The Principles of Reliability Centered Maintenance and the Nature of Statistical Prediction Techniques and their use in Reliability Centered MaintenanceWRITTEN_BY Administrator
The Principles of Reliability Centered Maintenance and the Nature of Statistical Prediction Techniques and their use in Reliability Centered Maintenance
In reliability Center Maintenance (RCM), there are several terms used to define concepts.
The first term is availability which refers to the status of an item. The determination of status is through the operability and overall state of the item. A system that is functioning as required will function effectively in its specified environment (Downing, 2004).
Condition Based Maintenance refers to the process of maintaining the overall condition of equipment or a system. This process ascertains that the equipment or system will remain in top-notch condition for a specified duration (Curran, & Verhagen, 2011). A defect is a characteristic that goes against the expected specification and requirements of system/equipments. A defect affects the efficiency of the item.
Failure in RCM is an occurrence that affects and equipment in a manner that hinders its effective operation.
Failure Mode refers to how a failure in equipment occurs. This is regardless of the reason behind the occurrence of the failure.
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a review that looks into the potential failure modes so as to determine the overall effects the failure modes have on equipment. FMEA is crucial as it assists in the determination of areas in need of corrective maintenance; it also determines the severity of failure matters (Pride, 2010).
Failure Rate is the number times failure occurs in a specified duration. Failure rate is expected to be constant across the life line of a system/equipment.
Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is the total cost of a system from the time of manufacture, or implementation to the time it ceases to be useful.
Maintainability is an inherent feature associated with reliability and refers to the ability of an item to conform to specified conditions within a certain period. The determination of an item’s maintainability depends on the period of corrective action e.g. servicing (Gulati, & O’Hanlon, 2009).
Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) is the overall operating time of an equipment/system divided by the number of failures that the system has encountered.
Preventive Maintenance is a practice of service and care of systems/equipment by qualified maintenance professionals.
Reliability is a DOD design parameter which reefs to the probability that an item will perform a specified function for a specified duration of time under its set conditions.
Under the first generation concept, the fixed time that an aircraft undergoes periodic disassembly and inspection was known as Hard-Time. During the process of Hard-Time, time limitations were instituted for process of servicing, checks and inspections. Maintenance professionals ascertain the highest level of safety using Hard-Time (Ferrarese, 1978).
- On-conditioning is the term used to refer to the determination of continued airworthiness through visual inspection, measurements and tests. Disassembly and overhaul of aircraft became obsolete.
- There are three primary maintenance processes utilized by maintenance programs. They are; hard-time which involves periodical overhaul of system or equipment. Second is on-conditioning, a preventive maintenance process that involves inspection against already set standards. The third is condition-monitoring that allows operators to determine appropriate means of solving problematic areas (Ferrarese, 1978).
- The corrective action system must include notification to the organizational element responsible for taking an action. The actions must reflect steps towards restoring performance within a stipulate time frame.
Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), is a review that looks into the probable failure modes on equipment. This review is crucial to RCM program because it helps detects any points of failure. With early detection, maintenance professionals engage in correctional procedures (Pride, 2010).
Failure rate is the number times failure occurs in a specified duration. Determination of failure rates is important as it guarantees equipment or systems operate at an acceptable level of reliability.
Fault Tree Analysis is a process involving determination of a fault within a system. Using fault tree analysis, experts determine the causes of the fault. Fault Tree Analysis is important so as identify the effects of faults on the efficiency and performance of a system.
Life Cycle Cost Analysis determines the total costs of a system from the start of use to the end. This process is important as it helps an institution determine future system with low life cycle cost. Affordability is the key to managing systems/equipment (Gulati, & O’Hanlon, 2009).
Maintainability is defined as the capacity of systems to return to full operational potential after experiencing failure. Maintenance professionals should look out for systems that have higher levels of maintainability as it guarantees cost effectiveness.
Mct stands for mean corrective maintenance time.
Monte Carlo Simulation in RCM program gives the maintenance professionals an opportunity to look at the possible outcome after maintenance. The professionals analyze the possible outcomes, versus the risk of every action they may undertake. This helps them make the correct choices in terms of minimal risks (Downing, 2004).
MTBF stands for the mean time between failures. It is used to check the reliability of equipment.
MTBM stands for the mean time between maintenance. MTBM operates on the ideology that a failed system is immediately repaired.
MTTR STANDS for mean time to repair and is the average time needed to repair a failed component or system. It is important for maintenance professionals to determine the MTTR of equipment/systems in use.
Reliability is the in MRC program is the ability of a system to last in its optimal condition for a specified duration of time. Professionals should strive to have systems that have high levels of reliability as it guarantees efficiency (Florio, 2010).
Root Cause Analysis is the process of uncovering the actual cause of system failure. Ti involves looking into the physical and human factors that may cause failure. Determining the actual cause of system failure helps maintenance professionals determine ways to prevent future failures of the same magnitude.
Weibull Analysis is a leading method of fitting life data where there are multiple opportunities for failure. Maintenance professionals review the first failure to determine the cause and effective correction strategy (Abernethy, 2002).
The maintenance review Board report (MRBR) is a document whose purpose is to facilitate the development of maintenance programs. The report contains the minimal schedule requirements for specific categories of aircraft. MRBR creates the report which then forms a basis under which other carriers develop their own maintenance programs (Accardi, 1997). The report gives the minimal requirements for all aircraft in the specified categories. All airlines should thus adhere to these requirements for safety reasons. The MRBR is written by an MBR committee that comprises representative from the transportation sector. The content that is complied tin the report is seen as the agreed views of the transport fraternity (Roelen, 2008).
