In Adolescents, Addiction to Tobacco Comes Easy
In the personal health segment of the New York Times, Jane Brody (2008) discusses addiction to Tobacco with respect to adolescents. According to her, adolescents can easily be addicted to tobacco with their first ever cigarette. According to Dr. Joseph DiFranza of the University of Massachusetts, soon after taking the first cigarette, an adolescent begins to lose their autonomy over tobacco. In relation to research done by Dr. DiFranza et al to access addiction to tobacco, the symptoms of nicotine addiction are witnessed by adolescents soon after beginning the smoking habit (Brody, 2008. In line with the outcome of Duke University’s research on the impact of nicotine, it takes more than 12 hours for one cigarette to keep withdrawal symptoms at bay. Many adolescents have failed to quit smoking because of the withdrawal symptoms, in several occasions. New strategies are required to combat smoking. Dr DeFranza urges parents to keep their children from taking the firsts cigarette.
This article is written by Jane Brody. She is a correspondent to the New York Times on health matters. She has written several articles in the personal health section of the New York Times. She writes on several health topics. He has immense expertise and experience in health. The history of articles that she has authored gives credibility to her work.
This is a recent, insightful article on a topic that is a menace to society. Brody does not rely on her perspectives and does not make statements based on biased judgments. In fact, she does not give a personal opinion throughout the article. She reports on the expert knowledge on tobacco. In many parts of the article, Brody quotes Dr. DiFranza and gives insight into the research on smoking done by Duke University. The article leads to an evidence-backed conclusion that prevention of smoking at adolescence is the best way to prevent addiction.
Brody, Jane. “In adolescents, Addiction to Tobacco Comes Easy”. Personal Health, Feb. 12, 2008. Retrieved from, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/12/health/12brod.html?_r=1&
Soccer is much more than the players, the football, and the fans. It mends broken relationships. On one Saturday evening of September 2012, I went to watch a Major League Soccer match between Seattle Sounders and LA Galaxy, at the Century Link Field, the home ground of Seattle Sounders. At one nil up, the home fans section of the stadium was ecstatic in support of their team, which at that moment was in control of the 3 points at stake. The atmosphere was unbelievably enjoying for the home supporters, but overwhelming for the visiting Galaxy supporters. It was my first time to watch live soccer in the stadium and, because of my affiliation to the City of Seattle I was a Sounders’ fan by default.
I joined in cheering the home team and jeering the visiting team, shouting all sorts of insults at them. That is the nature of soccer games. The game was still at the first period and was not yet paying attention to the game itself. The singing and whistling was too loud for to focus on what was happening inside the stadium. At times, the fans would sing, jump, and dance facing visiting from the stadium, a style typical of Seattle supporters. The emotions had taken control at that moment. Scenes in the stands were calling for attention much more than the actual occurrences on the field. Exactly after 45 minutes, the match official blew the whistle marking the end of the first half of the game. Now it was time for the fans to shout slogans at each other. The home fans sang “you cannot match our decades of dominance; Seattle is a Major League City”. Those are the words that I could remember the home fans singing and I learning and singing after them. It was extremely fun to be in the stadium.
The LA Galaxy fans would respond with “Seattle is customers. They are Starbuck drinkers. They are the people who attend games because they are given free tickets. At LA, we are sold out”. Perhaps, the LA Galaxy fans were mocking us by referring to our stadium, which had a smaller capacity and attendance rate than the home stadium in Los Angeles, where soccer fans follow their team with passion and buy tickets to full capacity. The rivalry was fierce, and the atmosphere was tensed so much that I began to get scared. It was my first game, and I had not witnessed bottle throwing and slogans that could otherwise cause violence in non-sport arenas. I felt for the visiting fans that were outnumbered and overwhelmed by thousands of the home fans.
Cheers and whistles welcomed the players back to the stadium for the second period of the game. However, the stadium warmed a bit when the game restarted, and the visiting team started to show some urgency and played tremendous football. The home team was being outplayed at that moment. The home crowd was still relatively loud. Perhaps, we felt the remaining time was still too much to think of losing the match. In the 73rd minute, the LA Galaxy leveled the scores, and the visiting fans were now singing and branding their team their team the comeback masters. At this time, the visiting team support was louder than the home support. Our section of the stands was now gloomy fans holding their cheeks. We were sensing a defeat and the embarrassment of losing a home match.
It was 80th minute, only 10 minutes to go, and the scores were still level. The game was now being played at a terrific pace with either side getting chances the score the winning goal. Emotions had taken over now; I could not bear the drama anymore. My mom had crumbled too, and was helpless holding onto me. At that time, it did not matter who had watched many games. In the 2nd minute of extra time, LA Galaxy was at the brink of scoring, but with the resulting counter move, the home team scored; we scored on the last minute of the match. The stadium erupted, and the home fans jumped and hugged. Mom and I felt joy that erased all the fears, sweat, and gloom that we had endured for the entire second period of the game.
