant change punctuated technological breakthroughs.  According to Carlo (2012), these changes exemplify radical innovations. Effective use of information technology is an integral part of organizational success. However, many organizations are facing different challenges in adapting to new technology in the workplace (Bruque, Moyano & Eisenberg, 2008).   Given the rapid changes in the workplace caused by technological advancement and the increased dependency on technology for many organization’s activities, the degree to which an organization adopt to a new technology has a great impact on the performance of the organization and individual employees.  Adoption of new technology result to massive change in the workplace.  Organizations have to devise ways of managing changes induced on workforce by technology so as to thrive in a competitive market and retain its workforce.  Getting any innovation adopted is often very challenging.  Many innovations require an extensive period from the time they are available to the time they are widely adopted.  Therefore, a common difficulty for many organizations and individuals is how to accelerate the rate of diffusion of an innovation (Everett, 2005).

Commercialization of innovation is another important concept in technology innovations.   Commercialization is a crucial stage of technological innovation process mainly because of the high risks and cost that it entails. Lack of effective commercialization process can result into market failure of remarkable innovations.  Some of the most critical decision s in commercialization of an innovation includes the timing, targeting, positioning, inter-firm relationship, product configuration, distribution, advertising and pricing (Vittorio & Federico, 2011). According to Sompong & Lawton (2012), firms can use strategic alliances to improve commercialization of innovation.  Sompong and Lawton note that five driving factors are crucial in successful commercialization of innovation. The factors include the resources orientation of an organization, risk assessment, business opportunities, sharing of benefits and confidence. These factors influence alliance between organizations and consequently the rate of commercializing innovations.


            Bruque S., Moyano J. & Eisenberg J. (2008). Individual adaptation to IT-Induced change: The role of social networks. Journal of management information. Vol. 25, issue 3, pp 177-206.

            Carlo J. & Kalle L (2012).  A knowledge-based model of radical innovation in small software firms.  Mis quarterly. Vol. 36, issue 3, p865-895.

            Everett M. (2005). Diffusion of innovations, 4th edition. The free press. New York, USA.

            Sompong K. & Lawton S (2012). Strategies of entrepreneurs to collaborate alliances for commercialization of technology and new product innovation. World academy of science, engineering & technology. Vol. 2012, issue 64; p 876-878.

            Vittorio C. & Federico F. (2012). Commercializing technological innovation: learning from failure in High-Tech markets.  Journal of product innovation management. Jul2011, issue 28, p437-454.

Saturday, 22 February 2014 07:52

Technology in Organization

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Technology in Organization

Executive Summary

Technology has evolved to become an integral part of everyday life. It is impossible to exist without some form of technology. Form the cash register at the local store, to the complex networking system that links a large firm with its international links, technology is everywhere. In organizations, the adoption of technology is mandatory for institutions that strive for success and efficiency. Technologies as simple as telephones to networking systems have enabled organization prosper and remain efficient. Factors such as employee training have been upgraded as employees can access online learning materials while at their work stations. The confidentiality of organizational material has also been enhanced with improved filing methods, and security systems. Overall, technology has made a significant contribution to modern organizations that can no longer be ignored.


Technological advancements have resulted to drastic changes across societies. Organizations that used to perform its tasks manually have embraced technology thus realizing enhanced performance. Gradually, technology has become an essential resource in organizations. Organizations that desire to remain relevant have had to change and embrace technology. The growth of internet coupled with organizational expansion trends, and increased information economies have changed technology within the corporate sector. Technologies in business such as video conferencing, social networks, the internet and virtual technology have resulted to a shift in business boundaries as businesses can reach out to regions that they could not access. Technology is a vital element within an organization just like human and financial resources.

Literature Review

Technology is an unavoidable necessity in the society today. Man has always strived to determine strategies that he can implement so as to make life easy and sustainable. Technological advancement is one of the inventions that man has adopted to improve overall life and performance within the organization. According to the critical theory, there is a reason why situation or matters manifests themselves as they do. The advancements in technology have been attributed to man’s desires to improve his life (Putnik, & Cunha, 2007). Initially, technologies such as mailing and faxing were deemed adequate enough as they resolved issues such as posting and delivery of memos and letters. However, need to enhance performance and efficiency within organizations led to the need to advance existing technologies. Letters and fax mails were replaced with technologies such as video conferencing and emails.

Diffusion theory also strives to explain technological advancements in society. Diffusion theory refers to the process by which an innovation is communication through specified channels in a social system. An organization works with existing technological centers to establish the ideal technological strategies that can be adopted to enhance performance. Diffusion theory focuses on four main areas: innovation, communication channels, time and social systems. With regard to innovation, an organization must determine that adopting a new system would be beneficial than the existing system. An organization may, for instance, establish that its manual storage system, which involves the use of files, can be replaced with digital storage system (Langer, 2005). Prior to making such a decision, the organization will have determined that the digital system of data storage is more effective than the manual system.

The second consideration is the communication channel that focuses on the mode of communication exchanges across individuals and across departments. Organizations need to determine the communication methods that are most suitable for the organization. Time is another essential characteristic that define the pace of technological progress and the position of the organization with regard to the technological position. An organization may prefer to adopt a technology that has long term use and benefits to the organization hence avert the need for change in the near future.

