Effective Instructional Strategies For Online Courses
Traditionally, education has been based on classrooms. This has long been referred to as face-to-face teachings. In order to participate in learning, students have been required to attend or arrive in the traditional classroom set up with expectations based on past experiences. Effective classroom lessons have then required that the instructor keep reminding students what is expected of them. In this classroom, the instructor is the sole source of information therefore gaining the authority to control the classroom. However, with the explosive growth of computers, and relatively cheap internet and software to access the World Wide Web for information.
The internet, computers and online information access software have also made it possible to develop courses whose delivery is through the internet. Most of these courses are relatively cheap and learners and educators can equally easily and inexpensively receive information on online. This makes the internet easily accessible and an affordable replacement for the physical classrooms. In order to be effective, online classrooms need to be properly structured and facilitated. In this case, information is delivered on time and efficiently to students such that they can afford to use it later in for their examinations despite not being actively involved in physical classroom lessons.In this paper, the discussion focuses on effective instructional strategies for online courses. The online tools discussed here are secondary website, blog, case study, peer review/groups, assessment, and conference call.
Secondary website, blog
Different online courses require different online strategies to deliver and receive information. However, students must be keen on the type of online strategy they prefer for their online courses. For students taking up blogs, they are very flexible as and can easily be personalized unlike discussion boards. When the teacher and students are both online, questions can easily be asked and a quick response and communication be obtained just like the case of the face to face classroom. With blogs, there is no element of voice or face to face recognition. This means that the student can easily communicate or ask questions online without shying away from other students or the instructor.
The blog can be used by both the instructor and the teacher in different ways. For the teacher, the blogs can be used to distribute materials to students as well as conduct discussions. Blogs are preferred for use instead of course management systems to have learning materials distributed to students. In so doing, the learning institution will be saved lots of money. Using the blog, the university can block the blogs such that confidential information will remain in the blog and inaccessible to unauthorized persons. In addition, a closed blog can be used where students have a password and a username to a campus course management system.
Blogs can also be made such that they use open source blog software. These open source blogs provide the professors with the ability to customize their online classrooms the same way majority of the commercial course-management systems do.Blogs are not without a flaw. When the course has so many students, it becomes time consuming to participate in or have one's questions posted for discussion. This means time recommend for the class to be through can come to an end without any student being answered their questions. In addition, when there is no internet, downtimes mean that student s and lecturers are unable to access the blog for as long as they experience internet downtimes. In areas prone to electricity shortages, blogs are not the best solutions. In cases where instructors use no other form of teaching, downtimes will mean no quizzes administration or online teaching goes on.
Although most students and teachers recommend using blogs, the instructor has to wait till the last of bloggers send their assignments. Effective blogs should allow for effective& comments on what blog. The instructor can also have multiple blogs where some are public and others public to cater for assignments.
• To provide learners with experimental learning
• compare newly acquired knowledge with new knowledge
• To enable learners acquire information on how to be participatory in their lessons
• To assist learners to acquire action component approach in learning
Case study selection
Given the problem at hand, instructors will pick the best fit case study based on the problem situation. Since different students are at different learning levels the case study proposed for each group will be carefully selected to ensure that the content is both relevant and satisfactory to students at that academic level. The case study must also be to the interests and experience levels of the learners. The concept being taught is also very well chosen such that it is to the level of the students. Each group of students is well taken care of such that their expectations are met satisfactorily and optimally.
Why case study
Not all student in colleges and universities are young energetic. For the adult learners, case studies are crucial. Adult learners have undergone through different experiences in their lives. Each adult learner will have the opportunity to participate narrating their past experiences. These past experiences must be guided by theme or scope for the intended class. Using the scope, each learner works towards achieving the best experience that they can use to link with their future knowledge. Case studies are a good way of ensuring the adult learners do not shy away from being in school at an advanced age. On the contrary, their learning is made relevant by comparison to past experiences gained when working or from general world knowledge.
How case studies work
The learners are presented with a case study with a problem related to what the class lesson is all about. The learners are then presented with the case study problem where they solve the case study on their own first and draw own conclusions. With these conclusions, the learners can compare the result with the actual facts as presented in the case report. In case relevant facts have been omitted, the opinions of the learners involved should be included and so should their view. The case report will be used to understand why the case study report was solved the way it was.
Organizing case analysis
Case studies can be handed over to groups or to individuals who work independently. In case of groups, then, brainstorming period should be provided to allow group members to reveal how they perceive the case study. Brain storming should be done prior to the discussion of the case. The best case discussion method is Socratic Method as it raises new perspectives and digs underlying assumptions that may not be so open. Through discussions, practical thinking is encouraged. Given the ability of case studies to assist learners in identifying new principles from case facts, learners learn to formulate problems and solve them even under time pressure. Online discussions will be made possible through conferencing groups or emails or other web pages.
Peer review or groups
• Create opportunities for learners to discuss content
• Analyzing of shared ideas to formulate concrete and better ideas
• Interpreting problems which are later solved with others
Why peer group
In peer groups, learners have the chance to share look at a common problem, discuss its content, share ideas and solve the problem. At all times, the instructor should ensure that peer review carried out by a large group of people in the same field and who intention is to maintain or promote the quality of work found in that academic field. When peer review is carried out by a large group of people, multiple errors or limitations will be found in the work being reviewed and this means more corrections and less impartial evaluation. Large group organization will mean that the work will be improved more detailed and all-rounded compared to the original creators of the reviewed work. Peer review avoids bias by maintaining reviewers' anonymity.
Peer review practice
Peer review is used in different fields including scientific and academic research. Other fields include law, accounting, computer, and criminal law. While some cases are peer review is mandated by the law, in other fields it is administratively a rule. All articles to be subjected to peer review should be reviewed prior to their publication. For some periodicals however, review is done after publication especially after continued study by a larger audience.
Criticism of peer reviews
Peer reviews are always known to be slow. In order to ensure that the speed is convenient, all peer reviews will be guided by a work plan. Through the work plan, all periodicals being reviewed will be submitted on time. Peer reviews must be subjected to the supervision of experts who will ensure that built in bias is eliminated and that the results are consistent and don't contradict themselves. To avoid the inability of peer reviews to detect fraud, peer review assignments will be performed sparingly to ensure. Peer reviews will begin by using already reviewed journal articles such that the learners can compare their conclusions with those of the reviewing experts.
Online peer reviewing
With the internet, the speed of peer reviewing process has been accelerated while lowering the review cost. Learners will first manually work on peer review periodicals prior to working on online peer reviews. Using the two, students can now compare the efficiency and content quality of each of the two approaches. Students must however be careful when choosing their peer review articles online given that the internet allows anyone to publicize their periodicals no matter how dubious their content. using the internet to publicize one's periodicals must be carefully done to avoid using proprietary software which finds it difficult to detect errors or other security vulnerabilities.