Abernethy, R. (2002). An overview of Weibull analysis. Retrieved from http://quanterion.com/Publications/WeibullHandbook/ChapterOne.pdf
Accardi, T. (1997). Maintenance review board and procedure. Advisory circular: AC No: 121-22A
Curran, R. & Verhagen, W. (2011). Air transport and operations. IOS press
Downing, J. (2004). Reliability and maintainability. PDF Provided
Ferrarese, J. (1978). Maintenance control by reliability methods. Advisory circular AC No: 120-17A
Florio, F. (2010). Airworthiness. Elsevier publishers
Gulati, R. & O’Hanlon, T. (2009). Maintenance and reliability. Industrial Press Inc.
Pride, A. (2010). Reliability centered maintenance. Retrieved from http://www.wbdg.org/resources/rcm.php
Roelen, A. (2008). Causal risk models of air transportation. IOS press
United State Federal Aviation, (2011). Maintenance review board procedures. General Books LLC
Argyris shows that it is important for human beings to diagnose problems critically, invent in solutions and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed solutions (Argyris, & Schon, 1996). The main fundamental aspect, in arriving to the solutions, is based on the people’s mindset, which can either be defensive or productive. A defensive reasoning mindset is that which defends and protect, the main reasoning process in defensive mindset is through making assumed premises explicit and testing them via self referential logic. For this kind of reasoning, transparency is avoided to deny and protect oneself from self –referential logic. Productive reasoning on the other hand, involves making informed choices, and there is transparency in personal transparency for robust testing of the claims.
In Arroyo Valley childcare Center, both Model I (theory-in-use) and Model II espoused theory are used and have proven helpful to the center. However, in their theory -in-use model 1 problem can arisebecause in a critical situation analysis is required to make changes, else the change can be awry. This science action is designed with the aim of helping Arroyo Valley childcare center participants deal with the gaps arising from theory -in-use model 1.
Opportunities for Improvement.
Action science determines whether or not the available data, information, and knowledge are actionable. In action science, descriptive research is the same as efforts aim at resolving practical problems. Here, all descriptions are tested through the application of practical efforts to resolve the problem. The claims on effective actions lead to changes in the way participants will craft their actions. Coming up with an actionable knowledge calls for the need of participants to access the effectiveness of their actions. This involves presenting strategies that will lead to the desired consequences such as individuality, trust, or commitment among the child care officials, in so doing, the members will b able to provide a clear outline of the right skills and behaviors required to produce the contextual conditions to sustain the desired results. The childcare providers, will acknowledge that as humans, they have limited ability to process data and information, and accept that gaps will exist between the required and the stored knowledge, in the effort of producing effective actions.
Analysis of the Issue.
Analysis of the issue involves getting involved in sufficient learning that calls for descriptive data. The educators at this center will identify gap and work towards correcting the gaps between their claims, and outcomes or the gaps between results, theories, practices, actions, and intentions. Analysis of the issue, therefore, involves strategies to narrow down the identified gaps, and it involves rigorous testing the made inferences by the childcare providers as they reason out concerning the issues they are faced in. The inferences are the reasoned out aspects involving their attitudes, beliefs, feeling and citations that account or relate to the facts under disputes. The participants will advocate coming to a conclusion on events.
Problem definition and alternative Courses of Action.
In defining the problem, the childcare providers will be required to use double-loop learning in Module II. This involves productive reasoning concerning a problem with lack of interpersonal defensiveness. Wide gaps are present between theories –in –use and espoused theories. The action science aim at minimizing the gaps found in both these theories is seen in the process of making decisions. The double-loop model is based on usable knowledge and involves high levels of testing of the claims validity and goals. Probabilistic causality is applied in that by taking Action a result B will be achieved. This kind of learning will help the childcare givers know and acknowledge the inherent gap that is present in the knowledge stored and knowledge required so as for them to act in an effective manner. Thus, enabling them to continuously aim at changing the status quo. By identifying the gap, they will develop alternative actions towards the course of establishing a solution (Booth, Colomb, & Williams, 2008).
Action Research Plan.
Health issues affecting children.
During emergencies of disease outbreak in Arroyo Valley childcare Center, the officials have to have an action plan early in advance to avoid making rush decisions and using resources such as money during emergencies. It is important for the childcare providers to come up with ways of saving money to help cater for massive health emergences that it had not anticipated for.
$11. Prevention strategies.
$12. Outbreak management.
$13. Control of outbreaks.
$14. Setting for vaccination.
$15. Control and prevention of disease outbreak.
$16. Guide to resources prevention.
All members will be called upon to control and own the task. They will work unilaterally in planning, designing and managing.
In coming up with model II decisions, members at Arroyo Childcare institution will be called upon to decide on how to define goals and to work on ways of achieving their set goals. They should maximize on ways to express themselves and to maximize their rationality.
Argyris, C & Schon, A (1996) Organizational learning II, Theory, learning, and practice. Addison-Wesley.
Booth W, Colomb, G & Williams, M (2008) the craft of research. Chicago University of Chicago Press.
Health Care Acquired Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus is a group of disease-causing bacteria that infects various body tissues (Stoppler, 2012). There are 30 identified species of S. aureus, but only three are pathogenic in humans. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram- positive, facultative anaerobic, non- motile, usually unencapsulated coccus. Staph, as is commonly known, can cause more than 30 infections, but many infections of public health concerned are caused by staphylococcus aureus, a type of staphylococcus. Staphylococcus inhabits the nose and the skin in apparently healthy adults. It is present in 25% of persons who work in the hospital setting. In many cases, the organism does not cause illness. However, injury to the skin may allow the organism to defeat the natural protective mechanism and cause infections. Staph infection is common in institutional health care settings including hospitals and nursing homes. In these settings, S. aureus is the dominant cause of urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, pneumonia, and sepsis (bloodstream infections). Meticillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the known strain that cause infections among persons in health care settings.