Critical Aspect of Technology

The importance of technology to an organization is undeniable. Every organization, regardless of its size and nature, integrates some form of technology into its operations. Whether it is simple technologies such as owning a photocopier machine, to more advanced forms of technologies such as video conferencing, it is impossible for an organization to remain successful without embracing technology. An organization, regardless of how small it is utilizes a computer, a security system, software, or a phone system (Hall, & Khan, 2002). All the above mentioned systems or functions utilize some form of technology. It is impossible, therefore, for an organization or business that it can exists without technology.

Technology helps organization gain a competitive edge, and also maintains a strong presence in their business field. An organization may, for instance, use their technology to gain exposure and become known across the broad business circles. Any organization that has set its overall objectives and desires to achieve them must employ the ideal form of technology for the future of the organization.

 An organization can only grow if it is capable of engaging in productive competition with its rivals. The business world is very competitive and only those organizations that embrace technology will manage to remains competitive and relevant in the market. A successful organization is one that is able to embrace the latest technology and maximizing its use to enhance growth and development within the organization.

Technology in Organizations

The emergence of technology has led to improvement in communications. Communication is a vital element in organizations. An organization needs to communicate with its customers with regard to new products, emerging sales and discounts, as well as advertise their products. Without an elaborate communication channel, an organization would be left with strategies such as word of mouth to market their commodities. Other strategies such as use of fliers and pamphlets would also be costly and would reach a minimal number of people. Communication within the organization is also vital as it ensures efficient transfer of information from one employee to another or one department within an organization to another. Prior to technological advancement, organizations sent letters to their customers so as to inform them on new products or upcoming sales.

 Communications within the organization was narrowed to face-to-face interactions in which information was passed by word of mouth. The emergence of technology has enhanced communication within organizations.  Communication using phone calls and inter-departmental mail was no longer the ideal way of communication. Technology led to the introduction of electronic mail which enabled employees to communicate without disrupting their work schedule.

Companies have also embraced video conferencing hence the need for face-to-face interaction, which is time-consuming, dramatically reduced (Weinstein, 2012). Overall, video conferencing allows organizations to connect with other people across the globe. The need to physical presence is eliminated thus saving an organization space and time. Video conferencing also reduces travelling costs that the organization would have paid for if physical meeting was mandatory. Virtual meetings via video conferencing can be the norm in any organization that embraces this technology and the company can share data and make global presence in an instant.

The adoption of technology within the organization has also enhanced mass collaborations. According to Zammuto & Dougherty (2007) mass collaboration is the process by which people interact on a many-to-many basis as opposed to the one-to-one basis or the one-to-many basis. Traditional forms of information sharing involve the use of instant messaging or list servers where an individual can communicate to one other person at a time. Mass collaboration encourages information sharing to other unknown users. Social sites such as facebook have features that allow interested parties to access all information presented on a facebook page. An organization can create an open facebook page that they can use to inform, sell or advise readers on different business issues.

The task of data management has also been simplified through technology. Traditionally, organizations stored documents in files. Companies had to create a special room for storing volumes of data and documents. The disadvantage with such modes of data storing is that the information could get misplaced easily. There was also a likelihood that the files and documents could get into the wrong hands. The piles of files could collect over the years to the extent that it becomes impossible to find a file that is as old as ten years. The emergence of technology has seen filing cabinets and storage rooms replaced with digital storing technologies (Hall, & Khan, 2002).

 Organizations have embraced digital and storage devices that are used to store large volumes of information. Technological advancements have also made it possible for organizations to secure their information such as that confidential material is accessible to a few employees. Security strategies such as encryptions have been established to ensure that the information organization store in their systems is safe.

Technology has also become a vital element that is used when addressing human capital factors. Organizational leaders are using technology to enhance the process of screening, recruiting and training of potential employees. Traditionally, the process of recruitment of employees was straightforward. The organization would place an advertisement in the local dailies; potential candidates would post their resumes to the organization. The human resource manager would then go through the numerous applications, assess the potential candidates and select those suitable for the position. The candidates selected would then be called for an interview, and if found suitable, they would be offered the job. Organizations are using the internet technology to spread information such as vacancies. The emergence of technology has changed the process of job advertisements, job application and interviews (Lory, 2011). Organizations are advertising vacancies using digital technologies rather than print technology. Digital technology as a means of advertising means that the advertisement can reach more people than traditional means of advertisements such as newspaper adverts.

Organizations have also embraced technologies such as personality assessment and screening tools to determine whether a potential employee is a suitable fit for the organization. Organizations also use social sites such as facebook and twitter to screen a potential employee prior to hiring (Kyratsi, & Holmes, 2012). The social networking sites allow users to publish their personal information as a means of communication and interaction with other. Potential employers can use the information they gather on these sites to gauge whether an applicant is suitable for the organization.

Technology has also enhanced the process of employee training. Initially, on the job training was considered the most effective channel of transferring knowledge and expertise to a new employee. However, the emergence of technology has provided organizations with an alternative platform where effective training methodologies can be adopted (Weinstein, 2012). Technology provides employees with new technological learning opportunities that enhance business growth, and employee development.

Organizations are gradually changing from institutions where individuals demonstrate their efforts and capabilities, to institutions where employees can learn and grow while still earning. Organizations are striving to manage knowledge so as to enhance innovativeness and also improve customer service (Langer, 2005).