• Interpret learning experiences
• Recognize learning experiences
• Assess student content understanding
Using assessment strategies
Performance assessment is an approach in which the performance of a student is monitored in relation to the learner's outcomes. Through active assessment strategies, learners it is possible for learners to understand and promote their skills. As students assess themselves, in groups or individually, a good opportunity for students to develop the big picture on what was expected of them. With these answers in their heads, it becomes impossible to forget and the knowledge gained becomes useful throughout their lives. Through active assessment, students as students work with cooperatively with peers, they gain skills from different assessment strategies
There are numerous assessment strategies for learners all of which have its own advantages. The assessment strategies include scoring rubric, instructional rubric, concept maps and portfolios. With scoring rubrics, students are made to focus on the content while instructional rubrics enable students to come up with presentations, oral and written reports. To have the students see the bigger picture, content maps are used while portfolios are used to document student learning and improve student metacognition. The design of each assessment strategy should be such that the student is made an active participant and not a passive participant. The instructor must also ensure that the learner clearly identifies the expected outcome. Having clearly understood the outcomes, learners must demonstrate that they have mastered the outcomes through their response to the facets of the task presented to them.
Additional assessment strategies
There are other advanced assessment strategies which include concept tests which deal with multiple choice questions. These assessment methods are useful in large classes as they provide an easy way of assessing student marks. Through knowledge survey, students can answer whether or not they would partake course content survey questions. Others include oral presentations that provide useful information concerning the quality of oral presentation students have made. Other types of assessment include sketches seminar-style courses, mathematical thinking and performance.
• Designing a conference call
• Analyzing the relevance of the conference call
• Formulating conference call objectives
Making a conference call
Provided one understands how to use a phone, making a conference call is not such a hard task. Conferencing is an advanced means of communication between two people located in different geographic locations. Conferencing is very common in businesses but is also gaining popularity amongst students and learners and their instructors. For learners, group discussions do not have to be face to face anymore. Conversely, students can meet in conferencing rooms and engage in academic discussions or lessons. This strategy is time and money saving given that none of the involved parties has to physically board a vehicle and travel to meet the other member. Instead conferencing requires that the two parties have the relevant conferencing software and are aware of the conference call procedure.
Teleconferencing can be done either by audio conference call where only the telephone is needed and the conference call is done. The web can also be used as a means of teleconferencing especially where files need to be shared between the involved parties. Effective conferencing requires that the call is scheduled at a time when both parties are feel convenient. Since teleconferencing is mostly done by people in different time zones, the aspect of call scheduling becomes important. Since it's a discussion, learners must be sure that there is someone taking the minutes or recording notes such that important points are not left out. Prior to the call, all the people expected to be in the call must be verified as being present such that none is left out. Excess noise should be avoided such that no distraction is encountered in the course of the conference.
Conference call planning
For all learners, conference calling requires adequate prior planning. The conference participants should be notified of the instructor's access code of the conference. The date and the time for the conference must also be communicate. For all participants, they will dial the same dial in number after which they will enter the access code. The instructor should also communicate the expected duration of the conference call. In so doing, there will be enough time to decide on how the instructor will shuffle the along participants to meet the expected time constraints. The instructor should ensure that they are aware of the size of their groups such that time planning will also be done easily.
Conference call selection
Unless for specific moments when the video conferencing is essential, audio conferencing is a cheaper. In addition, very few equipment is needed to complete an audio conference call. Apart from communication, conference calls are a very useful way of socializing with others and creating friends networks that can be important in information exchange. The instructor or learners have to be careful in the choice of conference to use for their meeting such that the intended purpose of the conference call is achieved effectively and efficiently. Students have to however familiarize themselves with selection software as well as other online options.
Effective Instructional Strategies for Online Courses
With the ever continuing development of new technologies, there is need for students to learn to use theses learning technologies. Currently, digital technology is a major part in the lives of students. Students today use digital recordings such as video and audio lectures, CD-Rom, flash content, and PowerPoint for reading and even in discussion based. Student's mainly undertaking online courses have mainly benefitted from the new technologies. This paper presents a module intended to be used by more than one thousand universities and colleges that represent online institutions.
Learning can only take place through the input, processing and storage of information. The kind of style used by a student depends on his or her motivation, cognitive, habits on information practices, physiological and effective characteristics that all act as stable indicators on the learners' perception, response, and interaction with his other learning environment. According to the Learning Style theory, understanding the learning style of a student is important mainly due to the fact that students use different styles of learning. having this kind of knowledge will help the instructors to select the most suitable assessment and learning strategies that fits the needs of each individual student. Further, each student has his own most preferred style of learning. the style of learning acts as an indicator of a successful learning process since the instructor will be able to provide useful information for the best interest of each student (Fleming 2008). The instructor will have a role to play to teach knowledge, assess and instill skills and attitudes to fit the educational needs of a student. For the sake of improving on the learning process of students, it is crucial to always provide the most suitable content that best fits and appeal to the learning styles of students.
When lessons are presented via power point presentations, it will positively contribute to the student's educational processes especially when based on a critically analyzed pedagogical context (Boyce, 1999, p 192). Just like any other technological advancement for classroom learning, PowerPoint presentations lead to the improvement of student's performance. Lessons presented by PowerPoint gives an opportunity for the presentation of information in a more effective way to students and in a more aesthetical and dynamic way. PowerPoint allows the presentation of information in summary form by using bullet points. Students can also readily access information at any given time of the day or night. Therefore, through power points, students are able to be exposed to information (Weatherly et al, 2003, p 464). PowerPoint presentation usage has greatly enhanced internet-based long distance learning activities.
1. Through power point presentations students will be able to design course content and provide lessons. They also have to formulate simplified notes during the lesson (James et al, 2006, p 386).
2. Instructors have to recognize that PowerPoint presentations meant for online learning are different from other forms of classroom presentations. This is because students are seated just at their computer screens and this calls for the incorporation of two important principles.
a.) Sound message design
b.) Sound instructional design
3. The two factors are important because, most times learners hardly read but they just skim through the content of the power point online.
4. The instructors will have to design PowerPoint presentations that are more similar to webpage designing.
5. The instructors will identify that one presentation should not be used for both online and classroom courses, unless video and audio aspects are supplemented with the slides.
6. Designing online PowerPoint presentations calls for the need to take advantage and recognize that the learner is capable of interacting with the presentation.
7. The instructor will recognize that the presentation can be further being improved through incorporating games, audio, URL's, video, quizzes, and games. Videos and images are very important in power Point presentations.