S. aureus exhibits a variety of pathogenic factors, which aid tissue colonization, tissue damage, and development of distant diseases (Jensen, 2009). The organism employs virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, and imunomodulatory factors that aid infection of different tissues in the host. For example, it produces SpA, α-, and β- toxins that cause staphylococcus pneumonia. S. aureus can survive inside host tissues and is able to invade, in- vitro, nonprofessional phagocytes including osteoblasts, fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells. After colonization, the bacterium may multiply and further disseminate, or persist, escaping antibacterial agents and the host’s immunity defense. The organism has global regulators that sense modifications in the environment such bacterial density. These regulators aid the capacity of the organism to evade body defense mechanism. In accordance to the situation in the environment, the regulators may or may not trigger the bacterium to secrete proteins that lyse the host cells and enable the bacterium to propagate. This ability allows the bacteria to gain therapeutic sanctuary, as well as play hide and seek in the human tissues.
Staphylococcus infection is contagious, and transmission occurs until the resolution of infection. Direct contacts with infected wounds or sores, and/or personal-care items (razors, bandages, etc.) are the major routes of transmission (Bien, Sokolova, & Bozko, 2011). Kissing and other forms of casual contact such as hugging do not pose a high risk of transmission of the bacteria if they do involve direct contact with infected areas. Anyone is prone to an infection with staph, but certain members of the population are at higher risk. They include newborn babies, breastfeeding mothers, and people suffering from chronic disease conditions such as cancer, diabetes, lung disease, and cardiovascular disease. Patients on treatment with intravenous catheters, injecting drug users, those with surgical incisions, and medications that weaken the immune system have a higher risk of contracting infection with staphylococcus aureus.
Staphylococcus Aureus is a pathogenic bacterium that can cause several infections categorized in three groups (Ibid). 1) Superficial lesions such as wound infection, 2) toxinoses (food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, and scalded skin syndrome), and 3) are systemic and life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, brain abscesses, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and meningitis. Risk factor for infection with hospital-acquired SAB is the presence of a central venous catheter.
Antibiotic ointment, such as nonprescription triple-antibiotic mixture, is the usual medication for minor infections of the skin (Stoppler, 2012). However, oral antibiotics are applicable to some cases of skin infection by S. aureus. In serious, life- threatening infections treatment involves the use of intravenous antibiotics. It is essential to conduct laboratory test to determine susceptibility of the strain of S. aureus involved in the infection. This informs the choice of antibiotic to use in specific cases of serious infections. There are some strains of S. aureus that are resistant to several antibiotics, and meticillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus is a common example (Ibid). It is resistant to meticillin and related antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin, and oxacillin. Health care associated MRSA (HA MRSA) is a term commonly used to refer to MRSA because its first diagnosis occurred in hospital patients including hospitals. It affects the elderly, the very sick, and patients with open wounds (bedsores, etc.) and an intravenous catheter in the body. Mupirocin is a drug that is effective in treating MRSA in healthy carriers, but not in all cases. There are other strains of S. aureus that are resistant to certain types of classes of antibiotics (Ibid). For example, vancomycin- resistant S. aureus is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin.
The basic principles of infection control must be applied to reduce transmission of MRSA from one patient to the other (Weston, 2008). These include minimizing environmental contamination. For instance, patients diagnosed with MRSA should be treated in isolation. Health care institutions should administer MRSA decolonization protocol to reduce carriage. Visitors who come to see patients should decontaminate their hands with alcohol rub on leaving the ward. Patients and persons operating in the health care environment must observe hand hygiene at all times. Patients diagnosed with MRSA should appear last on the theatre list. Other procedures include environmental cleanliness, restricting patient movements, wearing of protective equipment and clothing, decontamination of equipments, and appropriate disposal of all linen and waste.
Bien, J., Sokolova, O., & Bozko, P. (2011). “Characterization of Virulence Factors of
Staphylococcus aureus”. Journal of Pathogens, 2011: 1-13. Doi: 10.4061/2011/601905
Jensen, A. et al. (2009). “Risk factors for Hospital acquired Staphylococcus Aureus
Bacteremia”. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(13): 1437-1444
Stoppler, M. (2012). “Staph Infection (Staphylococcus aureus)”. Medicinenet.com. Diseases
And Conditions, Apr. 20th, 2012. Retrieved from
Weston, D. (2008). “Infection: Prevention and Control”. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Professional Work Samples
A Psychology degree is a passport into a career in postgraduate education and professional practice. I joined undergraduate program in Psychology so as to gain insight into my own behavior and that of others. It is an intellectual challenge, but with capacity for interaction with culturally diverse people. I spent 4 years at Argosy University studying a baccalaureate degree in Psychology which I successfully completed in 2012. During the study period at the University, I attended a number of lectures, fieldwork expeditions, and conferences. In me, there has been a development of a range of skills and confidence to experiment with new ideas. The University offers global Bachelor of Science and Master of Science programs in an attractive and conducive learning environment.
During my study at the university, gained knowledge and abilities for critical thinking as applied to problem solving in the practice of psychology. I am a different person in relation to the brain processes information. I am able to acquire and make use of information and experiences gained through mental processes. In the summary of cognitive capacity, the areas of proficiency include learning, retrieval, thinking, and memory storage. These are aspects of everyday speech that I perfected through the Psychology program at Argosy University. Cognitive ability is the capacity to diagnose and provide interventions by processing visual, gustatory, olfactory, and auditory information depending on situations (Esgate, 2005). Cognitive psychology involves aspects of how one’s brain processes information. It affects performance and behavior in real-life situations of psychology practice and interpersonal communication. The Psychology program at Argosy University has a quality structure for cognitive development in students.
Research is a core module in the undergraduate degree in psychology (Latto & Latto, 2009). As a graduating student, with an honors degree in psychology, I am typically able to reason and make judgments scientifically. I understand the role of evidence and have the capacity to make critical inferences in psychology research. The research skills that I acquired at the university include the ability to adopt perspectives and analyze the relationships between them systematically. Through behavior and experience, I can detect meaningful patterns and evaluate their significance. I have the capacity to pose, operationalize, and critique research questions. I can confidently apply multiple statistical methods, and competently, design, initiate, and conduct empirical research. In addition, I am able to prepare appropriate inferential reports. I understand limitations of various methods and the implications. I am aware of ethical principles of research and approval procedures for research. Sample research proposals and reports are provided for the purpose of evidence for these qualities. I undertake self-directed research and study in order to meet desired objectives. I am computer literate and I am proficient in word processing, database systems, and use of statistical software programs to process information.