The event is truly inspirational to me because I and my mom had a tumultuous relationship prior to the day of the match. Since I was young, I loved my dad and hated mom with a passion. I felt that she did not like me when she did not provide certain things to me. The misunderstanding deepened as I grew up and as I went to school. She had somehow convinced me to attend the match with the hope that the fun in the stadium would reunite us. I watch all the Seattle games with my mom because that is what unites us. We will forever be friends because of that first match. I love soccer because she introduced me to it. Soccer is what we share and Seattle Sounders is the team we support.
Team nursing is a decentralized model of nursing where patient care is assigned to a group of nurses working in coordination (Raymond & Neisner, 2002). This model was established in 1950 to enhance patient satisfaction. One of the objectives of the team nursing model is to reduce fragmented care. Model such as functional nursing resulting in fragmented delivery of medical care. This is because different nurses were expected to perform different functions. The team nursing model reduces fragmented care as the nursing team has the capacity to deliver all the nursing functions. The second objective of team nursing care is to provide patient centered care (Harris & Hall, 2012). In this model, minor duties are allocated to nurse aids, LPN and UAPs, leaving the registered nurse with ample time to take care of the patient. Team nursing model is mainly used in providing inpatient and outpatient care.
The team nursing model utilizes various nursing personnel. A registered nurse is one of the personnel required in this model. The registered nurse becomes the leader of the nursing team. The team may comprise of 4 to 6 members (Raymond & Neisner, 2002). The nurse manager assigns a group of patient to the nursing team and delegates authority to the registered nurse. The registered nurse has the responsibility of assigning tasks to the team members, providing directions and organizing schedules. The nursing leader must be professional nurse with a bachelor’s of science degree in nursing. Apart from academic requirement, the registered nurse must also possess leadership skills. The registered nurse is assigned the responsibility of the leading the nursing team. Thus, the registered nurse must be in a position to organize, coordinate and direct the activities of the group. The registered nurse must also possess the skills required to motivate other team members.
The team nursing model also utilizes the licensed practical nurses (LPN) (Raymond & Neisner, 2002). This are nurses who are qualified to care for disabled, sick or injured patient under the direction of the registered nurse. A licensed practical nurse requires a minimum of one year training in the nursing profession. The team nursing model also utilized the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) (Raymond & Neisner, 2002). UAPs are responsible for implementing direct care activities such as housekeeping, toileting, ambulating, transferring, clerical work and bathing the patient. They may also obtain the patient’s weight, height and check vital signs. UAPs require basic training on healthcare matters. Flexibility is an essential skill for all members of the nursing team. In this model, the nurse is allocated different patients, and thus the nurse has to make adjustments while moving from patient to another.
Work Coordination and Reporting Relationships
The nursing model structure comprises of various players. The nursing manager is the person in charge of a given hospital department. The nursing manager delegate authority to a registered nurse. The registered nurse is the leader of a nursing team, which may comprise 4 to 6 nurses (Harris & Hall, 2012). The nursing manager assigns a group of patients, around 10 to 15 patients, to the team and delegates the responsible of managing the care deliver process to the registered nurse. The registered nurse has a responsibility of distributing tasks to the LPNs and UAP. Tasks are distributed according to levels of skills (Raymond & Neisner, 2002). Tasks that require high levels of skills are assigned to LPNs while task that require low level skills are assigned to UAPs. The registered nurse has the responsibility of supervising the entire team. Duties and patients are delegated at the beginning of a shift. The registered nurse is accountable for all the actions implemented by the LPNs and UAPs.
The UAP and LPN are responsible for direct delivery of care. The UAP and LPN report to the registered nurse in regard to the state of the patient and the care deliver process. The registered nurses reports to the nursing manager or the nursing coordinator. The nursing leader reports the state of the patient and the challenges encountered by the nursing team.
Influence on Cost, Quality of Care and Patient Satisfaction
Team nursing promotes cost effectiveness within a healthcare organization. This is because this model allows the registered nurse to delegate supportive duties such as bathing the patients and clerical work (Cumming & Embleton, 2007). Thus, a single registered nurse is able to cater for a large number of patients with the assistance of the LPNs and UAPs. This implies that the healthcare organization can hire a few registered nurses and bring in LPN and UAPs to complement the services provided by the registered nurse. This is unlike primary care and functional care where a healthcare organization has to hire a large number of registered nurses leading to increased costs. The cost issue arises because registered nurses will definitely demand high salaries than the LPN and UAP. Thus, hiring additional nurses would be more expensive than hiring LPNs and UAP to support existing nurses.