8. The PowerPoint presentations will be added more value when instructors recognize the importance of adding illustrative segments in the web content for the enhancement of online course. The instructors need to move away from the traditional power point presentations that are stand alone tools without adding notes or narrations. Online courses should have these notes or narrations to accompany the PowerPoint presentations.
9. Instructors should develop quality power Point Presentations. One thing that should be considered is that students may still be using dial up internet connection that will take time to upload. Therefore, the instructor has to ensure that the power point presentation can be converted to an easily accessible format for fast access regardless of the speed of connection.
10.The instructors will recognize that the general objective is to present students with critically thought power point presentations that that handouts and notes can be taken and ensuring that the presentation is convertible into Portal Document Format (PDF).
Flash do provide a full multimedia and capabilities and have rich features. Unlike Applets, the flash only requires plug-ins of light weight. The early uses of flashed were for games, animated movies and banner and to develop the more the bland HTML. Currently the use of flash have evolved together with the web to provide Ecommerce solutions, RIA's based full flash, standardized components, and answer to Adobe Flex Web 2.0. Content accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) provides guidelines on the requirements of accessible content. The requirements are mainly based on four main principles which are Operable, Robust, perceivable and understandable. Each of them has its own guidelines with success criteria. The flash is generally, multimedia by nature. They are used to deliver content in all kinds of contents such as video, audio, text, graphics, audio and more. Its flexibility presents the content of the fflash. Content of the flash can be provided in various ways.
The flash is based on vector objects such as shapes and lines and not in raster with pixels of a wide range of color. The content of the flash can be easily called to the desired size without any form of distortion. Learners are further engaged through sound, graphics, inerter activity and animation among many other ways. Persons with cognitive and learning disabilities can better focus and comprehend on flash content. The static HTML content can be supplemented by the use of flash multimedia.
1. Instructors should be able to formulate accessibility techniques and implement them so as to ensure the accessibility of the instructors will examine the use of Microsoft Active Accessibility in sending content to the screen reader from the flash player.
2. The instructors will conduct test on the users using a variety of browsers, platforms and assistive technologies so as to ensure that the content of the flash is accessible to the wide range of users.
3. The use of flash might be evaluated. This is because the content of the flash cannot be natively being accessible. The best alternative will be to construct an alternative that is non-flash for those who may not be able to gain access to flash multimedia.
4. Instructors should master the three ways that flash content can be made accessible. These are through
a. making the content of the flash be negatively accessible to the reader's screen
b. making the content be self voicing
c.) Through the provision of alternative accessibility on the content of the flash.
5. The main aspect is for the instructor to formulate ways of taking over the role of the screen reader through the provision of audible content that the flash movie presents in a visible manner.
6. It is further important for the screen reader to be alerted that the visible content can be accompanied by audio content. The audio should be highly detailed. The flash movie has to be designed to be readily accessible. The main point is to make the alternative content be an equivalent to the HTML tutorial (Web Aim, 2012).
CD-Rom with tutorials alongside online practice course, print materials and video tape can work together to improve students' learning and general an academic performance. Computer based trainings (CBT) are activities that are self -paced and can be accessed through handheld devices and the computer. The CBT content is provided in a linear fashion just like reading online manual or book. Therefore, the CBT are intended for educating static processes such as mathematical equations completion and the use of software. Computer based training is a term similar to web based training and are used interchangeably. However, CBTs are only delivered through CD Rom while the web-based training is provided by the use of a web browser.
Through learning management system software, documentation, tracking, and reporting on training programs, learning programs and classroom content can be delivered through the use of CD Rom. The learning Management System (LMS) is a module designed to help educators in designing online courses that focus on collaborative and interactive construction of content.The use of CD- ROM that can be accessed via the CD-ROM technology enables students to gain access to a wide database. The CD ROM Systems have presented good learning and teaching opportunities for searchers of computerized literature for they are in an environment that is less threatening (Vicki and Jackson, 2001).
1. Through the use of CD-ROM tutorials, online instructions can be provided at any time and in a location via a wide range of electronic learning solutions such as the CD-Rom, web chat, audio and video streaming and in online discussion groups.
2. E-learning will provide organizations with the opportunity to transcend organizational gaps such as distance through the provision of a cohesive virtual environment for learning.
3. the deploying and development of learning programs may call for services and products supply that requires setting of the desired learning goals and solutions based on analysis of tasks training needs analysis, capabilities and students expectations.
Instructors have the opportunity to audio record while simultaneously providing power point presentations by use of an audio recorder. The lecturer will then go ahead to listen to his own recordings and reflects on his teaching style and make points on the content. This gives the instructor with a good opportunity to reflect on his personal teachings (Kane et. al 2004). After a while, the teaching staff get to become more confident with their teaching, and they can expand on audio recording use, and even become more responsive to students requests and needs for supplementary materials for learning in an audio format. The unintended outcome suggest that the use of audio recording do actually lead to the improvement of interpersonal relationship between students and the teaching staff.
1.The unintended outcome of using audio recording by the teaching staff provides them with an opportunity to reflect and listen to their personal styles of teaching and to emphasize on the points and content. Through this, the teaching staff will be able to evaluate their own teaching practices and keep on improving for the better as time went by.
2. The use of audio recording should be with the aim of improving and enhancing the interrelationship between the students and the staff especially based on the unintended outcome.
To design ways of increasing audiovisual teaching resources that can be accessed by students at their own convenient time. The resources should also be made readily available on the internet. Video recording aim at enabling students attend class with no regard to place, pace and time (Arias et al. 2011). The use of lecture recordings intended for live audiences and with the aim of providing video stream, audio stream and slides on the internet is now a common learning that gives students with a personal time for independent learning (Zupanic and Horz, 2002). Some of the different techniques of video recording include Authoring on the Fly System, virtual videography and others the authoring on the Fly System allows the production of multimedia document automatically based on HTML overview through automatically recording and at the same time transmitting the lecture content to universities at the same time carrying out the lecture in front of a live audience (Zupancic and Horz, 2002).
The recorded lecture is then made available at the campus internet which can be accessed by students in various parts of the world doing online courses. Such kind of video recording content helps students to understand and comprehend aspects that take time to understand and solve problems at their own convenient time.
1. Observation criteria will be placed on the same page of the lecture video tape so as to enable students scrutinize the lesson on the video tape based on a holistic criterion and give feedback on the criteria provided.
2. The videotaped practice sessions are included beforehand on the Lesson Plan Module and are linked just next to the video clips. This will enable the viewer to have a space for working out the content said on the video tape when necessary.
3. The video will also have a discussion button derived from online forum page that supports students to hold a discussion with teachers and other students after logging in. The WebCT mail functions by supporting communication among participants. By registering on the WebCT, each student will be able to own his or her account and can be traced automatically on the program template.