Communication skills are essential for effective study and practice of psychology (Latto & Latto, 2009). Again, this is a core component of the study program in Psychology at Argosy University. Upon completion and graduation with a degree in Psychology, I am able to communicate general information and present research reports, both effectively and fluently, through oral, written, and visual means. This is possible through the ability to comprehend and make use of statistical and complex information sets. I am capable of solving problems through consideration of alternative solutions, clarification of questions, and evaluation of outcomes. I am aware of, and react accordingly, to contextual and interpersonal issues in groups and teams.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness
Psychologists work in the society to improve the quality of life of people. In view of this respect, I am aware of the ethical considerations and issues of diversity as regards the practice of psychology. In addition, I understand the codes of behavior and practice as relates to professionalism. Psychology, as applied globally, requires a practitioner to embrace cultural pluralism (Francis, 2009). The world is complex in terms of diversity of cultures, values, and beliefs. Therefore, I am aware of this and treat people in the context of this diversity so as to eliminate bias, unethical, and, therefore, ineffective practice.
Knowledge of Foundations of the Field
I understand the foundations of psychology as are critical in application of knowledge in professional endeavors. Psychology is a scientific study of behavior and mental processes. It involves understanding, explanation, and scientific investigation of behavioral and mental aspects of life. These are components of human functions that relate to history and personal experiences. Rationalism and empiricism are the roots of psychology. Rationalism is founded on reason and logic i.e. theory, whereas empiricism focuses on data. The modern fields of psychology include cognitive, health, biopsychology, developmental, clinical, evolutionary, and social psychology. Psychology studies behavioral experiences and is inspired by biology.
Knowledge of Applied Psychology
Applied psychology refers to the application of the principles of psychology in areas of business, health, law, social change, forensics, and education. I am aware of the themes or principles of applied psychology which includes improving health, promoting democracy, increasing safety, improving education, and increasing prosperity. These are the goals that psychologists embrace while at service in applied psychology. Psychology is not only limited to health and behavioral change, it is also applicable in improving the status of life in the various sectors of development. My interest in applied psychology emanates from the need to promote the observation of human rights which is cardinal to improvements of the quality of life and achievement of equality of all persons in society.
I have the capacity for effective communicate with people and operate in tandem with best-practices of interactions in teams. Quality practice of psychology relies on collaboration and team efforts across various disciplines. Therefore, it is essential that a Psychology graduate understands issues of personal relations and diversity.
Argosy University’s most cardinal contributions to the American society are exceptional basic research and training of undergraduate and graduate students to the highest possible standard. The psychology program in particular, is student-centered and research-based conferring evidence-based knowledge to students. Upon graduation, Argosy graduates can almost readily integrate into the society and positively transform the psychology practice.
I direct personal learning and development though a reflection and evaluation of personal weaknesses and strengths for the purpose of continued future learning and development. As evident in the work samples, I am a qualified psychologist and, hence, ready to engage in professional practice. The documents serve as evidence of my skills in communication, research, cognitive development, and ethics; and an understanding of the foundation of general psychology and applied psychology.
Esgate, A. (2005). “An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology”. New York, NY: Psychology
Latto, J. and Latto, R. (2009). “Study Skills for Psychology Students”. New York, NY: Open
Francis, R. D. (2009). “Ethics for Psychologists”. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
Forde, C., McMahon, M., & Reeves, J. (2009). “Putting together Professional Portfolios”.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Relationship Between Obesity And Diabetes Risk
Excess weight particularly obesity weakens almost every aspect of health, from respiratory to reproductive function. Obesity raises the chances of individuals suffering from deadly and debilitating diseases. Such diseases include heart ailment, diabetes as well as handful types of cancers. It is through a variety of pathways that obesity is capable of doing this, while some are clear such as mechanical stress. Others involve complex changes in hormones and metabolism. The condition also diminishes the quality and length of life of individuals as it increases the health costs. These costs are incurred in the treatment of related diseases among which diabetes is included. It is, however, essential to note that individuals who are obese can be able to address their situation. Weight loss is a significant aspect through which obese persons can be able to reduce the risk of getting diabetes.
The research question or the papers is to establish whether there is a relationship between obesity and diabetes.
One of the most challenging public health issues in the twenty first century is diabetes and obesity. There are staggering statistics that have supported that obesity largely contributes to individuals being diabetic. In the United States of America, there has been a constant raise in the amount of individuals who are diabetic. This increase has largely been attributed to raise in number of individuals who are obese. Last year the percentage of individuals in America who are diabetic increased by six percent. The same period also saw an increase by fifty seven percent in the number of individuals who are obese. Recent studies have revealed that there is a steeper increment of suffering from diabetes for those persons who have weight gain. With each kilogram of weight that is gained, there is a nine percent increased risk of getting diabetes. Studies have shown that the risk of developing diabetes was ninety three times higher, in women who had a body mass index of thirty five or higher. This was when contrasted with individuals who had a BMI that was fewer than twenty two. Colditz GA (1995).
Research has shown that eighty to ninety percent of individuals who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are obese. It is essential to comprehend what causes the disease so as to be able to prevent diabetes in the future. Individuals who are overweight place extra stress on their bodies in a number of ways. Such includes the body’s ability to maintain appropriate blood glucose levels. Being overweight results to a person’s body to be resistant to insulin. For people who do not have diabetes it means that the stretched effects of the insulin resistance ultimately causes a person to develop the disease. For overweight individuals who are diabetic, it means that they are required to consume more insulin so as to get more sugar in the cells. Weight gain that usually results to obesity is more common in individuals who consume insulin to treat diabetes. This is because additional insulin that is used to maintain blood glucose levels results to more glucose absorption in the cells. This is in contrary with what is supposed to happen where the excess glucose should be eliminated from the body. Koh P. (2004).