Team nurses also reduced hospital cost by reducing nurse workload. Increased workload leads to high nurse turnover rate within an establishment (Cumming & Embleton, 2007). This is because many registered nurses become dissatisfied with the working conditions at the organization and decide to leave. Consequently, the organization has to incur additional cause in recruiting and training new nurses. Team nursing reduces the workload by providing the registered nurses with nursing aides and unlicensed assistive personnel to support the care delivery process.
Team nurses enhances the quality of care because the model supports the provision of patients centered cared (Harris & Hall, 2012). In this model, the registered nurse is able to focus on delivering focused care to the patient as all the supportive activities are delegated. The model also supports the delivery of ancillary services. While the registered nurse focuses on delivering the core nursing services, the supportive staff can focus on delivering supportive and ancillary services thus enhancing the experiences of the patient.
Team nursing model also enhances quality of care by reducing workload (Harris & Hall, 2012). Excessive workload leads to work related stress and low motivation among employees. Stress and low motivation affects the nurses’ capacity to deliver quality care. The team nursing model eliminated workload as it provides the registered nurse with adequate support staff. Sharing of duties among the team members enables the nurses to complete a lot of work without over exerting themselves.
The team nursing model enhances customer satisfaction in various ways. One way is by providing customer focused services (Harris & Hall, 2012). The team nursing concept enable the registered nurse to focus on delivering care to the patient as other supportive duties are delegated to supportive personnel. This leads to enhance customer satisfaction. Team nursing also enhances customer satisfaction by ensuring that employees are satisfied. Employee satisfaction has a significant impact on the satisfaction of customers.
Several considerations are made when adopting a nursing model. The healthcare setting is one of the considerations (Cumming & Embleton, 2007). Different models of nursing work best in different settings. The team nursing model is suitable for inpatient and outpatient healthcare setting. However, this model is not suitable for emergency care setting as the support staffs do not have adequate skill to perform sensitive tasks that characterized this setting. One must also consider the patient needs.
Resource is also an essential factor to consider while selecting a nursing model. A health organization must have adequate resource to support the nursing model that they adopt. The team nursing model is adopted where there is a need for additional healthcare personnel, but there is inadequate fund to hire additional nurses. The team nursing model enables the organization to obtained assistive medical staff to support the registered nurse in providing care to the hospital. The registered nurse assumes a supervisory role while the role of direct care is delegated to the supportive staff. Thus, the hospital is able to address the need for additional workforce without a significant increase in the organization’s costs.
Impact on Job Satisfaction
- The team nursing model enhances job satisfaction in various ways. Reducing nursing workload is one of the way in which the team model enhances job satisfaction (Kalish, Lee & Rochman, 2010). Increased demand for nursing services exerts immense pressure of registered nurses. Registered nurses often suffer from increased workload resulting in work related stress. The team nursing model helps to reduce nurse workload by providing the registered nurse with additional staff to support his
- The team nursing model also enhances job satisfaction by promoting the career development of nurses and nursing aides (Kalish, Lee & Rochman, 2010). The team nursing model entails delegation of leadership duties to the registered nurse. This gives the nurse an opportunity to enhance his leadership and management skills. It also gives the nursing aid an opportunity to acquire vital experience that will assist them to advance their career in the field of nursing.
Team nursing also enhances job satisfaction by promoting team spirit and teamwork within the healthcare organization (Kalish, Lee & Rochman, 2010). Team work enables employees to achieve the goals of the organization with ease. Apart from enabling team members to fulfill their duties, team provide social support to team members. Members working together for a significant period develop a social bond that enables them to support each other. Team nursing also establishes a sense of belonging among the nurses thus increasing the nurses’ morale. When members work as team for a significant period, they develop a bond that establishes a sense of belonging. This bond motivates the team to work towards fulfilling its objective. The bond also enhances coordination among team members resulting to quality services.
Advantages of Team Nursing Model
- Team nursing model reduces the registered nurse workload. The team model allows the registered nurse to receive assistance from the nursing aides and unlicensed assistive personnel thus reduced the registered nurse workload (Cumming & Embleton, 2007). This has various implications on the hospital. One of the implications is enhanced quality of care. Low workload reduces work related stress thus enabling the nurse to deliver high quality care. Similarly, low workload motivates the registered nurse to love his professional and thus become committed to delivering quality care. Reduced workload also translated to low cost for the organization as it reduced the attrition rate among registered nurses. Reduced workload also minimizes absenteeism.
- Team nursing promotes personal development of staff (Kalish, Lee & Rochman, 2010). The nursing manager delegates authority to registered nurse. This means that the registered nurse must exercise leadership and managerial roles leading to the development of these skills. Similarly, the unlicensed assistive personnel and the licensed practical nurses gain vital experience while working under the registered nurse. These supportive nurses gain firsthand experience on how to deliver care preparing them for the post of a registered nurse.