4. The students will use WebCT for two main purposes.
a.) Send lessons plans to instructor on weekly basis for it to be uploaded on the web page.
b.) For communicating among students and the student body with the instructors concerning the subjects within the course.
5. The home page will also have an Extra Material Module that comprises of blended teaching practice course meant for sharing any available extra material which could be useful in facilitating the teaching practice. For example, a yearly practice program for teachers or printable evaluation criteria and feedback forms.
5. The home page will also have a Chat session that will blend with the teaching practice so as to help students on out of class refreshment. The module will allow students and the instructor to communicate at a much humble time.
6. There is the tool for' tips of the day' that will be used by the instructor to provide tips to students such as topics of using WebCT. The tool can also allow the instructor v to warn students on academic and class issues such as feedbacks of lesson plans or reminding students to submit their lesson plans. This tips will be automatically be displayed at any time a student logs in to the homepage.
Teaching practices and students learning styles have to be appropriate so as to ensure students academic success. Students require plenty feedback concerning their evaluations, and tests, and lesson plans. This means that the teaching practices courses need to focus on teaching performance that suits online courses. Through video tape teaching practices, it leads to professional development and gaining more confidence teaching practices and lesson plans preparations. Tutorials found in CR-ROM can further boost student's academic performance for they have ready access to information. these teaching practices can be accommodated within online courses leading of a learning environment that is highly blended. Therefore, leading to student's improvement in their performance and establishing a positive interrelationship between teachers and students.
WebAim (2012) Creating Accessible flash content. Retrieved from
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Kane R, Sandretto S & Heath C (2004) An investigation into excellent tertiary teaching. p 47,283-310.
Boyce G (1999) Computer-Assisted Teaching And Learning in Accounting. Journal of Accounting Education, 191–220
Black molds also called Stchybotrys Chartarum are greenish black fungus found in different countries. High cellulose materials including dry walls, ceiling, carpets and wall papers contain black molds. The black molds appear wet and slimy before drying. There are almost 15 species of Stachybotrys distributed around the world. The toxic black molds grow in areas that have humidity higher than 55%. The molds do not grow on plastic, ceramic tiles and vinyl. Black molds are a health issue in United States and other countries because of the adverse effect the molds have on families, communities and citizens. Mold might not be toxic, but they produce toxins that have a negative impact on families and communities. Moulds are common everywhere even in the air and on various surfaces. Black molds can be found inside the house, offices and other places. Black molds cause various diseases including respiratory infections, skin diseases and irritation. Hence, black molds pose a threat to human health in many nations like United States due to the high prevalence of infections linked with the molds. People do not prevent growth of black molds because they do not have knowledge on black molds.
Growth of black molds and diseases
Molds such as black molds grow in areas that have high levels of humidity. Several studies have shown that 20% of buildings in United States and other countries have a sign of dampness according to WHO (2009). The studies showed that the prevalence of dampness in houses in Denmark, Estonia and other countries was 18%. Sweden had the lost level of dampness with 12.1% and Estonia had the highest dampness of 31.6%. Dampness refers to leakage of water, discoloration if coverings on the floor and indoor molds. The level of dampness in United States was almost 50% in 2009 (WHO 2009). Dampness was also an issue in China and Japan. Dampness happens in overcrowded and poor ventilated houses. It also occurs in houses lacking appropriate insulation and heating. The incidence of dampness in low income communities is higher compared to other communities as shown in studies conducted in Germany and United Kingdom. The study showed that people who lived in personal houses did not report high levels of dampness and mold. Only, 52% and 24% reported dampness and mold in UK. People who lived in council houses and rented houses reported dampness and mould. 58% reported dampness and 56% molds in their houses. Also, a study in Germany showed that children of parents with low levels of education lived in damp houses compared to children of educated parents (Miller, Samson & Flannigan, 2001).
The world health organization claims that indoor dampness will remain a crucial problem in less developed countries and neighborhoods because of lack of affordable accommodation. Landlords will not improve the rental houses and hence facilitate the growth of molds. In addition, the cost associated with remediation will discourage low income landlords from improving the poor housing conditions. This will subject families and communities living in these areas to diseases.
Dampness has a negative effect on the indoor environment. Indoor environment consists of live and dead microorganisms. The concentration of the organisms and agents increases with an increase in levels of dampness. This in turn, affects people living and working indoors. Dust mites and fungi produce allergens that cause allergies and asthma. Fungi also produce toxins and irritants that affect respiratory health. The toxic molds found indoors cause rare health problems. Some of the problems include pulmonary heommarage and memory loss. The link between toxic molds and conditions above has not been established. However, the institute of medicine (2004) noted that exposure to toxic molds causes upper respiratory diseases, cough and sneezing in healthy people.
In addition, exposure to toxic molds caused asthma in people suffering from asthma. It also caused hypersensitivity pneumonitis in people with immune mediated diseases. Pneumonitis occurs after inhaling various substances including spores produced by black molds. In order to prevent pneumonitis, one should monitor the humidity in the indoor environment. Other studies have shown that children exposed to molds at an early age develop asthma. Studies conducted by Brandt, Bron, Burkhart, et al (2006) showed that dampness in houses increases the risk of having some diseases such as asthma and respiratory infections. The diseases occur because of regular stimulation of the immune defense. The stimulation of the immune defense often leads to exaggerated immune responses and production of inflammatory mediators. Overproduction of these substances damages the nearby tissues and manifest in different forms. It can manifest as inflammation diseases like asthma.
Patients exposed to toxic black molds show a vast range of symptoms. The patients have respiratory problems including wheezing and difficulties in breathing. They also have nasal congestion and sinus congestion. The patients also have a sore throat, irritation on the throat and nose. Other symptoms are dry cough, chronic fatigue, irritation on the skin, fever and suppression of the immune system.
Thus, health care providers should be aware of the symptoms above in order to determine whether the patients are exposed to black molds or not. People get exposed to molds in different ways. People can be exposed to molds through inhalation. They can inhale live and dead molds. People can be exposed to molds via skin contact and ingestion. People can be exposed to molds by coming into contact with airborne spores or mycelia fragments. Exposure to high concentrating of airborne spores happens when the concentration of molds is high. Exposure to high levels of living molds or allergens increases the likelihood of diseases. Several species of molds cause diseases through exposure. Though all people exposed to molds are prone to diseases, immunosuppressed people are likely to get diseases from molds. Immuno suppression occurs because of taking medications that restrain the immune system. It can happen because of medical diseases and therapies that cause suppression of the immune system. Sensitized people are also likely to get infections after being exposed to molds (Mutius & Nicolai, 1998).
