Disciplines For Success
Division in writing is defined as the form of writing that tends to break the subject down into smaller units. Classification in writing is referred to as breaking down of the units into other smaller units. This aims at identifying the parts of the whole subject. Classification and division are regarded to as a rhetorical mode of organizing for writing. Any form of writing which is developed through classification and division is an exercise to common mode of thinking. Consecutively, for a person to be successful, they should ensure that they use the three kinds of discipline which are intellectual, physical, and emotional.
When writing, it is necessary to ensure a thoughtful decision about the topic, purpose, and the audience when creating the text. Thinking about the text helps the writer in maintaining focus when incorporating selective and relevant details in their work. Considering the audience ensures that the writer has chosen an effective language and tone that will be used to the intended audience. Focusing on the purpose directs the writer in identifying the mode for writing that is best suited to delivering the intended message (Allen, 2003). In order to be successful, it is necessary to use the emotional discipline when writing. When writing, let the emotions and thoughts run down unchecked. It is of advantage to engage the emotions of the readers. The facts should be written in an emotional way and also providing emotional examples so that readers can feel something as it makes them be connected to the writer. Including the emotional details when writing, is essential because it ensures that the reader experiences the story instead of just reading it through.
An excellent writing should be able to get to both the reader’s heart and mind. In order to effectively suspend the reality in favor of the fictional world, it is necessary to communicate the physical level (Allen, 2003). The data that are being used in writing should be unpacked properly for a physical sensation. In writings that are descriptive, physical details is usually extremely essential. The physical qualities and characteristics and the rich references to the individuality of the person should be included in writing. This helps in offering the reader with an apparent view about what is being written about and also assists in engaging the reader with the writing. When writing, intellectual discipline is necessary when a writer is building arguments.
It is necessary to ensure that the writer does not deviate away from the main idea which is being discussed and ensure that all, the supporting details that are used in the writing should focus on the main idea. Intellectual discipline ensures that the opinions are directly and clearly states during the state of the writing, and every paragraph should make sure that it discusses a part of the main idea. This makes certain that the audience does not get confused when reading the essay and that the means of writing is excellent (Allen, 2003). When a writer is writing, he should make sure that the details that are used appeal to the emotional, intellectual, and physical sensibilities of the reader. Doing this guarantees a successful writing that is bound to be enjoyed by the readers. It is significant to make sure that the audiences are considered so that they can enjoy the writing.
Allen, G (2003). Roland Barthes Taylor & Francis Group
Ethics in Public Health Leadership
Although there are numerous trends in public health, ethics is among the most predominant issues. Leaders in public health are faced with numerous ethical challenges on a daily basis. In the absence of excellent leadership skills, these challenges can significantly undermine the quality of health care. Numerous researchers have conducted numerous investigations in line with the issue of ethics in public health leadership. While some researchers investigate the available mechanisms for the enhancement of ethics, others assess the implications of low ethical standards in health care. Effective leadership strategies are required in order to alleviate the various challenges associated with ethics in public health. This paper focuses on a literature review of the various aspects of ethics in relation to public health leadership. Additionally, the analysis includes the development of a problem statement. This will address the identified gaps while also assessing the implications for positive social change.
The provision of quality health care to patients can be significantly undermined by heightened conflict of interest among the providers. According to Davidson (2010), ethics is a massive challenge for most public health leaders in the 21st Century. In line with such challenges, the public health leaders must employ complex responsive processes.
Davidson (2010) further notes that the leadership styles evident in the present health care sector are different from the methods used in the 20th Century. For instance, the relationship between the provider and patients is subject to extensive scrutiny. This is largely because of the numerous ethical dimensions which characterize such relations. Consequently, it is inevitable that public health leaders must implement comprehensive frameworks for dealing with the different ethical challenges. Issues pertaining to conflict of interest in public health leadership are manifested in numerous ways. For instance, a physician might prefer to use euthanasia on a patient as opposed to life sustaining equipments. In end-of-life treatment, public health leaders are faced with the massive tasks of maintaining the relevant standards of ethics. These situations are extremely sensitive and the leader must employ the strategies which enhance the outcome for the patient.
Jackson (2009) proposes a nursing leadership theory which can significantly enhance the standards of ethics in public health. This theory accentuates on a holistic approach in nursing and public health leadership. In essence, the holistic approach encourages public health leaders to assess the gains and costs of all decisions in nursing. The holistic theory proposed by Jackson (2009) also accentuates on the need for public health leaders to strengthen their ties with medical staff. In the presence of such relations, health care organizations work towards the attainment of similar goals. Ethics are often violated when public health leaders do not foster excellent relationship with staff members. In such scenarios, the leaders and staff members pursue different goals. Such an approach can significantly jeopardize the welfare of patients and hence overall health standards in the society. However, the theory proposed by Jackson (2009) facilitates for an all-inclusive approach. It is crucial to outline that some public health leaders violate health ethics because they do not have the relevant knowledge. This calls for greater emphasis on public health ethics in the curriculum for nursing and other lines of specialty in health care. The integration of such perspectives in the curriculum would go a long way towards the enhancement of excellent standards of ethics in public health.
Storch (2013) narrows down on the significance of ethical leadership in health care. The analysis largely revolves around the implications of ethical leadership within the nursing profession. Nursing leaders are integral stakeholders in the attainment of exemplary standards of health care for all patients. Their roles are central towards the overall output generated within the nursing profession. Nursing leaders have the mandate of providing direction to other members of the nursing fraternity. In line with this stipulation, nursing leaders must employ the right approach within the decision making process. Other members of the nursing fraternity seek guidance from nursing leaders as pertains to numerous decision making issues.