Other than the corporate/business world, the world of art has also experienced significant changes with the advancement in technology. According to Thomson & Rainie (2013) of Pew research center, cultural organizations such as theaters and museum have also turned to the internet and social medical to attract audiences and present their art beyond the boundaries of the stage and gallery. Traditionally theatres and art gallery relied on audiences who physically made an appearance in their shows. However, the emergence of technology has turned out to be an integral part of art organizations. Individuals in the art world have had as it has led to the expansion of the traditionally accepted boundaries of art. Art lovers do not have to physically visit a gallery as technology has made it possible for visual galleries to be created.

 An individual can thus take a tour of an art gallery without necessary leaving his office or the comfort of his home. Organizations are also using technology such as the internet and social media to expand their businesses (Hall, & Khan, 2002). Art organizations have managed t expand the number of their online performances and exhibits; they have managed to widen their audiences, sell more tickets and engage art lover in constructive and interactive conversation. The world of digital technology has also enhanced organizational exposure as organizations have resulted to creating their own websites and have a media presence owning sites such as facebook and twitter.

Technology has also been an essential resource that has enabled organizations to improve on their efficiency and overall performance. Technology has helped companies speed up the work flow process.  The adoption of technological tendencies had always been confined to large organizations and corporations. However, it is becoming clear that the small and medium sized businesses (SMBs) must also embrace technology. Technology is constantly changing and organizations that desire to remain successful and competitive have no choice, but to embrace and integrate technology.

 Technologies such as cloud and mobile solutions have been created with the intention of boosting server performance and availability of an organization’s resources. In the face of a tight and unpredictable economy business need to embrace all viable ways to keep the business competitive while at the same time minimize on operational costs (Harvey, 2008).  Currently, the macroeconomic condition is threatening for small and medium sized companies that lack strong financial support as the large companies. The basic forms of technologies are hardly enough for the SMBs. SMBs need to adopt the next generation technologies so that they can rival with already established organizations and have an improved chance of success.  A technological system that promises to boost and organization’s performance is bound to be an impressive investment to a small, medium and large organization.

Technology has also enabled organizations to take marketing to another level. Companies have adopted technologies such as social networking sites. Companies have opened websites and social sites such as facebook and twitter where existing and potential customers can interact with the company. Such technological advancements have managed to reach out to customers, understand their needs and create products that meet customers’ needs. Organizations that have adopted new-age technology have realized significant improvements in their sales. New technological channels have provided customers with countless options to consider when sourcing for a product or services. Companies that have not adopted the new technologies risk left behind and realizing low sales as customers can not access their products with ease.

 Traditionally sales and marketing involved face-to-face interactions where a sales person attempted to convince a potential buyer to purchase a product. The emergence of technology has simplified the process of marketing as a company can display its products online (Shah & Whipple, 2013). Marketers can discuss the features of each commodity and the prices. Customers are able to make their choice without any undue pressure from markets. Customers are also able to make a comparison of products with regard t prices, features and quality.

 One company that has managed to make significant improvement with the adoption of new technologies is Vision computer services. Vision computer services are a technology company that specializes in the provision of IT services. Located in Michigan, vision was experiencing low sales and the declining economic situation was proving to be a hurdle for the company. At the start of the business, the company relied purely on personal connections and referrals to provide their services. It was becoming clear that the company had to establish an alternative and effective way to source for prospects.

The company also desperately needed alternative strategies to market their services. The use of direct mail to potential customers was hardly bearing fruits with a return rate of under 1% (Putnik, & Cunha, 2007). Eventually, mission decided to embrace technology and began to source for customers on the internet. What vision had not realized are that many people seeking IT and computers services via the internet. With the new technology, Vision revenues went up by over 85% two months after the launch of their website.


Technological advancements show no sign of slowing down and it is the responsibility of business manager and executives to ensure that their organization remains on top with regard to technology use. It is impossible for an organization to exist without technology. It is paramount for organizations to remain in touch with the changing technological changes. Every time, there is a technological system or software that is being introduced to the market. Organizations must ensure that they adopt technological devices that will provide the greatest benefit to the organization. Organizations are established with the sole purpose of making profits and remaining competitive in their field of expertise. Technologies are enhanced with the purpose of being integrated into the market. Integration of technology in organizations enhances organizations performance. It also results to cost cutting as employees save time and resources that would have otherwise been spent on expenses such as travelling allowances. Technology is a vital element within an organization just like human and financial resources.


Hall, B. & Khan, B. (2002). Adoption of new technology. New economy handbook

Harvey, E. (2008). Technology and the structure of organizations. American sociological review. Vol. 33(2): 247-259

Inman, J. (2000). The importance of innovation. The writing center journal. Vol 21(1)50-72

Kyratsi, Y. & Holmes, A. (2012). Technology adoption and implementation in organizations. BMJ open

Langer, A. (2005). IT and organizational learning. Routledge publishers

Lory, B. (2011). Employer use of facebook as a tool in pre-employment screening of applicants. Organizational leadership; St. Catherine University

Putnik, G. & Cunha, C. (2007). Knowledge and technology management in virtual organizations. Ideal group Inc

 Shah, B. & Whipple, B. (2013). Embrace technology or fail. Retrieved from

Thomson, K. & Rainie, L. (2013). Art organizations and digital technologies. Pew internet & American life project