The glucose that is absorbed is then stored as fat which makes a person to gain weight. People who have been diagnosed with diabetes is required to modify their diets for that reason. This is since it is probable that they will gain weight once they start consuming insulin. Failure to do this complicates the problem that the body has of maintaining appropriate blood glucose. This would then increase the risk of complications that are diabetic related. Persons who have begun to take insulin for treatment of diabetes should refrain from having much food.
During adulthood, weight gain has also increased risk of getting diabetes even among individuals who are considered to have BMIs in the healthy range. Research that has been conducted on weight related diseases has shown that diabetes is the most likely to be acquired. Men and women who are termed to be in the standard weight range have a less risk of getting type 2 diabetes. These are people who have a BMI that is fewer than twenty five. The comparison is with individuals who have a body mass index of thirty or higher. Diabetic and obesity risk factors may be associated with age, race and family. It is, however, becoming evident that the lifestyles that are currently being adopted largely contribute to the development of both conditions. Such include inactive and deskbound lifestyles that have resulted to reduced physical activity. Other lifestyles such as having high energy diets and meals are termed to be convenient. They have also resulted to obesity that has put people on diabetes risk.
The quest to close the information gap that exists on how to handle obesity and diabetes has resulted to studies in metabolism process. Some researchers have studied metabolism process in mice and have reported that mice that lack enzyme are lean. They are also resistant to weight gain even when they are placed on a high fat diet. This studies and results can be termed to be positive because of the rennin blocking drugs. These include drugs that are used for purposes of controlling blood pressure as they may be used to take care of diabetes, portliness and insulin resistance. In clinical experiments, these drugs have portrayed positive results when it comes to improving insulin sensitivity. The drugs also have the potential of reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.
There are measures that can be taken at a personal level so as to minimize the chances of developing diabetes. One is required to ensure maintenance of a healthy weight as well as increase in the physical activities. For people who have diabetes, they may try a diabetes vitamin that is specially formulated for diabetic people. For individuals who are overweight, even a minimal weight loss can reduce the risk of getting diabetes. For persons who are already diabetic, a small weight loss can reduce the quantity of medication that one needs. It also aids in prevention of common complications that are associated with diabetes such as stroke, blindness and heart attacks. There are some measures that can be adopted that support in weight reduction. One of the measures includes having a high fiber, low carbohydrate diet. This should be accompanied by twenty to thirty minutes of modest physical activity per day. Individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes are required to consult their physicians prior to initiating and new diet or workout program. Modification of the diet should be able to prevent individuals from adding weight that is associated with consuming insulin. Furthermore, persons should ensure that they monitor their blood glucose levels on a standard basis as recommend by the physician.
According to previous studies, which have been, conducted on obesity and diabetes risk the researchers have focused on factors like environment, family history, the male and women population. There has been no research conducted on the relationship of obesity and diabetes among middle aged and older adults. This is one population, which has been, ignored by researchers. This study will aim at studying obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged, and older adults between the age of 39 and 79 years. The research hypothesis is as following:
Ho: There is no relationship between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged and older adults
Ha: There is a relationship between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged and older adults.
Ho represents null hypothesis while Ha represents the alternative hypothesis.
The study will aim at focusing on the relationship that exists between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged and older adults. The population of middle aged and older adults who are being diagnosed with diabetes is now being considered an epidemic. Previous studies have shown that there is a relationship between obesity and the risk of diabetes. A relationship might exist between obesity and diabetes risk among these populations because most of this people do not have enough knowledge on the link between diabetes and obesity. The key variables in this study are obesity among middle aged and older adults, and diabetes. The independent variable is obesity while the dependent variable is diabetes.
In order to certify that there is a relationship between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged, and older adults, the participants will be interviewed on their family history. The information about the family history, their blood samples, and blood pressure will be collected so as to be able to determine their cause of diabetes. This will also help in determining the participant’s family history on obesity which might be due to genetic factors. The participants will also have to provide information about their nutrition, physical activities and also the BMI will be tested to identify if they have diabetes. This information will be extremely essential in certifying that a relationship does exist between obesity and diabetes risk in middle aged and older adults. When conducting research, the researchers have to ensure reliability and validity. Validity means the degree in which the test accomplishes the purpose which it was being used (Trochim, W. 2006). This is the extent to which the inferences can be made from the measurements and test scores. A test is said to be valid if it is reliable. A reliable test is one which is consistent in measuring the same thing at all time. In this case when measuring the blood pressure of the participants, the results of the test should be consistent each time the person is measured.
Obesity and diabetes can be termed to have a strong relationship as one leads to another. Individuals who are obese have been seen to have a high probability of developing diabetes. Appropriate measures should, therefore, be adopted to prevent both obesity and diabetes as they are serious health conditions.
Colditz GA (1995) Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes in women. 122:481-6.
Koh P. (2004) Changes in body weight and body fat distribution as risk factors for clinical diabetes in US men. 159: 1150-9.
Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Sampling terminology. Retrieved fromhttp://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampterm.php Retrieved February 23, 2012
The Multi-Hazards Environment
Mitigation is a term that has several, varied definitions, but the common meaning that unifies almost all definition is to make something bad / wrong become less serious, painful or severe. In additional words, can also be referred to as alleviate or reducing the impact of a certain disaster Oxford Dictionary (2010). Prevention refers to preclusion of a presumed disaster or hazard before it manifests its dangerous effects. Resilience can be defined as the ability and strength flexible enough to return to original position or form. In cases, such disaster having the flexibility to settle the damages and resume to normalcy demonstrates resilience. The term sustainability refers to the ability to maintain the original state of something or in other words the capability to endure particularly for a long time.