The nursing leaders should use a comprehensive ethical framework to facilitate for effectiveness within the decision making process. Ineffective approaches to ethics among nursing leaders undermine overall efficiency in any given nursing unit. In addition to decision making, ethics enable the nursing leaders to plan adequately for resource allocation. The nature of treatment outcome is strongly dependent on the approaches used in resource allocation. Unethical leadership provides the platform for irrelevant disparities in terms of resource allocation. This exemplifies the necessity of exemplary ethical standards among nursing leaders. Nurses are essential linkages between physicians and patients. This gap is highly dependent on the prevailing ethical mechanisms. In order to streamline this linkage, nursing leaders must maintain the relevant standards of ethics.
Communication in public health is also highly sensitive to ethics. For instance, health care providers should not expose information concerning the patient’s health to the public domain. This is because of the prominent role played by confidentiality in health care (McPherson & Rodney, 2004). Nurse executives and forma nurse leaders are central towards the health standards in the community. In line with this responsibility, they must embrace high standards of ethics in order to mitigate any kind of bias in the process of providing health care services. According to Storch (2013), current research has been insufficient with regard to the awareness among nursing leaders concerning their role from an ethical perspective. Additionally, the current demand for health care has contributed massively towards the degradation of ethics in public health leadership. In another scholarly submission, Smith (2004) notes that public health leaders face extensive ethical challenges. One of these challenges directly pertains to balancing the beliefs of employees and patients in health care. This is a massive challenge because most employees in health care have different viewpoints compared to patients (Thorstenson, 2000). This creates a platform for potential conflict of interest among public health administrators. This kind of challenge can only be addressed using a comprehensive framework of ethics.
Smith (2004) recommends reforms in education for public health leaders in order to address such challenges. Rodney (2009) focuses on the various strategies for establishing an ethical working environment in health care. For instance, nursing leaders should communicate often with other staff members. Effective communications can strongly enhance the standards of ethics in public health leadership. The use of a code of ethics is also an essential aspect towards the establishment of an ethical working environment. According to Rodney (2009), nursing leaders should follow such a code in order to enhance the framework for decision making.
Based on the literature review, ethics form an essential aspect of public health leadership. Despite this significance, numerous gaps are present in terms of research. One of the most notable gaps pertains to the levels of awareness about the significance of ethics among public health leaders. The determination of the actual of levels of awareness would help in establishing the relevant mechanisms for the enhancement of ethical standards. Another gap pertains to the implications of ineffective ethical leadership in public health. Few researchers have focused on this issue despite its essence with regard to the enhancement of health in the society (Jenkins, 2002).
In order to address this gap, more resources should be channeled towards research and evidence-based practice in public health leadership. The incorporation of theory into practice also serves as another predominant gap in terms of research. Although numerous researchers have proposed exemplary theories, they have not implemented the same in actual health care settings. Addressing these gaps will form the basis of positive social change from the perspective of public health leadership.
The analysis focuses on a review of literature pertaining to the issue of ethics in public health leadership. Ethic play a massive role in the overall quality of services availed to patients in form of health care. Ethics are often violated when public health leaders do not foster excellent relationship with staff members. In such scenarios, the leaders and staff members pursue different goals. Such an approach can significantly jeopardize the welfare of patients and hence overall health standards in the society. Additionally, various gaps have been identified with regards to ethical leadership in public health. These gaps include the assessment of awareness levels among public health leaders and the implementation of evidence-based practice among others.
Davidson, S. J. (2010). Complex responsive processes: A new lens for leadership, Nursing Forum, 45(2)
Gersh, M. R. (2006). Servant-Leadership: A philosophical foundation for professionalism in physical therapy, Physical Therapy Education, 20(2)
Jackson, J. P. & Averill, J. B. (2009). Patterns of knowing: Proposing a theory for nursing leadership, Nursing Economics, 27(3)
Jenkins, H. M. (2002). Ethical dimensions of leadership in community health nursing,Journal of Community Health Nursing, 6(2): 103-112
McPherson, G. & Rodney, P. (2004). Nursing ethics: Cross-border challenges and leadership, Nursing Ethics, 11(3)
Rodney, P. & Stevenson, L. et al. (2009). Enhancing ethical climates in nursing work environments, Canadian Nurse, 105(3):20-5
Smith, A. P. (2004). Leadership roundtable: Ethics, education, and access. Nursing Economics, 22(5)
Storch, J. & Newton, L. (2010). Dare we speak of ethics? Attending to the nurse leaders, Nursing ethics, 17(5):566-76
Storch, J. (2013). Take me to my leader: The importance of ethical leadership among formal nurse leaders, Nursing Ethics, 20(2):150-57
Thorstenson, T. (2000). An ethics framework for organizational change, Nursing Administration Quarterly, 23(2): 9-18
The Problem of Unemployment in Los Angeles
To: The Los Angeles Times
The rates on unemployment in the City of Los Angeles are on the rise. Even among the employed people, the standards of job satisfaction are considerably low. As a city that is considered as a prime tourist destination, unemployment paints a bad image of Los Angeles. Despite the efforts by different stakeholders, hundreds of thousands of people in this city struggle to meet their daily needs. The problem of unemployment is heightened by the lofty cost of living. For instance, transport costs are extremely high in this city. It is thus complex for an unemployed person to contribute towards the city’s development and economy. There are various problems in the City of Los Angeles which can be attributed directly to unemployment.