Weinstein, L. (2012). The business case for pervasive video conferencing. Wainhouse research LLC

Yadav, N. & Pal, P. (2006). High technology marketing. Vikalpa. Vol. 31(2): 57-

Zammuto, R. & Dougherty, D. (2007). Information technology and the changing fabric of organizations. Organization science. Vol. 18(5): 749-762

Adoption of effective Information Technology in Vehicle Rental Companies

Vehicle rental companies have been of great help to many people travelling across the world because of the effectiveness that are associated with such vehicles. In fact, it is normally impossible for an individual who travel to a foreign country or even some miles away from the state of residence to go with his/her own vehicle.   Therefore, family vacations, business trips, or even replacement of a car that is being repaired can be made possible through renting a car.  Individuals who travel miles away from their homes find convenience in vehicle rental companies because they are able to enjoy  their travel  and relax the same way they would have  done  while at  their home  places.   Therefore, transformation of the vehicle rental process to be an effective process is helpful, and this can only be achieved through adoption of effective information technology in vehicle rental companies.

  According to CRX (2013), the process of renting a car is fairly easy.  CXR indicates that an individual needs to first determine the budget, the type of vehicle needed, the mood of payment, and the company to rent the car from. Once the individual has determined the company where to rent the car, he/she should submit the information, which includes the destination, the preferred vehicle type, and the dates of travel.  However, if the client is not sure of the vehicle type then he/she should indicate “no preference.” On the destination, the client will be able to locate the rental car having submitted the driving license as an identity and as verification that the individual is of the legal age to rent the car.  At this stage, if the client had not made an online payment, then he/she is required to pay the company in cash.  The vehicle renting company may also require the client to produce the credit card that had been used in the online payment in an effort to reduce identity theft.  The vehicle rental process, therefore, is a process that involves proofing the identity of the client, payment, and picking the vehicle.  However, this process tends to take a lot of time due to repetition of the   confirmatory processes of the client.   While repeated confirmatory steps may be effectively reduce the chances for theft, such steps are time wasting and tasking to the vehicle rental companies in terms of cost implied by the labor intensive processes.

  Advances in information technology present great opportunities, in the car rental industry (DELL, 2012).   Increasingly cost effective and reliable technology data and voice exchange will drive the growth of IP based call centers and web based sales channels, therefore, enabling the travelers to rent vehicles from   virtually any location and at any time of their convenience.  Perhaps, cost and competition pose significant challenges in the car rental industry.  Increasing fleet maintenance fees and the declining residual values accompanied by the growing competition, tend to cut   greatly the profit margins.   Increased workforce caused by multiple repeated   manual processes also implies high operational costs, which can be effectively reduced by reliable information technology system.  Security issues such as theft is also another issue that affects the car rental industry, and off course can ne solve effectively through adopting an effective technology.   Therefore, car rental companies need to adopt effective information technology in order to gain competitive advantage.

  Vehicle rental companies have many aspects that are still physical. In fact, the provision of vehicles, the cleaning, maintenance, check in, pick up, ancillary products, emergency road services, among other aspects are still done in a manual manner.  Physical processes require human agents, and the increased physical processes, therefore, implies increased personnel costs.  In the vehicle rental companies,  effective technology means that  the  number  of  personnel in the work force  will be reduced, which will translate  to reduced  operational  costs, therefore, implying  an increased profit  margin.   Security being one of the issues that are checked in the vehicle rental industries,   security work force can be reduced by the use of CCV cameras that can be remotely monitored by just a few physical workforces. 

   Gathering and re-gathering of information is also another aspect that is time consuming and requires a huge workforce.   This multiple confirmatory process is a labor intensive process, which is time consuming, and it is also prone to inaccuracies due to human errors.  Implementation of an effective computer based data system is, therefore, a great idea.  Since smart cards used for submitting payments for the hired vehicles may be prone fraud, then strong authentification and identification systems may be adopted in the stations. 

Encryption is one of the major methods used to ensure that information and data in the electronic systems are secured (AAOS, 2013).  Encryption ensures that the computer networks and users are secured.  This mechanism scrambles data into unreadable forms through an application of algorithms and mathematical schemes. However, the data on the other end can be decrypted or decoded by an individual who possesses an authorized key.  Strong user authentication is also used as a security measure. This process ensures that the user of a system gives full identity details before being allowed to access the data.  If a machine has been idle for some given amount of time, a strong authentication system may identify the user using a password. In this security system, fingerprints have been adapted for use in cases whereby the password may be compromised, or a smartcard can be stolen.

Backup solutions also ensure that critical information is stored because there is no system, which is 100% secure, and; therefore, prevents loss of data from events such as virus invasion. In the event of damage of data, injury can be minimized if backup data is available.  Clients of the vehicle rental companies need to supply identity information online, and the computer systems of the subject companies also need to be free from fraud so as to prevent manipulation of data.   Information and data security and privacy can imply major costs if the required measures are not put in place since clients can supply wrong information, or even the system can be manipulated through hacking. Adoption of effective information technology in vehicle rental companies is a great idea, which leads to the reduction in the operation costs.  The workforce, time consumed, and the security of the rental process will be enhanced through effective information technology, and eventually translate to increased profits.

Work Cited

 CRX, (2013). Car Rental Procedures. Retrieved From, On June 29, 2013.