- Service delivery may suffer if there are dysfunctions in the time. The delivery of quality services is dependent on the capacity of the team to work effectively (Cumming & Embleton, 2007). High team performance cannot be realized if there are dysfunctions within the team. Ineffective leadership is one of the dysfunction that can have significant impacts on the team. Lack of leadership skill among the registered may lead to poor supervision, ineffective allocation of duties and task and ineffective coordination of activities. This will definitely affect the services delivery process. Another dysfunction that can affect the care delivery process is inefficient communication. Communication is necessary in any teamwork task. Lack of communication will affect coordination thus resulting in the delivery of unsatisfactory services.
- There is also lack of continuity where assignment of patients varies every day (Cumming & Embleton, 2007). The team nursing model entails allocation of task at the beginning of every shift. The problem of continuity may arise when the allocation of patient varies after every shift. The patient may end up receiving care from different teams affecting the experience of the patient. Patients want services that are consistent and personal touch to the care delivery process. Thus, many patients may not appreciate having different nurses at the beginning of every shift.
Cumming G & Embleton A. (2007). The Impact of Nurse Staffing on Hospital Costs. April 24, 2013. http://www.massnurses.org/files/file/Legislation-and-Politics/hospital_costs.pdf
Harris A. & Hall L. (2012). Evidence to Inform Staff Mix Decision-Making. April 24, 2013. http://www.nurseone.ca/docs/NurseOne/KnowledgeFeature/StaffMix/Staff_Mix_Literature_Review_e.pdf
Kalish B. Lee H. & Rochman M. (2010). Nursing Staff Teamwork and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Management. 18: 938- 947
Raymond B. & Neisner J. (2002). Nurse Staffing and Care Delivery Models. April 24, 2013. http://xnet.kp.org/ihp/publications/docs/nurse_staffing.pdf
Real World Application Of Mechanical/ Electrical Work Equivalent Of Heat
Mechanical equivalent of heat forms the first law of thermodynamics, which stat6es that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy is converted from one form to another. In the modern world, it has several applications, for example, it is used in internal combustion engines of automobiles. In automobiles, various energy conversions are applied. The first one involves chemical to thermal energy conversion. In this case, chemical energy from gasoline or diesel is converted into thermal energy when the fuel burns in the engine cylinders. The second example is the conversion of chemical energy in a battery of a car into electrical energy tom power many of the accessories of an automobile such the headlights. The third application of the mechanical equivalent of heat and electrical equivalent of heat in a car is the change of electrical energy into mechanical energy.
In automobiles, the battery supplies electrical energy for starting motor and this motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy that crank the engine. Automobile engines also involve conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy. Thermal energy that results from the ignition of fuel is converted into mechanical energy that moves the vehicle. The generator of a car is driven by mechanical energy generated from the engine. The generator then transforms this mechanical energy to electrical energy that powers the electrical accessories of a car and recharges the battery. Another important application of energy conversion in an automobile engine is the conversion of electrical energy into radiation energy. Radiation energy is responsible for lighting up bulbs/lights of car. Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy, which heats up the inside of light bulbs, so they illuminate and release radiant energy.
Jack Erjavee (2005). Automobile technology: a system approach. Thomson Delmar learning. Clifton Park, USA.
Summary & Strong Response Assignment:“Children Need To Play, Not Compete"
In Children Need to Play, Not Compete, Jessica Statsky justifies why competition in childhood games, according to her, is irrelevant. She takes a strong position against the idea of competitive games for children, stating that parents were more focused on the outcome of the sport than the holistic development of the children. In disapproving the concept of competitive sports, Statsky holds that an overhaul of the system of childhood games should be done to make the games more enjoyable to children. In relation to her essay, organized sports activities are bad for nurturing children because they exert pressure on children because of the expectation to win games. She says that no exception should be made regardless of the child’s physical ability, in terms of weight, height, speed, and penetration. To support her argument, Statsky notes the potential injuries to which vigorous sports subject children. In addition, she says that competitive sports rule out children from career sports early in life before their true ability can be accurately determined. Statsky states that enjoyment, and not winning, should be the overriding idea for children’s sports. She says that competition undermines the requirement for children to enjoy games.
Response: Children Need to Play and Compete
I find in Jessica Statsky’s essay bits of valid arguments about children’s competitive sports. Sports such as baseball and rugby pose serious potential injuries to children. Children are still in their early physical development. Their bodies are tender. Exposing them to dangerous games can cause harm to them. Childhood injuries may be fatal than the injuries that adults are exposed to in similar sports. In addition, making selection or screening for talent among children is wrong as she rightly puts it. Perhaps, the ideal thing to do is to teach them how to play and nurture their abilities and talents before they are subjected to sports tests later own in life when it becomes clear who have outright talent. Otherwise, talent young children will be discouraged from future participation in professional sports. The pressure that children are placed under when the parent or coach blames the child for poor performance discourages the child and makes them doubt their capacity to develop into good players.