Firstly, unemployment has directly contributed to high rates of homelessness in Los Angeles. This is largely because most people cannot afford the rents or mortgages to buy a home. In addition to homelessness, another aspect that is directly attributed to unemployment is crime. Crime is rampant across the City of Los Angeles. This also applies to numerous suburbs of the city. The unemployed youths can easily join to form a gang. These gangs work as a team and hence commit numerous criminal activities in Los Angeles. The increase in rates of crime has had negative ramifications on the city’s residents. A city that was originally devoid of insecurity has seen the levels of violent and petty crimes escalate in recent years. By addressing the challenge of unemployment, these kinds of problems would be mitigated in Los Angeles. Another aspect that directly relates to unemployment is the state of the city’s economy.
Due to the high unemployment rates, the City of Los Angeles is losing billions of dollars. For instance, authorities have to provide basic amenities to the unemployed. This is a massive burden to the city’s economy considering that the unemployed people do not contribute revenues in terms of taxes. The challenge of unemployment is also directly associated with the deteriorating image of the city. Although Los Angeles has global reputation, this has been dented by the high rates of unemployment. The city’s image is an essential factor in terms of tourism. Consequently, authorities must establish adequate measures for alleviating the problem. Unemployment in Los Angeles might also drag the economy of the entire state behind. This is because of the high dependency rates. All these aspects highlight the extensive nature of unemployment in Los Angeles.
The sensitive problem of unemployment in Los Angeles can only be addressed by implementing an elaborate strategy. Such a strategy should encompass a holistic approach to the entire problem. This involves the identification of the various causes of joblessness in the city, the establishment of the relevant mechanisms, and identification of stakeholders among others. In line with these perspectives, the city’s authorities must encourage investment activities. Increased investment plays a massive role in the alleviation of unemployment in any population. The city council should not only attract local investors but also target international partners. There are numerous avenues for investment in the city. For instance, the city is a technology hub and can thus support new organizations.
Additionally, authorities can encourage investments in the education sector. Such economic activities will be crucial in creating excellent opportunities for local people. The investment dimension has been used extensively even in other cities. For instance, San Diego has attracted excellent investments from leading multinationals. Such investment activities have created numerous job opportunities for people in that city. Apart from investment activity, local authorities should establish elaborate plans for the alleviation of unemployment in Los Angeles. For instance, authorities can expand the existing public organizations in order to create additional jobs. There are hundreds of public corporations in Los Angeles. Such companies would form the relevant basis for job creation.
Innovation is another area that can help in the alleviation of unemployment in the city. This mostly applies to the young graduates with exceptional talents in different areas. Authorities must establish centers of excellence for such talented people. In such centers, the youth would be equipped with numerous innovative skills which they may apply to earn a living. In essence, innovative initiatives can also be crucial in the creation of jobs for other people. Most job seekers in the City of Los Angeles focus on the white-collar jobs. While such jobs are well-paying, there are numerous alternatives in the blue-collar sector. In line with this, job seekers must be advised not to focus only on the plum jobs offered in the best corporate organizations. For instance, the City of Los Angeles has enormous potential in small-scale businesses. Such businesses require minimal investment in terms of capital. Consequently, this would help in steering the people of Los Angeles out of employment. These proposals are beneficial in that minimal costs will be required. Additionally, it is essential for city authorities to devote adequate resources in the actualization of these plans.
The question about whether the constitution should be changed and how often it should be changed can be explored from the dimension of a static and a living constitution. Despite the position taken by these opposing schools of thoughts, one fact stands out: a constitution change is invertible. The disputing concept is how and when changes should be instituted (Chemerinsky, 1987). It is essential to realize that the proponent of a living constitution holds that a constitution is established to address issues existing during its drafting, and it gives room for future interpretation of such laws. This is the essence having amendments provision in many constitutions, in the world. According to Sharma, nothing remains static in the world. Change is part of nature. Societies undergo changes with time.
Different aspects of society change to new challenges and problems. Sharma argues that a constitution that denies the right to make changes it is likely to be ruined and replaced by the subsequent generations. A constitution should provide for both flexibility and rigidity (Frost & Feingold, 2003). Justice Scalia argues that the whole purpose of a constitution is to prevent change. This argument is meant to protect the original meaning and spirit of a constitution. However, the theory of originalism as proposed by Scalia fails to cater for and evolving society. Consider, for example, the bill of rights, at its initial state; it did not give women franchise rights. A constitution should be changed, but the changes should be guided by well laid procedures that protect the constitution from manipulation of self-centered individuals.
Brij Sharma (2007). Introduction to the constitution of India. Prentice-Hall New Delhi, India.
Eisgruber L. Christopher (2001)Constitutional self-Government.
Erwing Chemerinsky (1987). Interpreting the constitution. Praeger Publishers. New York USA.
Frost B. & Jeffery G. (2003). History of American political thought. Lexington Books. Maryland, USA.
McKenna G. & Stanley Feingold (2009). Taking sides: clashing views on political issues
Jeffery j. & Dawn O. (2007). The changing constitution 6th edition. Oxford University Press. New York.
Human beings have five senses including light, touch, taste, smell and hearing. The senses play an essential role as they help in the interpretation of a person’s environment. The senses offer an idea of the environment (Klein, Giampieri-Deutsch & Barth, 2012). Our senses can provide accurate information to the brain or they can be deceptive by providing the wrong information to the brain. Goodpaster and Kirby (2006) claim the mind receives information from the senses. People have to use the five senses to gather information which is transferred to the brains for processing. The senses are not developed before we are born, but they start developing after birth. The senses develop as one hears people talk, touches things and tastes food. In addition, babies are not able to understand words they hear. They hear noises in their surrounding, but they do not know what they are. Additionally, babies are not able to differentiate cold and hot. As people grow and become adults, the senses became interlinked with their thinking and use of the mind (Goodpaster & Kirby, 2006).