DELL, (2012). Applications and IT Solutions for the Car Rental Industry. Retrieved from, On June 29, 2013.

AAOS, (2013). Managing Data Security. Retrieved From,  On June 29, 2013.

Friday, 21 February 2014 17:54

Fuel Injection versus Carburetor Engine

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Fuel Injection versus Carburetor Engine


Motor vehicles have become an important part of the human society. They facilitate movement of services, goods and people. People can travel over long geographical distance using this technology. Goods and services can also be transported across vast geographical areas using this technology. It is hard to imagine the human society without vehicles. However, this technology has introduced various challenges to society. One of the significant challenges is carbon pollution. Vehicles emit carbon gases into the atmosphere causing adverse impacts. If this trend is not managed, the human society will suffer great consequences. Motor vehicles manufacturers can reduce pollution by switching to the old carburetor technology to the fuel injection technology.

 Motor Vehicles and Carbon Pollution

Motor vehicles are among the largest emitters of carbon gases into the atmosphere. This is largely due to the spread of this technology. According to statistics by the US Bureau of Transit Statistics, there were 243,023,484 passenger vehicles in the country in 2004 (, 2013). This figure goes up when freight vehicles are included. This situation is not unique to the United States. Motor vehicle usage has grown significantly in other parts of the world. The number of vehicles in China is also estimated at 240 million (Bloomberg, 2013). Each of these vehicles emits carbon into the atmosphere whenever they are in use.

 Majority of vehicles rely on fossil fuel in order to operate. The vehicles use the internal combustion mechanism to convert the fossil fuel into energy. Carbon dioxide is one of the byproducts of this process. The carbon dioxide gas is emitted into the atmosphere causing the green house effect. The green house effect is where the carbon dioxide gas traps the sun’s radiations preventing them from escaping from the earth’s atmosphere (Schneider, 2010).  The consequence of the greenhouse effect has been the gradual rise of global temperatures. This has resulted in devastating impacts such as rise in sea level, floods, drought, melting of glaciers and many others.

 Fuel Injection Technology

            The tradition carburetor technology has been using the internal combustion mechanism to supply the vehicle with energy (Nice, 2011). The carburetor allows fuel and air to blend and combust in order to produce energy. This technology proves to be inefficient as it makes it difficult for manufacturers to control the amount of fuel consumption. The carburetor used mechanical principles to operate, and thus, there are few mechanisms for controlling fuel efficiency. The manner in which fuel gets into the engine also leads to wastage of a significant amount of fuel. The fuel injection technology helps car manufacturers to overcome this challenge.

             The fuel injection engine introduces fuel-injector valves, which are electrically controlled, into the vehicles engine system (Nice, 2011). The engine is fitted with a computerized control system known as the engine control unit. When a person steps on the acceleration paddle, the throttle valve of the engine opens bringing in more air into the engine. The engine control unit has the potential to detect the increase in air prompting the injectors to spray fuel into the cylinder. The engine control unit prompts the injectors to release an amount of fuel that is proportional to the air entering the engine. Thus, the engine is able to get the right mixture of fuel and gas thus reducing gas emission. The electronic control also ensures that only the right amount of fuel is released into the cylinder thus enhancing the efficiency of the vehicles.

 The fuel injection valves are also fixed for every cylinder so as to ensure that fuel is sprayed directly at the intake valve (Nice, 2011). This positioning enhances the accuracy of fuel metering. It also enhances the response of the engine to the fuel input, and thus the vehicle requires less fuel to start. The fuel injector is also highly pressurized. The design of the injector allows the fuel to squeeze out of tiny nozzle that atomizes the fuel. This makes the combustion process easy and ensures that all the fuel is consumed in the processes. Vehicles that use the fuel injection technology use less fuel per mile than vehicles that use carburetor engines.

 People may argue that carburetors are advantageous because they are easy to maintain than the fuel injection engine (Nice, 2011). However, the maintenance advantage provides vehicle users with insignificant benefits. This is because the vehicle user will spend a lot more than the amount saved in engine maintenance on fuel. The inefficiency of carburetor engines leads to high consumption of fuel thus eroding any cost benefits associated with the ease of maintenance. In addition, the carburetor engine has the potential of damaging the environment thus presenting a far greater cost to society than the cost of maintenance.


            Motor vehicles are an important part of the human society. No one can underestimate the significance of this technology to the human society. However, the impact of this technology on the natural environment cannot be ignored. Vehicles have brought drastic impact on the natural environment by increasing the carbon footprint. Vehicle manufacturer can reduce the impact of this technology on the environment by switching to the fuel injection technology.


Bloomberg (2013). China Vehicle Population Hits 240 Million as Smog Engulf Cities. June 28, 2013.

Nice K. (2011). How Fuel Injection System Works. June 28, 2013.

Schneider S. (2010). The Green House Effect. June 28, 2013. (2013). Cars in the United States. June 28, 2013.