However, there are benefits that children get from participating in organized sports. Such sports prepare them for the future through real life situations. It is through organized sports that they get to learn the rules and skills necessary for success. The truth is that since a person begins school, student results for assignments are based on criteria that have grades. When a student scores the highest grade, they are ranked top of the rest in class. The essence is to encourage and facilitate continuous improvement. The extension of this to sports only helps to reinforce the need for continuous improvement more than the discouragement that Statsky talks about in the essay. Whereas it may have an undesirable effect on children who are not mentally prepared to perceive the pressure to win, the total effect on students is a lesson learnt for the need for the need for continuous improvement among children.
In fact, the pressure associated with competitive sports helps teach children to be innovative. Competitive sports force students to invent ways to win games, enhancing their talent. Sports are team events that require cooperation between players. Organized sports put children in a situation that requires them to be team players. In teams, they learn characters that are necessary for success. This is the same concept that is highly valuable in professional activities other than sports. The competitive nature of sports gives children the motivation to participate in sports. It is exciting to participate in a competition. The desire to win is what keeps children in sports. When they lose, there is the motivation to improve while it motivates those who emerge winners to work hard and to maintain their status as champions. The result is a continuous strife to improve individual and team skills. Children who participate in challenging activities are more likely to adapt to the future adult functions that require exceptional response to competition.
Jessica Statsky expresses genuine concerns for the potential risks of competitive sports to children. However, the apparent negatives do not outweigh the positives. Her opinions should not be overlooked because she mentions potential injuries and the possibility of excluding talented children in professional sports. There is a need to address Statsky’s concerns while making sports contribute to life skills through practical and relevant sports practices. In as much as the need for enjoyment and non-condemnation in sports, competition nurtures life skills through competition, which teachers the need for continuous improvement. Perhaps, tough sports such as baseball and rugby should be introduced at a later age in life when the players understand the risks and nature of the games.
Nurses Perceptions Toward End-Of-Life Care
Over the years, nurses are believed to have a significant and long-lasting consequences on the way in which patients live until their death, the way in which the death occur, and the memories of that death for the families. However, there is a substantial gap in evidenced based practice in the end of life care in hospitals. According to McClement (2006), the ability of nurses to offer quality end-of-life care is a multifaceted process that involves many factors related to the patient, his or her family, healthcare service provider and the environment within which the care is being provided. In unites state, providing appropriate care during end-life is a concern. This process of caring for dying patients is most stressful to the nurses. These nurses are expected to attend to client on a full time basis while other health care providers visits and walk away after a short duration.
Nurses describe three principal themes about end-of-life care. The first theme involves providing guidance to the patient and the family members during the end-of-life decision making. They are positioned at the center of the communication process as they mediate between the family members and physicians. Nurses providing end-of-life care feels emotions that cover a wide range from confusion, hopelessness, and frustration to feeling emotionally drained, being overwhelmed by the highly mixed feeling, and feeling privileged. Nurses are at the risk of being emotionally attached to the client after spending a considerable amount of time with the patient. The nurses are at a crucial and dilemma position of making decisions pertaining to withdrawing and withholding life support among patients. This position leaves nurses overwhelmed by which decision to make between managing pain and controlling family emotions.
Thompson McClement (2006). Nurses perceptions of quality of quality end-life care on an acute medical ward. University of Manitoba, Canada.
Some of the factors that should be considered when determining if an action is within the nursing practice domain is through checking of the action is following the nursing rules. It is always the duty of the nurse to ensure the patient is safe. An essential action which a nurse can take towards meeting this goal, is through accepting the assignments which the nurse has the training, education, and skill competency. The emotional and physical ability can also impact on the ability of the nurse to maintaining the safety of the client when they are accepting an assignment (Kowalski, & Rosdahl, 2008).
A factor that needs to be considered is determining whether the action is consistent with the Nursing Practice Act (Kowalski, & Rosdahl, 2008). It is better to determine whether the board of the positions statement addresses the specific action. This will help in deciding whether the action is within the domain of the nursing practice. The next factor is considering if the action is authorized by a valid order and with accordance to the current procedures and policies. The next factor to consider is competence. The nurse should determine if they personally posses the clinical competence of performing the action in a safe manner from the knowledge that they acquired in their nursing education. In determining if an action is within the nursing domain, it is essential to establish whether the action is within the accepted standard of care (Kowalski, & Rosdahl, 2008). The standard of care refers to the act that would be provided in similar circumstances by a prudent and reasonable nurse with similar experience and training. The action that is selected should not ignore the code of ethics in nursing and nurses should ensure that they are accountable in providing safe care.