There are various reasons I believe in the accuracy of sensory information. First, people depend on all the senses for survival. The senses help people differentiate what is good or bad. This depends on the information that transferred to the brain. For instance, the sense of smell helps tell bad and good smell. The sense of touch helps differentiate cold objects and hot objects. The sense of taste aids in identifying fresh and taste foods and vice versa. The sense of hearing aids in differentiating sounds we hear. The sense of light enables ne to see differentiate objects. Second, the reliability of information/ facts observed is a reason to believe in the accuracy and inaccuracy of sensory information. People only make statements regarding what they can perceive. The information/ facts are considered correct if there is nothing contradicting the information. Hence, the information/ facts are considered accurate. This makes it easy for people to make statements and show the accuracy of the statement. Third, the accuracy and inaccuracy of sensory information depends on the cognitive efficacy of the person. People differ in terms of sensory input capabilities. Genetic factors influence sensory input capabilities. Genetic variations increase or decrease the senses of some people, and this affects their ability to use their senses and consider the sensory information accurate (Goodpaster & Kirby, 2006).
Several factors affect the accuracy and in accuracy of data. The factors include the data source and cognitive ability, reliability of observed facts and the brain and interpretation of information received. First, the data source and cognitive ability contribute to the accuracy and in accuracy of sensory information. The source of data should be accurate so as to ensure the sensory information/ data received by the brain is accurate. A poor source of data affects the accuracy of the sensory data. Moreover, the cognitive ability impacts the accuracy of sensory data. The cognitive ability differs from one person to another. Genetic variations affect cognitive ability as people perceive stimuli differently. Some are capable f utilizing their senses effectively while others are not. Second the reliability of observed facts contributes to the accuracy of the sensory information. Reception of sensory data via accurate observation provides facts and data that are important for sensing. The facts observed should be reliable so as to ensure the sensory information is accurate.
Observing unreliable facts contributes to inaccuracy of the sensory information as one cannot tell whether the sensory information is correct. Third, the brain and interpretation of the data obtained contributes to the accuracy and inaccuracy of sensory information. Cognitive ability to examine sensory information obtained depends on a healthy brain. The condition of the senses is exhibited when sensory information is obtained in the brain. Inaccurate information send by the senses to the brain will be interpreted inaccurately. People interpret things differently and hence perceive reality differently. The interpretation of things is based on the information send by the senses to the brain (Goodpaster & Kirby, 2006).
Nature and nurture play a crucial function in the interpretation and evaluation of sensory data. Nature is vital in evaluation and interpretation of sensory data as it is the source of stimuli. The stimuli are received and interpreted as sensory information. The interpretation and evaluation of sensory information depends on the nature an individual has been raised. For instance, people raised in urban areas are used to noise and their sensory receptors ignore the stimuli. On the other hand, people rose in rural areas and serene places perceive and evaluate noises and sound differently as they consider the noise and sound disturbances as they are not used to the nature. Nurture impacts evaluation and interpretation of sensory information. Human beings nurture the way they perceive stimuli from their surrounding and interpret it. Therefore, people interpret and perceive messages and things differently. The interpretation and evaluation of sensory data depends on the beliefs and expectations nurtured in an individual. Nurture determines how individual selects, perceives, organizes, interprets and evaluates different stimuli to make meaning of the environment. Hence, nurture determines the sensory information encoded from different stimuli, how it is evaluated and interpreted (Goodpaster & Kirby, 2006).
Goodpaster, J.R., & Kirby, G.R. (2006). Thinking. Pearson Prentice Hall
Klein, H., Giampieri-Deutsch, P., & Barth, F.G. (2012). Sensory Perception. Springer
Research Methodology And Design
1. Answers to the even number questions
2. How many independent variables are in a 4*6 factorial design? How many conditions (cells) are in this design?
The number of independent variables is 2, and the number of conditions in the design is 24.
4. What is the difference between a cell (condition) mean and the means used to interpret a main effect?
A cell mean represents the mean of counts within the same variable while main effect mean represent the mean of comparative variables. It shows the relationship between variables.
A main effect is an effect of a single independent variable.
6. What is the difference between a complete factorial design and a incomplete factorial design?
A complete factorial design is one which all levels of each independent variable are paired with all levels of every other independent variable. An incomplete factorial design also has more than one independent variable but all levels of each variable are not paired with all levels of every other variable.
8. Explain the difference between a two way ANOVA and a three way ANOVA.
In a 2-way ANOVA,2 independent variables are used while, in three-way ANOVA, three independent variables are used.
10. Complete each of the following ANOVA summary tables:
b. What is the factorial notation?
The factorial notation is two.
c. How many conditions were in the study?
There were two conditions in the study.
d. How many subjects were in the study?
There were 150 subjects in the study.
The significant main effect is
12. a. The values of fobl are significant at =0.5
b. The F-ratios indicates that there is a significant relationship between gender and performance of a timed task.
c. The effect size is .015. This implies that the relationship between the independent variables (gender) and dependent variable (timed activity) is large.
Answers to the rest of the questions.