Friday, 21 February 2014 17:30

Impact of Mobile Devices on Cyber security

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Impact of Mobile Devices on Cyber security


Technological advancements have been positively received across societies. Tasks that used to be done manually are now being completed using computerized devices. Tasks such as filing of organizational information have been simplified as this information can now be stored on mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets and iPhone. Mobile devices have entered the corporate environment today with organizations replacing their personal and desktop computers with the mobile devices. Mobile devices have become more preferable than the PC due to their portability and the fact that they can store voluminous amounts of data. Unfortunately, the emergence of mobile device has introduced a new form of threat: cyber threat. The emergence and increased use of mobile devices has led to heightened concerns over cyber security. The risk of infiltration of confidential information becomes rife, as more individuals store confidential information on their mobile devices.   Mobile devices have computer capabilities thus have become an easy target for cyber attacks.  Media devices such as smartphones have minimal security features, as well as privacy control systems thus making them easy targets to attacks. Mobile devices have contributed significantly to increased security incidents as the privacy of information stored in these devices is not 100% guaranteed.

Prevalence of Cyber Attacks

The increased use of mobile devices in different areas across the society has led to a rise in cyber attacks. Prior to the increased use of mobile device concerns over cyber security were squarely pegged on personal computers. The increased use of mobile devices means that more individuals will be exposed to cyber security threats. According to Chloe (2012) there has been an 81% jump on cyber attacks through mobile devices. Attackers have advanced their form of attacks. Rather than sending spasms like experienced by users of personal computers, attackers are using social networks as their channels of attack. Mobile devices come with applications to access social networks such as facebook and twitter. Attackers use these social networks to transfer malicious data from one user to another. With social networks, malicious data can be transferred quickly as these networks are highly interactive. Attackers can use smartphones, tablets and iPhone to access an individual’s personal data without their knowledge.

 According to Ruggiero, & Foote, (2011) mobile devices have become the convenient target of cyber security threats due to their increased presence in the market. Technology savvy individuals are gradually replacing their personal computers with mobile devices. Mobile devices are preferred by many due to their ease of access and use. Unfortunately, mobile devices such as smartphones are disadvantaged compared to the personal computer because they lack stringent security measures. Mobile devices lack security devices such as firewalls, and anti viruses hence prone to cyber attacks. Most mobile devices also lack privacy control systems meaning it is impossible for a user to control who accesses his device and without strong security controls, the risk of leaking confidential information become high. Many users of mobile devices are oblivious of the great danger of using these devices for sensitive functions.

The increased uses of mobile devices have attracted the attention of hackers. Hackers were primarily focused on personal and desktop computers to access confidential information. The gradually change to mobile devices has also seen hackers focus on these devices and establish ways to access information. According to Lemon (2013) the recent Pwn20wn competition saw hackers manage to hack into iPhone and cease their operating systems. Initially, there had been an assumption that mobile devices have secure operating systems that cannot permit hackers to access information. Hackers have, unfortunately, proven that it is possible to seize control of mobile devices operating systems. The ability of hackers to access the iOs and android of mobile devices is an indicator of how easy it can be for malicious people to access an individual’s personal data. It is apparent that hackers are advancing their skills with every new technology introduced in the market. There increased determination to tap into the operating system of mobile devices is an indicator that viruses and Botnets may eventually become a threat to mobile devices. Viruses are not effective on mobile devices hence common forms of invasions include stealing of personal data and pictures.

According to Logan (2011) hacking is the most prevalent threat of cyber security. The threat of hacking has been prevalent among computer users for many decades. Computers users have had to install protective software devices that prevent hackers from accessing confidential information. Mobile devices have made users prone to hacking due to the internet convenience that these phones offer. The ease of internet connectivity on mobile devices means that users are at risk of cyber attacks. Users of mobile devices use their phones to not only store information, but also to access their social accounts such as facebook and twitter. Hackers have managed to hack into these social networks and access the accounts of their victims. Hackers have also managed to hack into mobile devices and access passwords, personal identification numbers and personal accounts.

Use of Mobile Devices in Corporate Environments

The issue of mobile security threat is not only tied to individuals as organizations are also falling victims to attackers. Hackers have managed to access confidential information about companies and retrieve sensitive data. According to Johnson (2012) the reality that organizations are also face the threat of turning to victims of cyber attack is dawning on managers. Previously it was easy for organizational to install software and security features to safeguard data stored on their computers. The increased use of mobile devices to store company information has introduced a new challenge for organizations. Hackers are now targeting users of mobile devices to access organizational data.

 Organizations are falling victims to hackers as they access company information stored in employee mobile devices. Hackers are also well learned and introduce different security threats to mobile devices. For instance malware can be used to access organizational finances as well as interfere with the organization’s systems thus paralyzing operations. Botnets, for instance, have become a common threat to mobile device users.  Hackers use Botnets to gain control of the victim’s computer/mobile device leaving the user without any computing power. With such control, a mobile phone user can send spasms and viruses or retrieve confidential data from the devices.

 The convenience and ease of use of mobile devices within organizations also poses a serious threat to organizations and their ability to keep their operations confidential. According to Drew (2012) there has been a steady ascend in the sale of mobile devices such as smartphones with sales realizing 45% increase every year. Employees and management have a tendency top familiarize themselves with the latest technologies. Most organizations hold the assumption that most technologies that are introduced into the market are beneficial. Such a perception has seen employees use their mobile devices to share confidential company information. Managers began using their smartphones to share confidential information with the colleague and employees. Organizations determined to embrace technology have also adopted policies such as the BOYD (Bring Your Own Device) policy. BOYD policy in an organization permits employees to bring their mobile device to work and utilize them like their personal computers. The mobile devices that employees bring are then used to share confidential company information (Drew, 2012).