Kowalski, M & Rosdahl, C (2008). Textbook of basic nursing Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Texas Advance Directive
I do not agree with the idea that hospitals are supposed to have the authority of making decisions like in the case of Texas advance directive act. It is wrong for the hospital to make the decision of removing the patient from the ventilator within serving the notice. The hospital should ensure that they focus on the condition in which the patient is in before they can withdraw the patient from the ventilator. In the case of Tirhas, she was poor with no health insurance and also her mother wanted to see her before she could die. When the hospitals are provided with the authority of making the decision, it is most probably that the hospital will focus on the financial basis when making the decision. It is likely for the hospital to consider the fact if the patient will be able to pay the bill. In the case of Tirhas, the hospital failed to apply the principle of beneficence and nonmaleficence where the beneficence means doing no harm, and doing good to other people, nonmaleficence refers to the conception of avoiding intentional harm. These are ethical concepts that relate to the patient care, and in this case, the hospital failed to prevent causing harm to the patient and also the family. The family did not get the chance of meeting with their child before dying. The change that needs to be made in this law is that hospitals are not supposed to be provided with the authority of making the decision about the patient. Patients need to be provided with the necessary support until they die without having to withdraw them from the life support machine. This will help in avoiding claims by the patient family like in the case of Tirhas that the patient was conscious and responsive when the respirator was being removed.
“Health and safety code” retrieved from http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/docs/Hs/htm/HS.166.htm
“Tirhas Habtegiris” retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirhas_Habtegiris
Healthcare technology is field that is strongly dependent on the formulation of effective theories. In line with these stipulations, quantitative theories form an excellent platform for the development of theories in healthcare technology. Different researchers have embarked on different kinds of quantitative research frameworks for the establishment of theories. Most of these studies investigate mediating, moderating, or independent variables. This analysis focuses on the different theories explored by researchers using quantitative research. The various constructs in each study will be examined while also assessing the operational framework of these constructs. Additionally, the analysis encompasses an evaluation of the statistical approaches in each study and the findings presented in each.
Article 1: Mitchell, M. D. & Kendall, W. (2010)
This article focuses on the use of health care technology in the enhancement of the quality of decision making in health care. The main theory being investigated in this article pertains to the inherent implications of health care technology mechanisms on decision making. There various key constructs provided by the author in relation to this theory. Firstly, the authors postulate that health care technology has an inherent capacity to streamline the quality of decision making. This applies to hospitals and also other platforms of health care (Mitchell & Kendall, 2010). The second construct provided in connection to this theory pertains to the extent of resources required to actualize health care technology in a health care organization. In order to operationalize these constructs, the authors assess the different mechanisms used to implement health care technology in an organization.
Description of the Study
The study highlighted in this article is geared towards the use of healthcare technology in facilitating for effective decision making in the formulation of policies and guidelines at the national level. Additionally, the study seeks to incorporate data into the implementation frameworks for health care technology.
The authors employed quantitative methods in the evaluation of the capacity of physicians, nurses, and other health care professions to incorporate health care technology into their decision making models. Direct observations formed the basis of evaluating collecting data during this study.
Based on the findings presented in the article, the authors did not identify sufficient information that would help in assessing the actual ramifications of health care technology. The second aspect with regard to the findings involves staffing patterns (Mitchell & Kendall, 2010). The article highlights that staffing patterns have extensive ramifications on the successful implementation of health care technology. Based on the findings presented by the authors, there is the need for further research into the actual implications of healthcare technology on decision making in healthcare organizations.
Article 2: Kelley, T. F. & Brandon, D. H. (2011)
In this article, the authors assess theoretical framework concerning the implications of electronic medical records on the patient outcome. There are various key constructs which are directly associated with this theory. The first construct pertains to the capacity of electronic health records to enhance the speed of response in health care facilities. Another construct examined in this article is the quality of treatment provided to patients (Kelley & Brandon, 2010). These constructs are related in that electronic health records contribute towards the enhancement of patient outcome. Outcome, structure, and process were also essential variables employed in this study. Each of these constructs are strongly interconnected to each other.
Description of the Study and Methods
For this study, the authors examined a total of 18 research publications by different authors. All these articles focused on an evaluation of the inherent implications of electronic medical records on patient outcome. Additionally, the authors investigated the attitudes of nurses and other healthcare professionals towards electronic health records. Outcome, process, and structure were essential analytical frameworks used in the classification and analysis of each research article. For empirical analysis, the authors used Donabedian’s quality framework.
This study showed that there is extensive ambiguity as pertains to the precise implications of electronic health records on the quality of patient outcomes. In view of such findings, the authors concluded that additional research is necessary in order to comprehensively assess the effects of electronic health records on patient outcome Kelley & Brandon, 2010). This also highlights the contribution of these findings to theory.