2. Difference between multiple independent variables and multiple levels of independent variables. Which is better?
The independent variable is the feature that is manipulated or monitored by a researcher. In most studies, researchers are concerned in probing the effects of the independent variable. In its simplest form, independent variable has only two levels. However, it is certainly not uncommon for an independent variable to have more than two levels. It is familiar for a research study to comprise multiple independent variables, possibly with each of the independent variables comprising of multiple levels. Multiple independent variable study is one with different variables that are being investigated or studied while multiple level independent variables involve studying several levels of independent variables. For example, in a study study probing the effects of a new prescription on symptoms of depression, the investigator may include three groups in the study. In this example, the independent variables consist of three levels (absent, medium and high). This represents multiple level independent variables. In the same research, the investigator may attempt to investigate the effects of both prescription and psychotherapy on symptoms of depression. In this case, the researcher introduces two independent variables leading to the formation of multiple independent variables.
Multiple independent variables allow a researcher to answer questions regarding whether the effects of one independent variable depends on the level of another (interaction between the independent variables.). The researcher is able to include more than one variable in multiple linear regressions. A researcher is also able to introduce control variables, which can be used to account for observed relationship and document cumulative effects. However, use of independent variables consisting multiple levels makes a research complicated. Keeping path of the various categories and variety of variables can certainly be difficult in a research (Marczyk & DeMatteo, 2005). Multiple independent variables allow testing co-variation in terms of functional relationship between cause and effect.
Blocking is placing sampling units into groups where each pair of measurement for a block of size two (Hanlot & larget, 2011). Blocking is the process grouping runs of an experiment in such a way that runs in each group are more similar to each other than they are like runs in a different group. Blocking is strategy used to design out the effects of noise factors. It is useful in combating and controlling sources of unwanted variability in measured data. Blocking is a clever, yet straightforward technique that allows an investigator to reconcile two somewhat opposing aims of experimental design. It minimizes unwanted variability among experimental units as much as possible so that the subtle effects of treatments can be detected. It also helps in making inferences relevant to a population of interest. Noise is extraneous variables in an experiment which influences the dependent variable, but that evenly spread across experimental conditions. Noise poses no threat to validity, but it decreases the capability to detect an effect statistically.
The disadvantages of blocking are not severe, but they exist. Introducing blocking into an experimental makes both the organization and the statistical analysis of the experiment somewhat more complex. In some complex schemes, randomization process is complex. A complex blocking scheme does not increase the possibility of error and consequently, requires more care. Blocking used incorrectly can present a problem. For example, it is rare to see blocks in field experiments designed to make fieldwork convenient and not honor fertility gradient. If an experiment has a small number of treatments and few replications, a randomized block design can have substantially fewer degrees of freedom for estimating the error variance than a totally randomized design.
5. Main effects and interaction effects.
Effects are statistical relationship between dependent and independent variables. Main effect in factorial design is the sum effect of one independent variable.
Main effect is an effect of a single independent variable. It describes the effect of a single variable as if there were no other variables in the study. Interaction effect is the effect of each independent variable at the level of the other independent variable.
The main effects for each factor measure how much the means differ for the level of that factor averaged over all categories of the other factor. The interaction effect measures how much the mean for each combination of two explanatory variables differ from what it would be if the variables were considered separately (Utts & Heckard, 2006). Interaction effects allow researchers to assess whether the effects of one variable depends on the level of the other variable. This enables researchers to closely stimulate real world, where multiple variables interact.
6. How does a covariate reduce noise?
The main components of noise include systematic biases/errors that are caused by systematic differences between experimental unit s in different units. Replications are random errors that are caused by the inherent variability in the responses of similar experimental units given the same treatment. They manifest in the variation between repeat measurements. The third component of noise is measurement errors, which are caused by imprecise measuring instruments or inspectors. They manifest in the variation between repeat measurements. Replication and measurements errors are referred to as experimental errors. Not all noise factors are specified or known. Noise factors that are specified and measured may or may not be controlled. Strategies to reduce systematic biases differ depending on which type of noise factor the researcher is dealing with.
According to Hanlon (2011), the basic strategy for dealing with noise factors at the design stage is by blocking over those noise factors that can be easily controlled and randomized over the rest. If noise factors are observed, then their effects can also be accounted at the analysis level by using regression methods or by forming the blocks post-randomization and data collection. Normally, only a few noise factors can be used in blocking. Some noise factors cannot be used for blocking because they are not observed before assignment of experimental units to the treatments or their levels cannot be fixed. Such noise factors are carried covariates.
Making adjustments is one of the most fundamental concepts in social research.
Analysis of covariance is used to reduce noise and increase power. This is made possible by having one or more covariate for every subject data. Each of these covariates should be an extraneous variable that is correlated with the dependent variable. Analysis of covariance (ANCOV) can then be used to remove from the error term that variance as a result of covariate. ANCOVA adjusts posttest scores for variability on the covariate.
7. Describe and explain three trades-offs present in experiments.
It has long been thought that there is a trade-off between internal and external validity in randomized experiments i.e. obtaining a valid causal inference in a particular place and time =, with particular subjects, may come at the price of obtaining a generalizable causal inference to other places, times and subjects. Some trade-offs are logical. Social experiments are often resources intensive, for example, so that paying for their implementation at one site often leaves little time left for implementing the experiment elsewhere. Other trade-offs are conceptual. For instance, experiments require some manipulable cause, but the very act of manipulation can interfere in the natural ecology of the setting of interest, thus producing unrepresentative results. Experiments have trade-offs between blocking experimental units and degrees of freedom for testing the core hypothesis.
There is also trade-offs between standardizing conditions and generalizing conclusions
B. Hanlon & B. Larget (2011). Principles of experimental Design. University Of Wisconsin, department of statistics.
G. marczyk & D. DeMattteo (2005). Essentials of research design and methodology. John Wiley & sons. New Jersey USA.
J. Utts & R. Heckard (2006). Statistical ideas and methods. Thomson Cooperation. USA.
Include 3-5 peer-reviewed journal articles to support your responses.