Patient health and environment
The environmental theory developed by Florence Nightingale is vital in explaining the relationship between environment and patient health. The environment influences a patient's health in different ways according to Nightingale. Poor environment affects a patient's health negatively as the patient is vulnerable to many diseases. On the other hand, healthy environment reduces the risk of getting infections and hence a patient's health. Health care professionals must manipulate a patient's environment so as to improve his health and facilitate recovery. They should change the environment to enhance conditions and facilitate healing. Florence Nightingale theory helps understand how black molds affect families, communities and workers in US and other countries. The poor environment the families live in exposes them to black molds and hence diseases. Poor environments facilitate growth of black molds. High levels of humidity or dampness in houses causes black molds. Water leakage, poor ventilation and insulations cause molds to grow. This makes the families prone to different diseases including respiratory and immune mediated diseases. Nightingale theory focuses on preventive care. Health care professionals can prevent people from getting diseases by improving the environment they live in. Therefore, monitoring the indoor environment is significant in improving the health of the families and also reduces the prevalence of diseases (Basavanthappa, 2007).
Intervention to prevent black molds
Moisture and nutrients facilitate the growth of molds. The optimal moisture and nutrients needed for growth differ from one species to another. However, molds including black molds grow well in damp and warm environments. The availability of nutrients in buildings facilitates mold growth. Dust and wood can be food for molds. The temperatures inside buildings enable molds to grow. Temperatures and above the freezing point and below the temperatures needed to denature proteins support growth of molds. Lack of moisture prevents growth of molds in buildings. Buildings have moisture from leakage of water, condensation of surfaces and change in room temperature. Floods provide an optimal temperature for the growth of mold. Health care professionals can prevent diseases caused by black molds by preventing dampness and growth of fungi. Health care professionals can identify dampness by looking at various indicators.
The presence of condensation of surfaces and structures indicate dampness. Also, moulds, mould odours and water leakage are sins of dampness. A thorough inspection helps determine whether a house is damp or not. Health care professionals should conduct a visual inspection to identify mold contamination. They should assess water damage and growth of molds. The visual assessment enables health care professionals determine whether the residents are susceptible to diseases caused by molds or not. Hence, they provide protective equipment to people living in contaminated places. Professional assessment helps in determining the level of human exposure and risk of infection. Health care professionals should check ventilation systems for dampness and cleanliness. The meters can be used to measure the level of moisture on building materials after leakage if water. Meters can be used utilized to measure humidity and monitor it (Nafstad, 2005).
Additionally, educating the residents on black molds is essential. Most people in US and around the world do not know much about black molds, and this has led to increase in diseases caused by black molds. Many people live in poor ventilated areas and areas with a lot of moisture and humidity. This has made them susceptible to diseases caused by molds such asthma and irritation. The conditions have facilitated the growth of molds especially in overcrowded and poorly constructed houses. Educating people about black molds including causes, effects and prevention will lower the occurrence of infections and also improve their health. The residents will live in a favorable environment that promotes health and recovery. Thus, education interventions can help reduce the prevalence of diseases linked with black mold worldwide (Nafstad, 2005).
Further, cleaning helps prevent black molds. The most appropriate way to remove molds growth from materials by cleaning them. The materials should be cleaned using detergents. Materials that cannot be cleaned should be discarded to prevent growth of the molds. People suffering from respiratory diseases, asthma, allergies and a weak immune system should not clean molds. This will reduce the risk of getting diseases associated with molds. Ensuring proper ventilation in the house helps prevent growth of molds. The ventilation in the house should be improved so as to improve the quality of air indoors. This will improve the working and living environment (Fog, 2003).
The rate of diseases caused by black molds has increased in many countries including United States. The increase in prevalence of the diseases is attributed to growth of black molds indoors. Poor ventilation and dampness has helped in the growth of molds and increased diseases. The temperatures and humidity in indoors facilitate mold growth. Many people have suffered from diseases caused by black molds such as asthma, respiratory infections and skin diseases. They get the diseases through inhalation, skin contact and ingestion. Lack of education among the citizens has also led to growth of molds and increased incidences of diseases as residents do not take proper care. The citizens live in poor environments that affect their health by exposing them to diseases. Florence Nightingale theory of environment helps in understanding the issue and developing nursing intervention by improving the environmental conditions. The molds can be prevented by improving ventilation and disinfecting the house. They can be prevented by controlling temperature, humidity and moisture. Educating citizens about moulds prevents the growth of moulds. Therefore, nurses should implement such interventions to improve the health of the families, communities and citizens.
Basavanthappa, B.T. (2007). Nursing theories. Jaypee brother's publishers
Brandt, M., Bron, C., Burkhart, J., & et al. (2006). Mold Prevention Strategies. MMWR
Fog, N. K. (2003). Mycotoxin production by indoor molds. Fungal Genet Biol, 39 (2): 103–17.
Miller, J.D., Samson, R.A., & Flannigan, B. (2001). Microorganisms in-home and indoor work environment. Taylor and Francis
Mutius, E., & Nicolai, T.I. (1998). Effects of dampness at home in childhood on bronchial hyperactivity in adolescence. Thorax, 53:1035-1040
Nafstad, P. (2005). Daycare center qualities and children respirator health. Indoor air, 15:69-75
WHO. (2009). Dampness and mold. Druckpartner Moser
Dealing With Elementary School Children
Elementary school children study in elementary schools. Elementary schools are educational facilities where children are exposed to education for the first time. Elementary education takes between 6-8 years of the student's years in school. An interview with an elementary school teacher was conducted so as to shed light on the experience of working with and dealing with this group of children. The summary of the interview will be discussed in this essay.
Experience of an Elementary School Teacher
Teaching an elementary class is very demanding. It requires that the teacher is fully committed to teaching this group. However, it is not a difficult task like many people would imagine. The favorite aspect about this age group is that they are inquisitive and desire to learn more. In a class, for instance, it is impossible to discuss a topic without a series of questions being posed here and there. The students are particularly interested in topics from social and human aspects. These are topics that they can easily relate to. The curious and inquisitive nature of the elementary students is important as it signals that the students are actually following on the subject of discussion. It also allows the teacher to determine the student's level of understanding.Most elementary school students are not shy and will raise queries without fear. This enables a less to be productive and very interactive (Green, 2010).
Every day, elementary school children look forward to learn something new. If it is an art and craft class, students will be eager to make a new painting or draw their favorite animals. Elementary school students are also very social. The derive pride and joy in having as many friends as possible. Elementary students at level K-3 believe that all their classmates are there friends. Interactions are done with ease. Gradually though, as the student grows up, they begin to select a few friends who they can identity with.The most challenging aspect of elementary school children is controlling their vibrant energy. This is especially so for children between grades K-5. The students are vibrant energy contributes to their inquisitive nature. They are always curios and will be seen walking around even when it is class time. An elementary school teacher must be very active. Keeping up with the energy of his or her students. The ability to control their energy levels is thus crucial (Green, 2010).