The terms interrelations:
In multi-hazard situation, the above mentioned term s interrelated in various aspects such as Explaining the strategic measures to be undertaken in cases of disastrous environments. For example, the term prevention and mitigation interrelate in trying to explain ways of alleviating dangerous occurrences. By preventing an occurrence from manifesting its self both prevention and mitigation interject in this argument, hence both terms becoming interrelated. On the other hand, sustainability and resilience interrelates it terms of trying to confine in maintenance and conformity to flexible changes. In both, the element on maintaining the original state of something becomes the uniting or interrelating factor, hence illuminating the relationship in the two terms. Furthermore, all the above terminologies apply to multi-hazard situations, because they are used in discussing strategic plans applied in managing multi-hazards environments.
The equal applicability:
In dealing with a multi-hazards environment, all the four concepts are applicable. This is because, in a multi-hazards environment, concepts such as mitigation or alleviation are imperative in lessening severe cases of environmental dangers. As if not enough, prevention equally applies in strategic preparation aimed at safe guarding the environment against dangers anticipated emerging at any time. On sustainability in a multi-hazards environment, the organizations such as disaster prevention management or alleviation management are able to focus and practice methods of sustaining preventive measures taken to fight environmental dangers. In a similar situation, resilience is also equally applicable in conceptualizing and dealing with a multi-hazards environment. For example, in case such as a project plan to deal with a multi-hazards environment, resilience would be a concept that would be capitalized upon since its ability to quickly return to normal position credits the efforts of the organization in charge of practicing resilience.
Additionally, the four concepts are the key concept s in any organizations, effort to alleviate, maintain, and mitigate operations of a disaster management institution. The four concepts are also significant in dealing with fundamental issues on conceptualizing significant ways of dealing with anticipated dangers, hence leading to preparations based on directly dealing with expected challenges (Dana Ames, Theodore L. Prossler, and Marc Hoit 2011). Hazard occurrences lead to dangerous results, which are preventable, through strategic planning and implementation. The implementation procedure must me followed closely to ensure that the final process of maintenance is accomplished. Measures undertaken to control disastrous occurrences must be aimed at resolving future anticipated occurrences, hence collective accomplishment of control. In urban areas, environmental risk factors such as massive air pollution caused by heavy industries must be checked through the four key concepts to prevent extensive damage to the ozone layer in the skies (Shagoon Tabin 2008).
Dana Ames, Theodore L. Prossler, Marc Hoit (2011): Structure Congress retrieved on 30th Sep 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=dP1N0QwlMzYC&pg=PA1961&lpg=PA1961&dq=dealing+with+a+multi-hazards+environment,&source=bl&ots=SNk-99nFQn&sig=AoI3GHdV8wzZSrXPxvC4uhthCBM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DadnUMqXI9KChQfxqoHgBQ&ved=0CEAQuwUwAw#v=onepage&q=dealing%20with%20a%20multi-hazards%20environment%2C&f=false
Oxford dictionaries (2012) retrieved from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/mitigate
Shagoon Tabin (2008): Global Warming: The effect of Ozone depletion retrieved on 30th Sep 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=QFBmUu1lwzAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ozone+layer+depletion+effects&source=bl&ots=0khOT9wkKe&sig=zsm51cZXErHn2MYWJ9p2cGMYF3s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=AKlnULqUCYqZhQf-kIHADw&ved=0CDcQuwUwAg#v=onepage&q=ozone%20layer%20depletion%20effects&f=false
Ethical Profile Paper
The question of correct or wrong is founded on human perception which is why it is a relative conclusion. To one person, something may be right while to another person, the same thing may be wrong. For most societies, popular opinion plays the role of determining what is right and what is wrong. The difficult task is to decide on the concept of society’s popular opinion since it is impossible to go questioning the masses on what is right. However, by using the common senses within a social atmosphere one can anticipate what is right and what is wrong. At this point, the discriminative power in one’s conscious mind becomes handy.
$1I. Ethical autobiography
In my opinion, the right thing to do is through the use of the golden rule of doing something provided it does not cause harm to anyone. In fact, I the right thing for me occur when I am contented in doing something while at the same time being beneficial to someone else. This is pretty hard because each time I decide on doing something I am convinced is right, it always ends up hurting someone. This makes me to consider my values and in case the majority are comfortable and just a few are hurt a little, I am not remorseful or guilty of anything. This choice involves the least hurt and the option working towards the greater good. One thing I am careful of in my choices is the context within which I am working. Different environments require different ways to deal with the prevailing situations. Within a particular context, my instincts are very strong. However, I have to be careful not to oppress my values or cause harm on others. Following my instincts is very applicable in situations where a personal decision is required since I am the only person involved.
Professionally, deciding on wrong or right is based on correct or incorrect an aspect that I gauge using justice or injustice. Professionally, it is not only my opinion that counts. However, I have to adhere to the professional ethics guiding my field of specialization. I also have to make sure to formulate decisions founded on the view of others. In a workplace situation, I have to consider the interests of the organization that are in line with its goals and objectives. The organizational interests are reflected its value and code of conduct. I have to adhere to these codes while ensuring to work within the professional practice ethics.
Examples of ethical behaviors
The four examples of ethical behaviors I discuss here are integrity, responsibility, reliability, and loyalty, and sensitivity and openness to other people’s ideas.
Integrity calls for consistency of actions. Culturally, I have grown to value honesty and truthfulness. I value researching for something to gain information about it. With the right information, it is easy to engage in accurate actions. Hypocrisy is not valued in my culture and I have grown to adore integrity since hypocrisy is an added disadvantage to self. Hypocrisy is considered coating salt with sugar but this is only temporary.