Jackson, S. L. (2012).Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach.Belmont, CA Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
DISCUSSION QUESTION 1: The Helsinki Declaration, Belmont Report, and Nuremberg Code
Ethics of clinical and academic investigation is the concept that is central to the Belmont Report, Helsinki Declaration and the Nuremberg Code. It is an ethical requirement for researchers to ensure that research does not only fulfill the objectives of the administrators, but also confer benefits of the studies to the population that is used as study participants. The ethical code, declaration, and report seek to protect and bring justice to study participants. Informed concept is fundamental. Researchers must describe the study purpose to the participants and seek informed consent of the participants based on the concept of voluntary participation in clinical and academic studies. The provisions of three documents are based on past research studies that involved grave violations including the Tuskegee and Surrogates Projects.
DISCUSSION QUESTION 2: Informed Consent
From the human rights violations during the World Wars I & II, to the activities of the Axis scientists, and to the events of the project conducted by Researchers in Tuskegee Institute, it became clear that the world needed a standard to prevent forced participant in research and harm caused by malicious administrators of research. Therefore, the concept of informed concept is very clear. In relation to the issue of informed concept, researchers are required to inform their participants of the purpose of the study and benefits of participation in the study. They should be made aware that participation is entirely voluntary and that participants are free to pull out of a study when they perceive infringements of their rights. In addition, researchers must stop a study whose continuation is likely to cause injuries of damage to participants. Central to the Belmont Report, Helsinki Declaration, and Nuremberg Code, research must conform to the requirement for justice, beneficence, and respect for persons.
DISCUSSION QUESTION # 3: Mandatory Flu Vaccination
Flu is a highly infectious viral disease. It has serious effects on the persons that are infected. According to the ethical principles of clinical research, study participants are required to participate based on informed concept and voluntary participation. However, infection with flu does not only threaten the life of one persons; It threatens the lives of people living around the person infected. Provided there is no impact on health from vaccination, all health care workers should be vaccinated. This is also true when there are no valid religious arguments and allergy to the vaccine. According to CDC, vaccination of health care workers is associated with reduced cases of patient deaths. Therefore, firing of non-conforming health care staff may be justified in this situation.
DISCUSSION QUESTION # 4: Mandatory Flu Vaccine
The choice of not getting immunized against flu does not only have consequences on the individual health care staff. It poses risks also to patients within the environment in which the health care worker works. Considering that health care centers are concentration centers for infection, it is justified to place sanctions on health care worker who wants to risk the lives of patients and their fellow health care staff. Taking lots of vitamins, water, and getting enough sleep may only protect the individual nurse or doctor. Therefore, the public health concern for the population should override the individual concerns.
I believe that childcare call for something more than understanding and knowledge of children and their families. As an early childhood professional, I have the attitude of interest, genuine concern and care for the welfare of children. I believe that working with children is an ethical and moral endeavor that is based on values. My philosophical values and beliefs towards services for children are as follows: a.) Services for children are a vital institution of the larger community. B.) the community and parents have a responsibility towards all children. C.) education and care are inseparable and interwoven. d.) the professional’s roles of working with children and their families require breadth and depth in attitudes, knowledge and skills. E.) children’s services call for collaboration and respectful relationships more tan individualistic missions.
On Morals and ethics I believe that I have to be aware of legal and ethical terminology. I also have to be aware of the core values in childhood education, know the code of ethics, curriculum framework for services to children, and master the regulations and legislations in children’s services and learning institutors. It is also essential to be aware of quality Assurance and the accreditation and quality improvement system. I should have the National Childcare accreditation permission to offer services to children and know how to deal with the dilemma and ethical issues in children’s services. I also have to be aware of children’s services practices, procedures and policies. I respect the responsibilities and rights of workers and help in the identification of hazards risks, child protection, offer clarification, advocacy and be a champion offer confidentiality and privacy. I respect children’s rights together with their families and am culturally aware of the diversity of students and their families (Stonehouse, 2002).
My positive qualities as a I offer children’s services include diversity, openness, respect towards the physical world and others, offer services aimed at the well being of others, establish collaboration, relationship and connection. I am also one with [perseverance and resilience, communicating, understanding and appreciate the beauty. I critically reflect and thoughtful and one who is in continuous pursuit of understanding and knowledge. I have the ability to recognize ethical dilemma and issues and analyze dilemmas, have questioning techniques, and analyze ethical issues. I also have good negation, reasoning, conflict resolution, and problem solving and research skills.
Philosophy is as a result of principles of practice that is supported by literature and theory. Therefore, literature and theory forms the foundation of philosophical practice for care and education of early years of childhood. The theoretical principles that inspire me to work with children is that of jean Piaget the developmental psychologists. This theory helps me to understand the cognitive development of children. This is a process which involves different changes in cognitive abilities and process. Early cognitive development according to Piaget involves the process dominated by actions while, at the later stages, it involves mental operations changes. The schemas are the physical and mental actions that help children to know and understand. Other concepts according to Paget’s theory that help children to learn are accommodation and assimilation. I use these concepts as a guiding tool in providing children’s services.
My goal is to do good to all children as part of serving humanity. I aim to interact with all students on an equal basis without discrimination. I hope to make a difference in children’s life by giving them a solid background in their first six years of their lives that will help them have adequate competence and coping skills for life.
Stonehouse, A. (2002) NSW Curriculum Framework for Children’s Services: The Practice of Relationships. NSW Department of Community Services,
How Effective Are Afterschool Teachers To Work With Students With Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorders?WRITTEN_BY Administrator
How Effective Are Afterschool Teachers To Work With Students With Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorders?