Article 3: Wilkinson, A., Roberts, J. & While, A. E. (2009)
The authors assess the different theoretical perspectives concerning the attitudes of upcoming professions towards information and communication technology. Although there are numerous technological platforms in health care, different students have different perceptions towards such technologies. Additionally, the authors assess the implications of the students’ psychology towards their skills in information and communication technology.
Research Methods and Statistical Analysis
The authors highlight e-learning and information technology as essential platforms for excellence in the healthcare profession. In order to assess the attitudes of students towards these perspectives, the authors sampled a total of forty nine scholarly publications on the same topic. These research articles also focused on the nature of experience by different students towards information technology in health care. For the analytical framework, the authors used an integrative framework (Wilkinson & Roberts, 2009). This formed an exemplary framework for quantitative analysis of the information generated from different sources. Some of the variables assessed using the integrative framework were literacy skills in technology and usage of technology in health care settings among others.
Based on the findings, the article highlights that the integration of technology into health care disciplines has risen tremendously since the 1980s. The capacity of a health professional to deliver quality results is strongly dependent by technological proficiency. When a professional is proficient in the various technological platforms, he or she can deliver quality results. Additionally, the authors concluded that technology enhances the learning process in educational institutions meant for health care studies.
Article 4: Shaw, R. & Bradley, L. A. (2008).
In the article, the authors narrow down upon the enhancement of patient outcomes through the adoption of information technology. While most health care entities have adopted information and communication technology, others have not (Shaw & Bradley, 2008). In order to enhance the adoption rates, health care entities must have the relevant evidence concerning the effectiveness of information technology platforms.
Research Methods and Statistical Analysis
The AHRQ served as the main source of information for this study. In addition to direct observations, the authors made direct observations as pertains to the different variables under investigation. This formed an excellent framework for gathering extensive data on all the different variables and constructs. Descriptive statistics were also employed by the authors in assessing the data.
Findings and theoretical Implications
Based on the findings, the authors noted that an effective implementation framework for technology requires dedication from the staff and other health care executives. This is mainly because of the numerous technicalities involved in the implementation of such mechanisms. Another aspect that emanated from the findings pertains to the availability of resources (Shaw & Bradley, 2008). According to the insights provided by the authors, adequate resources are immensely useful in streamlining the implementation framework for information and technology systems in any health care organization.
Article 5: Judy M. (2011).
This article encompasses the findings from a study that seeks to use technology in the development of a patient centered approach in health care. According to the authors, it is immensely useful to use all kinds of resources which can help in boosting the patient outcome. In line with these perspectives, this article forms an excellent basis for assessing the practical and theoretical ramifications of technology in the quality of health care. Based on this approach, it is possible for an organization to select the most effective technological platforms that conform to the patient needs. Consequently, the most outstanding theoretical perspective in this article is the enhancement of patient care through healthcare technology.
Methods and Analysis
The study subdivided the participants into distinct categories. These categories include primary care, home care, hospitals, and specialists. The authors collected data from different patients in order to assess how they had responded to different treatment approaches that are based on technological platforms (Judy, 2011). Direct observation was also a notable method used by the author during the data collection.
Findings and Theoretical Implications
Based on the findings, the article states that technological systems can contribute immensely towards the enhancement of patient outcomes. Through such a mechanism, it is easier to enhance the standards of health care in any health organization. Additionally, technology helps immensely in developing a treatment framework that centers on the patient.
Knowledge Gap in Healthcare Technology
From the analysis, it is evident that health care technology is an essential component in the modern health care settings. However, there is an outstanding knowledge gap that directly pertains to the assessment of the actual implications of health care technology on the quality of care for any patient. Consequently, it is essential to develop a study that would help in addressing this gap.
In order to enhance the quality of outcome, the study would involve different moderator variables. These are variables which directly connect to the various constructs of the knowledge gap. The first moderator variable would be the number of participants. In line with this perspective, a sample of 100 participants would come in handy. Such a sample would provide adequate data as relates to the knowledge gap. The second moderator variable is the patient. This would be categorized as effective or ineffective depending on the patient’s condition. Through this approach, the different precise implications of health care technology would be determined.
The analysis encompasses five scholarly articles on the topic of healthcare technology. The quantitative research frameworks employed by the different authors have been examined. This is essential towards establishing the different implications of moderator variables on the quality of research. The analysis also involves a review of the statistical frameworks used by the different authors. The statistical framework is massively influenced by the nature of construct variables employed by the researcher. Additionally, the theoretical platforms used by the different authors have also been assessed. This is crucial in terms of streamlining the overall implications of any study.