  Unfortunately, organizations that have adopted this policy have found themselves in sticky situations with regard to leakage of company information.  It should be clarified that, not every mobile device that employees use has reliable security features. Most smartphones lack quality security features. Hackers use this security gap to tap into unsuspecting smart phone users and access confidential company information without the user’s knowledge.

 Kelly (2007) warns organizations of rushing to replace their personal computers with smartphones. PCs have for many decades been the focus of attacks by hackers. With this in mind, organization invested in the most expensive and effective security software to safeguard their information. To-date, organizations have constantly updated their protective devices with each malware introduced in the market. The emergence of mobile phone devices, unfortunately, poses a threat to organizations. There is hardly any security software to secure data stored in mobile devices such as smartphones. Smartphones are gradually replacing the personal computers as they can perform all tasks that desktop computers can do. The use of smartphones to perform organizational functions is dangerous as there are hardly any security measures to prevent cyber security breaches. Organizations should not be motivated by the yearning to save on expenses hence replace desktop computers with Smartphones.

 Managing Cyber Security

The threat towards cyber security is glaring, and the reality can no longer be ignored.  According to Lin (2012) the rise of cyber attacks presents the world with a new form of war that must be curtailed before it becomes uncontrollable. Enhancing cyber security involves securing point of access, vulnerability and payload as provided in the mobile devices. Since it is impossible to prevent individuals from using their mobile devices, it is imperative that individuals and organizations to undertake several security measures to prevent attacks.

 According to Friedman & Hoffman (2008) laptops, PDA and mobile phones are the most vulnerable to attacks compared to the personal computers. It is vital for organizations and mobile device users to use reliable preventive measures to prevent attacks; some of the threats that mobile device users are prone to include phishing, spoofing, malware and hacking into personal data. It is vital for mobile device users to focus on adopting strategies such as encryptions, traffic monitoring and use of intrusion prevention mechanism to curb cyber security threat. Encryption is a process that involves encoding of confidential information. Mobile device users should use encryptions if they need to store confidential information on their systems (Friedman & Hoffman, 2008). Encrypted information locks out hackers, but allows permitted individuals to access and read the information.  Individuals who desire to purchase mobile devices should ensure that the devices they purchase have up-to-date security features such as file encryptions.  Monitoring of traffic also enables a mobile device user to detect any questionable activity from his device. Mobile device users should also install intrusion prevention systems so that they can observe any malicious activities in their networks. The intrusion prevention systems will identify any suspicious activity, acquire log information of the user, notify the mobile device user of the invasion and attempt to block further intrusion.

 Managing the security of mobile devices does not always have to be very complicated. There are some basic security measures that a user can emphasize to enhance the security of their devices. According to Hernacki (2006) Bluetooth features as provided by the Bluetooth wireless technology are common in all mobile devices. The convenience and popularity off Bluetooth is compounded by the fact that users can transfer and share information without going through the hassle of mailing. Two mobile devices with enabled blue tooth devices can share information through the Bluetooth transfer system.

 Unfortunately, this convenient mode of information sharing has been perceived as a loop hole by hackers. Individuals who leave their Bluetooth system activated can fall victims to hackers who can access the information sorted in their mobile devices. Hackers randomly search for mobile devices with activated Bluetooth which they hack into and access private information (Hernacki, 2006). The ideal way to prevent hacking through the Bluetooth system is to configure the setting of the Bluetooth system in such a way that it notifies the user on another person’s intention to access the mobile device. Such notifications allow mobile device users to acknowledge or deny access of individuals trying to gather documents from one’s mobile device. The notification will also require that the mobile device user confirm, or deny accepting any files or images when sent through the Bluetooth system. Configuration the Bluetooth security system is quite simple and any mobile device user can activate these configurations.

 Robinson (2011) mentions that the war against cyber attacks is increasingly becoming difficult as malicious software is launched every day. This malicious software is cheap and easily accessible leaving mobile device users as easy targets. Mobile device users should be keen on installing systems such as MTrace that was found to be effective in dismantling Botnets. Frequent internet users should also be careful with regard to sites that they visit. There are approximately 1.2 million websites worldwide that are infected with malware.

 Users who visit these sites risk having their computers infected with malware as the system installs itself automatically into the user’s mobile device. Users should be careful with the sites they visit, as well as downloads that they make to their mobile technologies.  Other systems such as whisper communications technology allow mobile device users to transmit confidential information without being detected by hackers. There is also a need to strengthen laws and policies regarding hacking and illegal access of confidential information. This is especially so, for developing nations such as African countries where people are falling victims to a wide array of cyber attacks.

 Cloud computing is another alternative measure that mobile device users can use to enhance the security of information they store or share using their mobile devices. Cloud computing technology allows users to access and share information from one source(Shue, & Lagesse, 2011). Cloud computing technology enhances security as it allows management to determine persons authorized to access specific company information. With cloud computing technology employees need not own their own hardware and software appliances to access specific company information. An organization that has embraced cloud computing will have one application that permits workers to log into a web-based service to access all materials they need.  Such a system is cheap and allows the organization to adopt recent and effective software to safeguard their systems.