After school programs lead to overall academic achievement for students. Studies have shown the self-efficacy intrinsic motivation, and participation in afterschool programs have indicated that students are able to improve on their GPA scores, school attendance and math scores (. Instruction motivation and self efficacy according to can help students even those with disabilities to improve on their attendance rate and academic scores ( . Hock, et al (2001) argues that is necessary to improve the education outcome of students with disabilities. This is an effort that can be done by educators and policy makers. They further indicate that this can be done by use of both the after and before school programs (Hock, Pulvers, Deshler, & Schumaker, 2001).
This means that after-school learning program lead to academic success of students with behavioral and emotional challenges and students with autism especially, when after school programs adopt the best strategies for teaching students. Hock (2001) further show that when these programs have knowledgeable educators, and resources, students with disabilities will be well provided (Hock, Pulvers, Deshler, & Schumaker 2001).
Gullota (2009) shows that school activities alone are not sufficient to ensure the academic progress of students or their socio-emotional development. He says that parents and teachers should supervise children after school hours. After school programs offer these students with behavioral challenges with an opportunity to improve on their social behaviors. The educators in these programs have to have the ability to enhance the social ecology, cognitive, and developmental perspectives of these children by helping them to learn (Gullota, 2009).
The effectiveness of after school programs to Mahoney, Levine, & Hinga (2010), is determined by the programs’ quality. The most critical aspects that ensure the quality of after school program is the competence of educators and working staff. Mahoney and colleagues point out that ASP educators and staff members do not receive training, yet their competence is essential to provide students with the best environment to learn and ensure the overall quality of the program is maintained. This is possible when teachers are trained on how to handle students with disabilities such as autism and those with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Therefore, there is the need to close this gap by training educators of after-school programs (Mahoney, Levine & Hinga 2010).
Special education editors have also contributed in ways of improving after school programs. This can be seen in the work by Kluth & Chandler –Olcott (2009) that covers various benefits of inclusion to students with autism and all learners in general. They show that inclusive classroom that have enrolled kindergarteners and pre-schoolers with emotional and behavioral disorders and autism were found to be able to make sense and draw various modes of understanding topic taught in class. The researchers suggest that educators in after-school programs and regular classes can use various strategies to help students with autism and behavioral and emotional disorders. These different modes include role-playing, story telling a, art, and construction of narratives. These strategies will help students with autism participate fully in the class setting (Kluth & Chandler –Olcott 2009). The briefing report by Afterschool Alliance (2008) indicates that after-school programs are vital for students with special needs with enriched opportunities. The report shows that it is in after school programs that will provide promising practices and develop new strategies and adopt new strategies of providing to the individual needs of students. These ways of learning give students an opportunity to improve their academic, cognitive, and social performance. Students with autism and EBD learn interpersonal skills by interacting with other students through play and other physical activities (Afterschool Alliance 2008).
The education system of America today is under pressure by the government to improve student’s academic results. School educators are under pressure or working under minimal period to cover a wide scope of literature studies. Ginny (2005) argue that after-school programs provide the best alternative for learning and for students to improve on their academic programs that are missing in the regular education of these students. Ginny further indicates that it is the after school educators with the major task of transforming students behaviors by providing the best practices, strategies, and materials of social learning. Such strategies help students with low self-esteem. Those with no resources and those with low interest especially the ones suffering from autism and EBD (Ginny 2005). Teachers in after school programs can develop interesting ways of capturing the attention of students with low concentration level and those suffering from EBD and autism
Chong and Kim (2010) suggest a psychotherapy framework that teachers in after- school programs can incorporate into their curriculum to assist students with behavioral and emotional disorders. This is the Education-oriented Music Therapy (EoMT) that will help students with behavioral and emotional problems and their overall academic competency. This is possible by learning social skills, emotional, and behavioral attitude that positively impact on performance (Chong, & Kim 2010).
State of New Jersey report (2009) presents a guide to professionals and families in dealing with students. Some of the guidelines presented have a direct impact to after-school programs such as the need for financial resources and finding and the need for parents, and educators to communicate in examining the (State of New Jersey, 2009). Students joining after-school programs have significantly risen in the past years (Dietal & Haug 2011). This increased demand for after school programs signifies the need to ensure that the after school programs provide quality service to students. This includes students with especial need because they too can benefit from these programs especially in their social, emotional and interpersonal skills that have an impact on their academic achievement.
Dietal and Haug (2011) show that it is essential for after-school programs to have the right facilities to accommodate the individual needs of students and to hire qualified educators who will provide a collegial or supportive environment (Dietal & Haug 2011).
Gullota, T. (2009). A blue print for promoting academic and social competence in after school programs. Springer Publishing, 14, 234.
Hock, M., Pulvers, K, Deshler, D., & Schumaker, J. (2001). The effects of an after-school tutoring programs on the academic performance of students with a learning disability. Vol 22, 172-186.
Mahoney, J., Levine, M, & Hinga, B. (2010). The Development of the after-school program educators. Through University-Community Partnerships, 14(2), 89–105.
US: Sage Publications, 34(1), 118-136.