The teacher's must be able to set the ground rules of the class early enough so that a class is orderly. The children demonstrate different behavior when in school. One annoying behavior that teachers can certainly do without is unnecessary noise and chattering. Elementary children have never ending tales that they wish to constantly share with their classmates. This makes them noise makers even when they are required to be silent e.g. class time. Strictness is the key to ensuring that such bad habits do not persist during class times.Like any other children, elementary school children have several fears and struggles. The common fear that has been noted is the fear of growing up. When the students join school at kindergarten level, they are hardly aware of their bodies. Gradually, they begin to grow and the changes become noticeable. A student who was once active and vibrant becomes shy and withdrawn as s/he notices that s/he is different from the rest of his/her class mates.
A boy notices that he is different from the girls and begins to distant himself from them. The same happen to girls who realize they are different from the boys and reduce association (Green, 2010). It is at the elementary school that minimal physical changes begin to occur. It is important that teachers engage students in lessons on growing up. Students should be able to realize that these changes are normal and they should not interfere with who they are.Elementary school children today enjoy more freedom than the past. In the past most school required that their students wear uniforms. It was the identifying facto of all students. Uniforms have gradually been phased out in schools and students are allowed to dress in any clothes they desire. Technological advancement has also made learning more interesting. In the past accessing technological devices such as computers and the internet was difficult as the technology was new. Students can access information and learn via the internet.
Elementary school children are young and they should be given an opportunity to experience and enjoy life. Regardless of whether at home or school. The school environment should however be monitored by rules and regulations. Students come to school to study and advance in their education. Elementary school children however are vibrant and want to enjoy life. Their favorite time in a day is breaks and free time where they get to socialize, play and interact with their friends. Elementary children are an energetic bunch and it requires a teacher who is determined and committed to see the students excel. The students are eager learners and interactive in class. Learning will thus be interesting and very easy.
Green, T. (2010). How to be successful in your first year of teaching elementary school.
Atlantic publishing company
Action research is a different kind of process in which practitioner researchers enquire into their own practice (Hinchey, 2006). Action research is a process that pursues improvements in practical situations without substantively prescribing objectives to be achieved. Goals as well as researchers come from inside rather than outside. The general research, on the other hand, is an investigation and involves gathering data and generating evidence that relates to articulated standards of judgment. Its purpose is to test an emergent theory. The aim of social science research is to generate new knowledge of human practices. It involves taking a spectator view i.e. observing and describing what other people do. In action research, insider's perspective is pivotal (Ibid).
In action research, the researchers are insiders, members of a school or other institution in the community. Cultures, languages, personalities, values, opportunities, and constraints are some of the factors that may influence certain functions such as teaching. Therefore, by conducting an investigation of these factors so as to come up with the best teaching strategy, in the case of a teacher, constitutes action research. Action research is a process of systematic inquiry, usually cyclical, conducted by those inside a community. It is done with the aim of improving an aspect that the researcher believes essential. It is conducted by those inside a community (teachers, administrators, community members). It pursues improvement in an area that the researcher considers essential. It involves a systematic inquiry involving information gathering, analysis, and reflection. It leads to an action plan, which often generates a new cycle of the process.
Hinchey, P. (2008). "Action Research Primer". New York, NY: Peter Lange Publishing, Inc.
Awareness Tests and Early Childhood Education
The awareness test requires that the viewer counts the number of times that the white team passes the ball. In an effort to make the right count, the viewer keenly follows each of the moves that the white team makes and finally gets the correct answer i.e. 13. However, it is possible that the viewer will not see the bear that moon walks across the pitch.In early childhood education, observation, documentation and assessments form important parts of academic programs for children. The assessment of academic progress that students make is determined through observation of unique talents and capabilities that the students demonstrate. Assessment is important as it helps instructors determine the current knowledge and skills of the students. In the awareness on ball passes, some students may count the number of passes and still notice the moon walking bears. Others will only count the passes and not notice the bear.
Others will start counting but will get distracted after noticing the bear. All this is determined by the level of attentiveness and how keen the students are. The observed progress of the students is then documented and gauged with reference to the expected curriculum standards of early childhood education. Documentation is important as it helps instructors to determine the child level of understanding. Through documentation the instructor will determine what the child knows and able to accomplish on his/her won. It is important that instructors have excellent observation skills as they assist him/her make proper inferences which enable him/her make the right decision based on objective observation data gathered in a natural learning environment. The instructor will for instance note whether the students can tell apart the black and white team. The task of counting passes will also be used to determine the student's arithmetic skills
Preschool First and Second Language Learners.
For children, they first learn to communicate within the context of home culture. Right from birth the primary language that children use is that which is used at home and use communication styles that are culturally accepted. Communication helps children to connect with others in a meaningful way that will trigger the development of a secure relationship for health development. Culture plays a vital role in shaping expectations on what children should and can know and do in different ages. The beliefs have an impact on how teachers interact with children in early childhood educational programs. As a teacher for preschool children, my duty is to provide a respectful and supportive relationship to children and their families. I have to advice the children's family on the need to support children in literacy and individual language development.
Being connected with the children and their families will help me as a teacher to learn about the needs, culture, and strength of every child under my care. This kind of collaboration will provide me with relevant information that is helpful in literacy and language development of each child. Through creating a welcoming and highly diverse environment, knowing the cultural beliefs of the students, as well as their biases, and designing suitable and a variety of strategies for teaching, are the first step that will trigger children's for love reading. Early childhood teachers should make curriculum choices based on the belief to be part of the life stories of children. These are the kind of stories that affect their motivation, skills, excitement n on literacy and language learning. Therefore, the preschool teachers have to have self-knowledge in knowing their own cultural practices and beliefs. They should have linguistic knowledge; knowledge on multicultural materials, teaching knowledge based on culture and has home –school relations knowledge.
Children or adolescents with brain tumors exhibit behavioral and neuropsychological deficits, as opposed to deficit in academic skills. This is because brain tumors are not associated with memory loss. Memory loss can on occur in advanced stages of the tumors when substantial activity of the brain is hindered by the tumors, for example; when nervous impulse electric messages can not be well conveyed to the brain. Children with brain tumors continue performing well with their academic work, brain tumors are not associated with memory loss unlike disorders such as schizophrenia or dementia.They, therefore, keep track of their academic skills because their memories are unaffected. A brain tumor such as Epindymoma which is a very common tumor has the symptoms of seizures, drowsiness whereby the patients feel tired and sleepy, impaired speech; this does not mean that the patients can not think straight in speech, it is only their speech, which is impaired, but not their mental capacity.