In my society, everyone is called upon to be responsible. Putting blame on others is considered a rude action. Everyone is called upon to take all their responsibility without laying any blame on anyone. In have therefore, grown up with an understanding that for every consequence, I am solely responsible for the outcome. As a result, I consider first taking my time to evaluate options presented to me. By every means I first evaluate a task for what it requires from me before I can openly say I am ready to do it. I also like taking challenges especially because they steer me to learn new things or engage in new things.
Reliability is one thing I value most. I always want to be available and accessible whenever I am needed or called upon to engage in any duty. Being reliable is an act that does bring me out as a person who is not only concerned about themselves but also about others. At any given time, I want to be not to cause harm to others. I want to have my life dedicated to my calling and my life in balance.
There is a cliché that says one can never deceive God, Satan, or Self. This is why I have made up my mind to act loyal to my conscience, vulnerable populations, fellow employees, others in the same profession and the public. In know that loyalty is one thing that uphold what I belief as right and wrong.
Nature of ethical behaviors in me
As a person, I dislike hypocrites or acts associated with hypocrisy. People who always like hurting others by prioritizing their opinions for self hidden selfish interests are not my favorite. However, I am always in support of persons who openly and with lots of integrity fight for what is just and that which is aimed at the good of the majority (Johnson, 2003). I am always in support of actions where justice prevails, and where everything is called by name and not by a nickname. I am very satisfied with my profession. As a result, I work hard to understand every bit of information needed to be known so that I can be right on what I do. I always take responsibility for every action I get involved. I believe that by not laying a finger on people for my actions, I am hurting others and causing them trouble. I am on a mission of causing change in life and workplace culture, and this call for risk takers which I am willing to be. For as long as I can, I want to be available and accessible to respond to calls within my profession. This is not about my work but also about my legacy and a good role model. To me, the people I serve, my colleagues, and the vulnerable, want to remain loyal. I want to be person who can be depended upon for solutions to problems and life threatening challenges.
$1II. Professional/ethical hero
My ethical hero is my grandfather. For as long as I remember, he has always held onto the fact that people’s health is of paramount importance. My grandfather has always made sure to assist other persons whenever required. Being a medical doctor, he has worked till his retirement age but has been called upon to go on offering his services in the same hospital until he can no more. After his retirement, my grandfather remained home for three months. One day there was a doctor’s strike in the nation and he was called to offer services in the hospital where he had long worked. During his services, he remembers attending to an old lady who was in a critical condition after a road accident. My grandfather made the impossible possible by saving her life. This changed his mind and he decided with or without pay, he would forever be there to make a person see tomorrow even at the face of impossibilities. Throughout his career, he has never forsaken his family. Despite the condition of his profession, his family never complains not having his presence felt, or him being questioned or condemned for disrespecting his work. To me, he seems perfectly in a position to balance his work, life and family.
I am not advocating for doctors not to seek for better pay or better working conditions. However, I am trying to say that doctors should be reliable and readily available to provide services to needy persons. Sick people are at a matter of life or death and in the helping profession sometimes you bend the rules such that your services cause no harm to the innocent majority. By learning to observe life, work, and family balance, the helping profession is not as hard or demanding as it is perceived by many.
To me, my grandfather has made me realize that any profession requires passion, interest, and sheer determination such that one can create preeminence out of it. If one is in an occupation not in their interest, it is not possible to achieve optimum productivity. As a person, a career should have one’s interests at heart such that one is fully satisfied practicing it. Job satisfaction brings in a self motivation and empowerment that improves one’s productivity and job performance. When satisfied with one’s job, one focuses on improving what desires to be enhanced to put together a practical profession.
$1III. Ethical decision-making style
My decision making style is based upon my consideration of right or wrong and HARPS decision making model. Basically, I not only love, but I do value my profession. I want my decisions to have an impact on my life as a person and also in my profession. Such decisions occur by first beginning with an information phase (Penn state, 2006). I value information. It provides one with the ability to make accurate choices or decisions. To gather relevant and sufficient information, I need time to carryout research to reduce the potential problem or challenge down. Not all gathered information is significant to the predicament at dispense. In this case, I need to get to the issues phase (Johnson, 2003). This is the phase where the data gathered concerning the problem ids questioned for clarity, omission or controversy.
Any data that is needed and is missing is also sought (Penn state, 2006). Having identified the current issues with the proposed solution to the problem, the next thing is to perform analysis of the activity that I wish to be performed. In the analysis stage, I have to be careful to ensure that I observe the professional and work place code of ethics. They arrived at findings must avoid being in conflict the conduct codes and should also be permissible actions should then be subjected to the conclusion phase. At this point, the main concern is to examine the arrived at results so that to land at the paramount explanation. The most excellent solution must not be a source of destruction to the majority. Again, the obtained alternatives should be prioritized. With the best solution it is possible to match the right professionals for the project. The right professionals are who are reliable, accountable and responsible and whose intentions are at the best interests of the majority. In my culture, one is considered a fool for unconsciously making decisions (Penn state, 2006). Professionally, one is required to make decisions that are in line with code of convention.
$1IV. Professional and ethical development
As a professional, I have acquired much but not all professional ethical areas. I believe I need development on counseling. As a counselor, I will help persons to deal effectively and productively with the situations presented to them. I believe that to have others follow you; one has to have a persuasive tone that will convince others how fast workplace activities and actions need to be done. Through counseling, I believe this will play an important role in assuring participants they have all reason to fully participate in decision implementation. No one wants to be involved with a project that failed before accomplishing all its responsibilities. Again, in the course of normal organization activities, employees need counseling as this will empower them to proceed with the organizational activity.
I also need to develop my research and development. In most cases, research and development comes up with the critical information and solutions to problem (Johnson, 2003). With skills in research and development, I believe that it will be possible to understand situations based on the ethical requirement surrounding them. Different situations have different ethics requirements. As professional, research and development skills will be timely to assist me in making good decisions that are both informed and up to latest technology. Detailed information is a source of transparent, accurate and up to date information. During decision making detailed information will provide the finest substitute in terms of fulfilling the criteria for satisfying the ultimate results. For alternatives that fail to meet desired criteria, they should be eliminated and the right information will offer the opportunity to identify any form of decision.