Judy M. (2011). Information systems & technology: Patient as center of the health care universe. Nursing Economics. 20(1)
Kelley, T. F. & Brandon, D. H. (2011). Electronic nursing documentation as a strategy to improve quality of patient care, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2011; 43:2, 154– 162
Mitchell, M. D. & Kendall, W. (2010). Integrating local data into hospital-based healthcare technology assessment, Technology Assessment in Healthcare, 26(8)
Shaw, R. & Bradley, L. A. (2008). Adopting information technology to drive improvements in patient safety, Health Services Research, 44:2, Part II
Wilkinson, A., Roberts, J. & While, A. E. (2009). Measurement of information and communication technology experience and attitudes to e-learning of students in the healthcare professions, Journal of Advanced Nursing 65(4), 755–772
How Well Are Regular Community-Based After School Program Teachers Trained To Work With Students With Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorders?WRITTEN_BY Administrator
How Well Are Regular Community-Based After School Program Teachers Trained To Work With Students With Autism or Emotional Behavioral Disorders?
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders and autistic students can benefit a great deal from after school programs. Educators of after school program have to understand the needs and necessary intervention services for students with disorders. This means that after school program teachers have to receive the same training as those of special education teachers. Parents of students with disabilities are entitled to support services and facilities such as materials, information, advice and training of their children through Intensive Behavioral Intervention.
After school programs have proved to have a positive impact on the student’s academic achievement (Niihau’s, & Jill 2012, p 120). These programs have also proved offer the best setting to improve student’s motivation of school, boost self esteem and discovering talents (Ginny 2005). Attendance, social, and interpersonal skills and challenging subjects such as mathematics and sciences, access to play and physical activities (Afterschool Alliance 2008).
Students with behavioral disorders and autism can improve their behaviors best through after-school programs (Gullota, 2009). The after school programs can improve intrinsic motivation of students, school participation and academic efficiency when the programs have enough facilities and qualified educators who will not only meet the needs of regular students, but also those with anomalies such as autism and those with behavioral and emotional disorders (Hock, Pulvers, Deshler, & Schumaker 2001).. The after school programs are appropriate in the provision of social and behavioral enrichment beyond the usual classroom setting (Kluth & Chandler –Olcott 2009).
The challenge that parents of students with behavioral disabilities’ and autism have a difficult time in finding after school programs that have qualified educators and facilities that fit the needs of these students (Mahoney, Levine & Hinga 2010). Other studies have suggested the use of a psychotherapy framework which teachers in afterschool programs can incorporate into their curriculum to assist students with behavioral and emotional disorders. The researchers point out that the Education-oriented Music Therapy (EoMT) in after school program does have a positive impact to students’ behavioral and emotional problems and their overall academic competency (Chong, & Kim 2010). State of New Jersey (2009) report presents a guide for families and professionals handling students with special needs. It shows the best practices, laws and resources that have to be followed in providing for students with autism and emotional problems (State of New Jersey, 2009). Dietal R and Haug (2001) show that students joining after school programs have raised significantly in the past recent years. They show that students being served by these programs as estimated to be 8.4 million. This number has risen today (Dietal R & Haug 2011).
There are only few after-school programs in the country that accommodate students with disabilities. Educators in these programs have insufficient skills and knowledge in dealing with students with special needs. There is also the lack of direct communication between teachers in after school programs and those in the regular classroom who teach students with disabilities. After school programs also lack resources and facilities to accommodate students with autism and behavioral disorders. This study will explores thesis issues with the need of finding ways of ensuring that after school programs have qualified educators, the right resources and facilities and the need of regular classroom teachers to communicate with after school teachers with understanding of students with autism and EBD problems and support them.
• What are the main function and role on learning resource/support teachers in after-school program?
• Describe the after –school program contexts such as the characteristics of teachers, school and students.
• Is professional development for after school teachers in specializing on students with students with emotional behavioral disorders and autism?
Knowing how well educators of after school programs can work with students with autism and behavioral and emotional problems is the beginning of finding out whether the after school programs are effective. An effective after school program is not only that which provides for students without disabilities, but one which includes students with various special needs. This research will show that when afterschool program educators are equipped with the knowledge and skills of working with students with disabilities’, the programs will help in improvising the academic achievement, behavioral and interpersonal skills of students with autism and emotional and behavioral disorders. Having the best teachers who are knowledgeable with the needs of students with disabilities is crucial for the success of after school program. This includes the lack of staff members who are unfamiliar with special conditions such as behavioral disorders and autism. The after-school programs are also characterized by structured activities that do not assist these students grows socially. The programs also do have predictable routines and do not foster social exchange. This study will help in expanding knowledge on how after school programs can be used as the best tools of improving the lives of students with autism and behavioral and emotional disorders.
Cohen, L & Morrison, K (2007) Education Research Methods. London. New York: Routledge.
Gall, M, & Borg, W (2007) Educational research introduction, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Seale, C (2007) Qualitative research practices London SAGE.