The patients may also experienced impaired peristalsis process because a tumor in the lower brain may block substantial part of the esophagus. The patients may also have impaired vision, behavioral changes, sudden vomiting, difficulty in balance; this is because the Eustachian tube must co-ordinate with the brain to maintain body balance. They also have weakened limbs, Maria & Cullen (2001).The above symptoms do not affect the mind. The mind, which is the memory of the brain, is left intact. This is the reason behind the stained academic skills of learners with brain tumors. Their skills can only be affected in advanced stages of the conditions.
Health care professionals, DOI: http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec19/ch283/ch283e.html. Retrieved on 5th September 2012
Maria, S. & Cullen, P. M. (2001) Brain and spinal cord tumors. USA: Patient centered guides
The Due Process Procedures for Discipline
Our School District disciplinary procedures relative to student behaviors is adapted from the guidelines of the New Hampshire State Education Board. The board's disciplinary rules are reviewed annually, but not less than a year to enable evaluation on adherence to the required state laws regarding the rules and other applicable statues, as well as the required amendments. The rationale of the School Disciplinary regulations is to provide the due process in all issues regarding student's misbehaviors. The due process of the disciplinary procedures depends on the set rules depending on the magnitude of the case at hand. This means that the disciplinary committee is governed by the set rules based on the District level agreements. Furthermore, the disciplinary actions to be exercised are expected to meet the required procedural standards. In cases of safe zones for the students due to illegal possession of objects such as firearms and any other jeopardizing weapon, the disciplinary team has disciplinary actions against such misconducts.
The notice in the school level disciplinary actions begins from the head of the institution who happens to be the Principal. The principle is expected to make certain that every student gets complete notice on the required adherence to the set School District rules and regulations. This notice is popularized through many forms such as printed schools rules, explained to the new students in their orientation week parades among others. Additionally, statutory texts are printed in the institutions hand books to operate as a prompt to students about the rules and regulations they are expected to respect. In that matter the principal within the all the schools under this District have full authority to print, announce, implement, and popularize other rules applicable to his or her school. Amendments processes to the existing rules are subject to the disciplinary team which is in charge of implementation of the disciplinary actions. This disciplinary team (School Board) contains three major representatives which include the student's representative, parent's representatives and the Teacher's representative.
The procedural process of the disciplinary action:
In case the school board find s the student guilty, and decides to expel the culprit there is a statement made in writing on the acts invoking immediate expulsion; as well as, a particular statutory reference supporting or omitting that act in accordance to the School District rules and regulations. This processes it to ensure that the disciplinary action abides with the rules and regulations in charge of equal and fair judgments in cases the board has approved. In cases of student's expulsion, and illegal or legal possession of weapons, the responsibility of the Superintendent is to contact the local authorities (law enforcement officers). By contacting them ensures the right procedure of handing cases of any form of ammunition illegally or lawfully owned by student.
Furthermore, illegal weapons in a safe school zone create unnecessary tension which might lead to disturbance in the school premises; hence when disciplinary actions are taken in due time saves any form of inconveniences caused this incidence. The student in possession of any illegal weapon, without any permission from authorities, is suspended for a duration not exceeding two weeks. In case the weapon is determined to be a litho (firearm) weapon, in accordance to the law governing such claims (18 USC Section 921) the school disciplinary board holds a hearing within two weeks to rule out if the culprit has violated the rules pertaining legal or lawful possession of weapon. If the student is guilty he or she will be subjected to expulsion for duration not less than a year. As a substance of verity, the disciplinary board might decide to nullify the expulsion depending on their sole discretion referring to the case at hand. The finality of this matter to complete termination can be determined if the student shows lack of compliancy to the disciplinary actions.
There various kinds of disciplinary measures undertaken depending on the weight of the punishment passed on the student; hence these measures include long term suspension, short term suspension, detention, indefinite, and expulsion with conditions. In short term suspension, the students are expected to stay out of school premises for duration not less than two weeks after the disciplinary team passes the judgment. Surprisingly, this expansion can be administered by the assistant principal of the school, because it is enforced on students whose cases are not immensely hazardous. Consequently, the cases prone to hazardous outcomes such as fights, illegal possession of arms, and property destruction or malicious damage are punished by long term suspension.
This suspension goes for more than two weeks especially if previously the culprit had a short term suspension of which comes before the long term suspension. Furthermore, long term expulsion takes the entire disciplinary committee to derive final solutions; since in most cases the cases leading to this kind of punishment has a gigantic implication to the institution and the victim as well. By offering this kind of suspension the disciplinary team offers intensified decisions which are based on the stipulated rules concerning long term suspensions procedural actions.
On expulsion, as earlier mentioned starts with short term pre-suspension of not less than two weeks before the expulsion action is undertaken. After the short term suspension is over the student is allowed back in school as he or she awaits the pending hearing of the expulsion action. When the disciplinary team makes the final decision on the culprit, expulsion notice is proceeded to the student. Sometimes the team can find out that the suspect in question was innocent at the last bit and it decides to retain the student without any consequences attached. However, there is extremely rare cases of this nature in the expulsion related cases. In every disciplinary committee, there is always written documents documenting all the proceeding and declarations delegated upon for evidence and clarity purposes. A written notice is prepared which includes the name of the culprit, time, date, and the expulsion hearing location. Furthermore, the recommendation by the school's administration to the disciplinary committee is also include in the notice document; including the process the administration used to reach its recommendation for expelling the student.
The IDEA guidelines act on disciplining students with disabilities is complied with in our District. In disciplining students with disabilities, special education students are not subjected to expulsion or long term suspension especially if the student's misbehavior is as a result of the student's disability. However, in case the student's deliberate misconduct is not a manifestation of his or her disability will face the disciplinary actions inclusive of the pursuant procedural process of expulsion. Consequently, the IDEA act provides haven for such disabled students, since according to the act they are allowed to continue receiving education services especially during such durations of gross punishments such as expulsion and long term suspensions. Additionally the special student continues to benefit from the IDEA policy, since he or she is only subjected to suspension for an aggregate of about two weeks of school annually regardless of the student's magnitude of misbehavior or disobedience.