The ways through which can acquire counseling and research and development skills is by taking risky situations in the business that will result me to come up with best counseling and the best form of information . I can also go back to learning these skills from educational institutions like colleges or universities. Such ethics development, I belief, will offer me the best platform to be myself and change for it later. In a rapidly changing business world, counseling and research and development skills will obtain from an effective feedback system.
Johnson, K., (2003). An approach to ethics and policy decision making. Retrieved from http://www.ethicaledge.com/ethical_decisions.html
Penn state engineering, (2006). Ethical decision making processes. Retrieved from https://www.google.co.ke/search?q=Ethical+decision-making+style&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a#hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=ISI&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&q=ethical+decision+making+model&revid=1817608082&sa=X&ei=c1NSUPOpIsPU0QXzj4C4Aw&ved=0CGAQ1QIoAQ&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&fp=8f79723a1a92f4c3&biw=724&bih=424
Diets: Diets show the type of food combinations someone takes. They are discrete variables because it has countable number of integer outcomes for the number of diets an individual chooses. Diet is an independent variable as it is expected to have effect on a person’s health status. It is a nominal variable since one only gives the name of the diet he or she prefers to take. Chi square test will be the right test to determine if there is a relationship between the diets and health status.
Physical activity: This is a dichotomous variable. This is because an individual will just state whether they engage in physical activity. If they go further to state the specific form of physical activity, then the variable is taken as a nominal variable. Physical activity causes an effect to someone’s health status. Therefore, it is taken as a physical independent variable. Chi square test is the best for testing whether there is any relationship between the physical activity and health status.
Health status: Health status of an individual can be ranked in an ordered manner. When it is ranked in this way, it is operationalized as an ordinal variable. Health status is a discrete variable as it shows how an individual’s health status is ranked. Health status is influenced by other factors like physical activity diet. Therefore, it is a dependent variable. This relationship can be measured by use of a chi square test.
Social support: Social support implies whether an individual gets any support socially. This variable is operationalized as a dichotomous variable as the respondents give yes or no answers. The variable can also be classified as a categorical variable. Since the social support depends on other factors like health status, it is a dependent variable. The relationship between these two variables can be tested by use of chi square test. To test strength of relationship correlation analysis can also be used (Trochim, 2006).
Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Variables. Retrieved on September 12, 2012 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/variable.php
Using Ethic Theories Or Approaches About Coining
Coining is a common medical practice practiced in the Southeast Asian society as a cure for symptoms such as fever, cold, headache and cough. It included rubbing of heated ointments that contain herbs or other ingredients into the chest, head or back of an individual. Rubbing of a coin or the back of a spoon with vigor in a linear manner for fifteen to twenty minutes then takes place. This takes place along the ribs, or head until a reddened area occurs. Wickens (1996).
There are ethical approaches that are available for the application so as to guard against the abuse and mistreat of individuals especially children through coining. One of the approaches is to observe the principle of beneficence by acting to benefit another individual. This takes place so as to prevent harm, or cease any harm that may be detrimental to an individual. By practicing the principle of beneficence, there would be bringing about the positive good of the ethical approach. In a realized case of coining where there is involvement of a child, the practitioners should make an attempt to educate the mother of the child. (http://scu.edu/ethics/). This is with regard to the dangers that coining would bring to the physical fitness and health of the child.
Another ethical approach would be to reporting the practice of coining to child protective services. This would be practicing a legal obligation meant for the well being of the victim of coining. Barth, R. (2000). A Child protective service is a specialized social service for children who are undergoing neglecting or abuse. By reporting the case, one would remedy and decrease the risk of continuing abuse of the application of coining. Yuan, Y. (2008).
Barth, R. (2000).The child welfare challenge: Policy, practice, and research. New York.
Wickens (1996) Coining, the ancient practice: an ethical dilemma. New York.
Yuan, Y. (2008). "Longitudinal analysis of repeated child abuse reporting and victimization: multistate analysis of associated factors".Child Maltreatment: 76–88.
Kirk, G. & Nolan, S. B. (2010). “Nonprofit mission statement focus and financial performance”
Theories and Concepts
The article highlights numerous theories and concepts pertaining to the formulation of mission statements in nonprofit organizations. One of the most notable theories pertains to innovative leadership. According to the authors, nonprofit organizations would find it difficult to attain organizational goals without innovative leadership. Consequently, the nonprofit organizations must focus on the development of a mission statement that reflects innovative leadership. Another theory pertains to organizational culture. According to the authors, the mission statement of nonprofit organizations should reflect sufficient strategies for organizational culture. Through this approach, the nonprofit entities would improve their performance (Kirk, 2010).
Justification of Research
The research in this article is justified by the need to improve the effectiveness of nonprofit organizations. The mission statement reflects an organization’s image. Consequently, it serves as an essential area of research. Most nonprofit organizations do not emphasize on the mission statement while developing strategic plans (Kirk, 2010).
Testing the Hypothesis
The authors collected the data by visiting the websites of different nonprofit organizations. Essentially, most of these organizations specialize in human rights. Additionally, some of the data was collected from the organization’s annual reports. The hypothesis was tested using the overall financial performance of the sampled organizations (Kirk, 2010).
Results and Conclusions
Based on the findings, more than 58% of the sampled organizations did not specify the target audience in their mission statements. The performance of these organizations was below-par. On the other hand, organizations that specified the target audience in their mission statements had better performance. The authors concluded that the mission statement can improve or hamper the performance of nonprofit organizations (Kirk, 2010).
Kirk, G. & Nolan, S. B. (2010). “Nonprofit mission statement focus and financial performance”, Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 20(4), Accessed on 27th September 2012 from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=7221863d-e4ee-498a-8757-d5aaaefc3bc0%40sessionmgr110&vid=2&hid=102