The fight against cyber threats is real as technological advancement persists allowing the manufacture of additional technological/mobile devices. Mobile devices have improved functions in the personal and corporate world. However, the emergence of hackers and the threat to cyber security means that individuals and organizations have to be careful with the use of these technologies. Mobile devices such as smartphones have become easy targets for hackers who access these technologies with ease and access confidential information. Hackers also use mobile devices to manipulate information or send malicious data to other unknowing victims. A victim who accepts data from a malicious site risk permitting a hacker access to his confidential information. It is vital for mobile device users to familiarize themselves with these cyber threats and establish effective strategies to avert them. With regard to organizations, the allure of mobile devices does not mean blindly embracing these technologies. Personal computers have reliable features that mobile devices are yet to achieve. For instance, there are numerous security systems for the personal computer hence risk of attacks is minimal compared to mobile devices.  Organizations should also adopt technologies such as cloud computing and whisper communications to safeguard their confidential information.


Chloe, A. (2012). Cyber Attacks jump 81% target mobile social networks. PC Magazine; Magazine; p1-1.1p

Drew, J. (2012). Managing cyber security risks. Journal of accountancy, 23(1). 

 Friedman, J. & Hoffman, D. (2008). Protecting data on mobile devices. Information knowledge systems management.  Vol. 7; 159-180

 Hernacki, B. (2006). Improving Bluetooth security. Information systems security. Vol. 15(4): 39-42

 Johnson, K. (2012). CIOs must address the growing mobile security threat.

Kelly, C. (2007). Being smart about smart phones. Computerworld. Vol. 41(7); 34

Lemon, R. (2013). Hackers attack mobile phones. Popular science. Vol. 282 (1): 40-41

Lin, H. (2012). A virtual necessity: some modest steps toward greater cyber security. Bulleting of the atomic scientists. Vol. 68(5)75-87

 Logan, K. (2011). Mobile devices pose new security hazards. PC world. Vol. 29(4): 33-34

 Ruggiero, P. & Foote, J. (2011). Cyber Threats to Mobile Phones. United States Computer Emergency readiness team

Robinson, A. (2011). Tackling global cyber security threats. Georgia institute of technology publication.6

Shue, C. & Lagesse, B. (2011). Embracing the cloud for better cyber security. Cyberspace science and information intelligence research


Refrigeration:Physical, Chemical, and Engineering Principles


Hot materials lose temperature through a transfer heat to the surrounding materials (Whitman & Tomczyk, 2009). For example, when water is boiled and placed on the floor as one baths, the heat in the water would be transferred to materials that are in contact with the water, which are the container, the floor, and the atmospheric air. With time, the heat is transferred and the water cools. The same principle explains how refrigeration works by removing heat from materials and transferring it to the surrounding air.

Components of Refrigeration Systems

      Evaporation, compression, condensation, and expansion are the principles that form the cycle through which refrigeration occurs. A refrigeration system has five components with each component required to be present within the system, in order for the system to function (Honeywell Control Systems, 2004). These components are

ü  An evaporator,

ü  A compressor,

ü  A condenser,

ü  An expansion valve, and

ü  A refrigerant.

The Refrigeration Cycle


The evaporator removes unwanted heat from a product, through the refrigerant. The evaporator contains liquid refrigerant that is boiling at a reduced pressure. The amount of pressure in the refrigerant is influenced by the rate of absorption or transfer of heat from the product to the liquid, and the rate of removal of the low-pressure vapor from the evaporator from the compressor. In order for heat transfer to occur, the temperature of the product under cooling must be higher than the temperature of the liquid refrigerant. As heat transfer occurs, the refrigerant is drawn by the compressor through the suction line. The liquid refrigerant leaves the evaporator coil in vapor form.


The compressor is a component of the cooling system which draws the low-pressure, low-temperature vapor from the evaporator through the suction line. Once the vapor has been drawn, it is compressed, and its temperature rises. The purpose of transforming the temperature of the vapor from low to high is to increase the pressure of the vapor, after which it is released from the compressor into the discharge line.


The condenser is a component of refrigeration system which extracts heat from the refrigerant into the atmospheric air. It is usually placed on the roof of the house, to allow the transfer of heat. It has fans mounted on it, which draw air through the condenser coils. The level of temperature at which condensation begins is dependent on the temperature of the compressor vapor (high-pressure vapor). The condensation temperature must be higher than that of the atmospheric air for the heat to be transferred from the condenser to the outside air, which is usually between -1˚C and 12˚C. The liquid refrigerant then moves into the liquid line from the condenser.


In the refrigeration system, the location of the expansion valve is at the end of the liquid line, and before the evaporator. From the condenser, the liquid refrigerant with high pressure moves to the liquid line and passes through the expansion valve, which reduces the temperature and hence pressure of the liquid as it goes through the orifice inside the valve. As the temperature of the liquid reduces to a level lower than the temperature of the atmospheric air, the refrigerant is then pumped into the evaporator, and the process begins the same cycle.

The Refrigerant

The refrigerant is the liquid that facilitates heat transfer from the product to the surrounding air. The pressure capabilities of the refrigeration system and the target temperatures of the refrigeration process determine the type of the refrigerant to be used.


Whitman, J. & Tomczyk, S. (2009), “Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology (6th ed.)”, Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning

Honeywell Control Systems, (2004), “The Refrigeration System: An introduction to Refrigeration”, Lanarkshire, ML: Author

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