This policy provides a sense of fairness to the disabled students since they cannot be treated harshly as normal students. But it does not invalidate the actuality that the special student receives an embarrassing treatment to cause change in his or her misbehaviors. In addition, their general curriculum as they serve their punishments is still catered for by the District regardless of the duration they are serving their punishments. Therefore, their individual education plan is not fully distorted; hence they can continue enjoying these benefits. There disabled culprit's advancement with their curriculum enlightment makes the IDEA policy viable to create more informed decisions on the way to handle the disabled individuals. The current arrangements in utilizing these regulations take the principal stake of getting more engagements of the unfortunate students. Furthermore, the directions these policies are taking in guarding the disabled students create more need for amendments since the policies are challenged each and every time these kinds of cases arise.
Contoocook valley regional school district (2011); Students conduct, discipline and due process Retrieved on 12 Sep 2012 from http://conval.edu/schools/sms/handbook/student-conduct-discipline-and-due-process
Kurt E. Hulet (2008) Legal aspects of special education
Kurt H. (2009) chapter 11
Trohanis PL (2008): Journal of early intervention (Journal article) (2): 140-51
Free Appropriate Public Education
Free, appropriate public education can be considered as a scheme that is aimed at improving education outcomes. These education outcomes are for those children who have various disabilities. Children with disabilities have the entitlement of a public education that is free and appropriate. Under this scheme, school districts are required to avail exceptional education, as well as related services. This ought to be settled upon so as to meet the needs of exceptional students. Under free, appropriate public education, children with disabilities have a right that is guaranteed by the rehabilitation act of 1973. These rights are also guaranteed under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Under section 504, free, appropriate public education is defined as the stipulation of regular or education and associated aids and services. These are designed for the purposes of meeting individuals' needs of handicapped individuals as well as the needs of nonhandicapped persons.
These needs ought to be met and have their basis on adherence to procedural safeguards that are stipulated in the law. Free, appropriate public education is also outlined under the individuals with disabilities education act. It is defined as an education program that is personalized to a child. This is designed to meet the child's unique needs, avail access to the general curriculum. It is also designed to attain the grade level values that have been set by the state, and enables children to receive educational benefit. The United States Department of Education provided regulations that are meant to define and govern the provisions of free, appropriate public education. In order to avail free, appropriate public education to children with disabilities, schools are required to provide children with an education. This education ought to incorporate specialized instruction as well as related services. These are meant to prepare the children for extra education, independent living and employment. Yell, M. (2006).
Henry Hudson school district v. Rowley (1982).
The case board of education of Henry Hudson school district v. Rowley was a cornerstone for free education on children with unique needs. The case is related to Amy Rowley who was a deaf student from Furnace Woods School in New York. Amy had hearing problems but was excellent in lip reading. When she was five years old, a meeting with the local school district and her parents was conducted so as to decide her future. Amy's parents claimed that Amy needed to be provided with a sign-language interpreter for all her academic classes. The parents insisted on their demands and they proceeded to the United States district court. They did so with claims that they had their child denied free, appropriate public education as stipulated in the act. The district court ruled that Amy was a student who remarkably adjusted to the learning environment. The court also found that she had developed a unique rapport with fellow students and teachers and, therefore, she did not qualify to receive free suitable civic education. The decision of the courts was also agreed upon by the court of appeal and so her parents lost the case.
Standards of FAPE under Henry Hudson school district v. Rowley (1982).
Though under the case Amy's parents lost their plea, the case is considered to be essential. This is because it provided various standards that must be met under the free, appropriate public education. Under the case, the state is required to comply with the procedures that are stipulated from the act. Under these procedures, parents of students with unique needs are allowed to conduct an examination of the school records. The parents are also allowed to participate in the school meetings and make complaints whenever they see it fit to do so. For there to be fare free, appropriate public education, parents must be made aware of any proposals that would affect their children. This is with regard to children's placement and they also have a right to request for an independent educational evaluation. This evaluation is carried out for the children's current situation and with regard to decisions that are taken from the school district.
The standards of free, appropriate public education also call for the provision of regular or unique equations as well as related services and aids. These are designed to meet the personal needs of the individuals with disabilities as well as the needs of non- handicapped individuals. These needs are required to be met and adhered to according to the provisions of the law. Under this education scheme, the standards call for designing of education policies and tools. The tools and policies are supposed to provide access for students with exceptional needs on the general curriculum. The polices and tools are required to meet the national standards for education as implemented on every state. Under the standards of free, appropriate public education, schools are compelled to offer kids with disabilities various educational instructions and services. The instructions and services should be customized according to the requirements of the kids. This should be conducted so as to enable the children to overcome the challenges of education. The children are also able to handle post-school life such as their introduction into the labor market. Such children are also able to be independent and continue with higher education. The standards also require this education to be offered devoid of any cost to the scholar. All services provided to the student should be free and the costs ought to be covered with the public. This must be under the control of the local education authorities. Cortiella, C. (2009).
IEP implications that take place to ensure FAPE is covered
The Individual Education Program is a written plan that is designed by both parents and the unique education team of the school. The plan is written to specify academic goals of the student and how these goals will be attained. There are implications under the individual education program that occur so as to ensure that free, appropriate public education is covered. The individual education program should be developed in a manner that will ensure the child gets educational benefits. This is especially for children who have been placed in regular classrooms that belong to the public education system. For such students, the individual education program is required to take effective measures that will enable the children to achieve passing marks. This is done so as to enable children with disabilities to advance from one grade to another. Parents or guardians of children with requirements have the right to make complains and request for an independent inquiry. Parents should do so if they have the view that the individual education program does not satisfactorily contribute to the child's development. Leigh W. (1999).
The individual education program should also be provided without any charge to the parents of the youngster. Parents and guardians are required to make complains in situations where they are charged for the program. This is because the individual education program is implemented within the frame work of the free, appropriate public education. Since the free, appropriate public education is not charged, then the individual education program is also required to be free. In situations where the state school district has resolved not to offer the service of this program, justification ought to be provided. The reasons for not providing the services should also be endorsed from the district courts. Parents are, therefore, required to forward a challenge if the district school does not provide disabled children with unique education in the form of individual education program. Allan, J. (1999).
In the case of Amy Rowley, she might have lost the case but it provided a wider public awareness for children with disabilities. The occurrence of the case was a way forward in ensuring that there was an increase in the level of standards for free, appropriate public education. This ensured that no disabled child would be a victim of discrimination form educational facilities such as district schools. Free, appropriate public education should be considered essential and all the stakeholders in all states should ensure that it functions appropriately. This is attributed to the extensive variety of benefits that are gained by the students with disabilities. Without free, appropriate public education, it would be difficult fro students with disabilities to have equal opportunities in the education process. This would, therefore, be considered as discriminatory to students with exceptional needs.
Yell, M. (2006) The Law and Special Education .Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Cortiella, C. (2009). The State of Learning Disabilities. New York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities
Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.
Leigh W. (1999). Inclusive education and personal development. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 4(3), 236-245.