Chong, H & Kim S (2010) Education –oriented Music therapy in the after-school program emotional and behavioral problems. Arts in Psychotherapy Vol 37, p 190-196. Retrieved from
On March 28th 2013
State of New Jersey (2009) inclusion of children with special needs in after school and summer programs. Retrieved from
On March 28th 2013
Ginny D (2005) Giving Youth the social and emotional skills to succeed. New Directions for Youth Development. 8, p 117-125
Kluth P & Chandler –Olcott K (2009) Why Everyone Benefits from Including students with autism in literacy classrooms. International reading association. 62, p 548-557. Retrieved from
On March 28, 2013
Afterschool Alliance (2008)California, New York, Florida. Retrieved from
On March 28, 2013
Dietal R & Haug D (2011) Making after school programs better. Retrieved from
On 29th March 2012
How Art is Part of my life
Art is something I hold with great regard. It influences me very day in numerous ways. Firstly, art serves as a source of information to me. This is applicable to all art genres including films, poems, sculptures, and paintings. In any piece of artwork, I can derive immense information that helps in boosting my knowledge. For instance, paintings help me in gathering crucial information about the country’s history. There are numerous paintings which comprise of diverse themes about the excellent history of this country. In line with such an attribute, art helps in building my knowledge base.
When one is informed, it is easier to interact with other people. Additionally, knowledge helps in appreciating different aspects of life in any given situation. Consequently, the attainment of information is among the most influential aspects of art in my life. The second platform of influence pertains to entertainment. Artwork is my favorite form of entertainment. People can derive exemplary relaxation by watching a film or even visiting the museum to experience art. From a personal perspective, I always seek to quench my thirst for entertainment by watching current and past movies.
In addition to entertainment, movies are massively beneficial in terms of knowledge acquisition. In line with this perspective, films serve the role of education and also entertainment. There is extensive entertainment value in poetry. This mostly applies to the poets who use exemplary rhymes in their works. There is also the thrill of finding the actual meaning as enshrined in different works of art. Whenever I have adequate time, I can watch two films in a day. This helps me to relax.
Art influences me on a daily basis in terms of appreciating life. This is because of the inherent capacity of art to focus on numerous aspects of life. These perspectives include diversity, identity, culture, and values. All these aspects can vary from one individual to another. Despite such diversities, art helps us in appreciating the different bonds which enhance unity within the entire humanity. In the absence of art, there would be inadequate platforms for an individual to appreciate the inherent diversity among people. The third major way in which I interact with art pertains to understanding the world.
Different artists are characterized by distinct views and perceptions about the globe. This is exemplified by the diversity within the themes and topic covered by different artists. While some artists focus on romance, others focus on traditional values. Through these themes, I get the opportunity to connect with the globe. Additionally, art helps me in interacting with individuals drawn from diverse backgrounds. For instance, the theatre brings together people of contrasting backgrounds. Similarly, this applies to other arts institutions like museums or exhibitions. This also helps in building my communication attributes. As an individual who values creativity, art is an exemplary platform. I derive immense creativity skills from different works of art. This also connects to the educative framework of art. All these aspects highlight the extensive value and influence of art in my life.
Assignment 2: Critical Analysis
The Order by Matthew Barney
This film is highly captivating right from the onset. Matthew Barney has developed a catchy introduction that helps in connecting with the audience. The film is also captivating because the different events are presented in a chain. Such a chain helps in connecting the various stages and elements of the film. One of the most significant elements of film analysis pertains to the aesthetic quality. In line with this attribute, the aesthetic quality of the film is exceptional. There are various attributes that help in exemplifying the aesthetic quality. The first aspect pertains to the coloring effects. The director has used exemplary coloring effects in order to highlight different themes. In the absence of such attributes, it is considerably complex of to attain the attention of the audience.
Apart from the coloring effect, transitions also form an essential element of the aesthetic quality (Taylor, 61). In this film, the author has integrated excellent platforms for transitions. Such an approach is massively beneficial with regard to the alleviation of any kind of confusion among the viewers. Another outstanding aspect of the framework for critical analysis pertains to the use of medium. This largely pertains to the sound and action. These aspects are highly influential in the enhancement of rhythmic flow within the film. These aspects have been accentuated by Matthew Barney. Consequently, the quality of the skill is highly effective in the film. With regard to sound, the framework for audibility is excellent in this piece of work. In any film, it is massively essential to ensure the audience can follow the different aspects in a clear manner. Symbolism is also another outstanding aspect of film analysis.
The director has applied the element of symbolism in numerous ways (Taylor, 29). Firstly, some characters have been used to reflect the different challenges of life. This is a deliberate tactic by the director to connect the film to the real life situations. Symbolism serves as an excellent platform for enhancing the viewer’s understanding of the different concepts enshrined in a film. While the audience might struggle to interpret some aspects of the film, the integration of symbolism helps in filling this gap.
Symbolism is not only characterized by simplicity but also clarity. In Matthew Barney’s film, another aspect of symbolism pertains to the tactic of assigning animal attributes to some characters. For instance, the trait of greed is best represented through symbolism. The third major aspect of critical analysis is the uniqueness. The film is highly unique compared to other common works of art. There are various attributes that help in exemplifying the film’s uniqueness.
Firstly, the director integrates numerous twists and turns in order to enhance the level of suspense. This attribute adds to the overall quality of the film (Taylor, 88). The uniqueness in this film is also highlighted by the excellent nature of sound. In line with this aspect, the quality of sound is brilliant. This facilitates for clarity.
The excellent standards of uniqueness in the film are also depicted by the capacity of the different characters to adapt different roles. Such level of dynamism is massively beneficial with regard to the enhancement of the film’s uniqueness. In terms of intent, the artist seeks to educate the audience while also entertaining them. These are outstanding aspects of most films. Consequently, viewers can gather immense knowledge from the film. In view of such attributes, the film is thus an artistic master-class.
Taylor, Mark. Refiguring the spiritual, Columbia University Press, 2012