Environmental Factors and Cancer
Evidence shows that environmental factors as causes of cancer are among the current topics that have developed a lot of arguments. This is a complex and misunderstood topic that requires critical understanding. It is vital to understand the concept behind environmental factors and cancer topic so as to differentiate different causes of cancer in human life. Initially most people thought that the environmental cause of cancer included all cancers except those that were related to inherited factors. The topic is relevant to the society at large for it helps in understanding which type of environmental factor is associated with which type of cancer and where it should be grouped. Environmental factors play a major role in the occurrence of cancer in the society. It is hypothesized that environmental factors are part of causes of cancer in humans. We the paper will look on how environmental factors contribute towards occurrence and spread of cancer in the society.
Discussion concerning environmental factors and cancer rate has been developed by different researchers. These studies indicate the relationship that exists between cancer rates and environmental factors in the society setting. The problem demonstrated is that health care research lacks empirical studies to apply on data analysis so as to document findings and results collected on these two aspects. One study used a different approach when conducting its research simply because it conducted a comparative analysis by establishing pooling registry data on fraternal and identical twins in Finland, Denmark, and Sweden. This is where a large population of twin registries is experienced as compared to other parts of the world. All types of cancer were considered in this study, and it was discovered that even the identical twins seldom develop cancer conditions that are similar. In a study conducted by Lichtenstein and the group (2000), environmental factors (as opposed to inherited factors) are responsible for several types of cancer. Environmental factors account for over 98% of uterine and cervical cancer that affects humans. These factors also account for 58 percent of prostate cancer, 73 % of breast cancer, 74 % of lung cancer, and 78 % of ovarian and leukemia cancer. Since identical twins develop with identical genes at conception, this study by Lichtenstein, et al., concluded that the overwhelming contributor to the causation of cancer in the areas where twins are born develops from environmental factors.
Kneese and Schulze (2011) conducted a study on the impact of socioeconomic factors towards cancer development. The study conducted focused on the lifestyle of people, quality of water, and quality of air on the cancer. A mortality rate for six different cancer groups in different cities with United States was demonstrated in this study. According to the author, society has neglected the issue of socioeconomic factors in the rise of cancer development in the society. Some aspects are perceived to be less effective in the short run but when exposed in for the duration of time they develop cancer. Authors of this study included a number of suspected explanatory variables in development of the regression. The suspected variables were used to in an effort to include some measure of the total burden and specified equation. So as, to account for the long latency period of different types of cancer, authors included lagged explanatory variables. Socioeconomic factors have greatly contributed to the occurrence of specified cancer types in the society. The study concluded that ammonium in the atmosphere, smoking of cigarette, consumption of pork, and beef consumption, which all constitutes the lagged variables, demonstrate strong positive correlations that cause different cancers such as urinary cancer, genital cancer, respiratory cancer, breast cancer, and digestive cancer among others.
Another study conducted by Robertson (2010) examined different urban factors that are believed to be part of cancer contributors. Climate, factors in water supply, industrial pollution, and motor vehicle emissions are some of urban factors that contribute to cancer mortality rates. In conducting his study, Robertson (2010) analyzed several cities in United States. Two methods stepwise multiple regression and linear correlation techniques were used to analyze data for this study. Concentrations of barium in a given area pose a high risk of people living there to get cancer. According to the findings of this study, cancer mortality rates were recorded higher in those cities that had high barium concentrations as well as those cities that had a high number of motor vehicle and their activities per square mile. Cities that had warmer climates, had sodium in their waters, and had more bicarbonate had lower cancer mortality rates. This indicated that urban factors, which are part, of environmental factors are responsible in the increase of cancer mortality rates within the society. Environmental data required for this study prior to 2000 was not available, and that is why the usage of lagged variables was recommended and used. The author at the time of the study was unable to get sufficient data on dietary consumption, smoking cigarette consumption, and alcohol consumption and that are why he used lagged variable.
Willett (2008) developed a study on an overview of statistical findings from other studies that focused on the environment as a cause of cancer in the society. His study focused on the impact of nutrition and diet that contributed to prostate and colon cancer. The study indicated that the consumption of lamb, pork, and beef and total energy intake increased risk of prostate and colon cancer in humans. All the statistical findings that were used in this study did not show any relationship of colon cancer with the intake of fat. In line with this, it was not possible for to develop evidence that red meat does contribute to the occurrence of prostate or colon cancer in human life. Protective factors in vegetable and fruits were the only factors used to develop compelling evidence that decreased the risk of cancer. This study indicated that nearly 32 % of cancers may be prevented by the fact of changing diet.
In summing up, the above studies indicate that environmental factors are responsible in the increase in the cancer mortality rate in the society. Defining significance environmental factors that contribute to different types of cancer assists humans in minimizing the increase of the mortality rate. Environmental factors play a major role in the occurrence of cancer in the society. It is hypothesized that environmental factors are part of causes of cancer in humans.
Lichtenstein, P., N. V. Holm, P. K. Verkasalo, A. Iliadou, J. Kaprio, M. Koskenvuo, E. Pukkala, A. Skytthe, and K. Hemminki. (2000). Environmental and Heritable Factors in the Causation of Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 78-85
Kneese, A. V. and W. D. Schulze. (2011). Environment, Health, and Economics – The Case of Cancer,” American Economic Review, 67, 326-332
Robertson, L. S. (2010). Environmental Correlates of Intercity Variation in Age-Adjusted Cancer Mortality Rates. Environmental Health Perspectives, 36, 197-203
Willett, W. C. & D. Trichopoulos. (2008). Nutrition and Cancer: A Summary of the Evidence,” Cancer Causes and Control, 7, 178-180
Khuder, S. A. (2000). Is There an Association between Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer?” European Journal of Epidemiology, 16, 1117-1121
Friberg, L. and R. Cederlof. (2007). Late Effects of Air Pollution with Special Reference to Lung Cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives, 22, 45-66
A Pamphlet On Environmental Factors That Can Affect The Health Of Infants
Environmental and climatic Changes
Changing environments affect an infant’s health significantly than one can imagine. By the fact that infants have delicate bodies makes them prone to severe dangers of environmental changes. The climate changes from summer to winter, or the opposite is true causes various environmental changes such as stagnation of swamps, growth of wild vegetation and many more. The stagnation of water in particular leads to increased rate mosquitoes within the human habitats. Furthermore, poor management of environmental vegetation also creates better grounds habitable by mosquitoes and other harmful insects.
This environmental factor can affect the infant’s health especially after long rains, which come with floods. This flood create an enormous threat to the infant’s since during this time the flu viruses get spread easily since it is communicable and it is often transmitted from one individual to another. When the infants are playing on the field and one of them, is infected he or she can easily spread the viruses to other kids. Additionally, the change of environment can also cause habitable places for microorganisms that cause disease commonly located on the soils and surfaces of the land.
The accident prevention can be prevented by creating strong and firm bridges that are near homesteads. This would prevent the infants from falling in ditches full of water or streams with flowing water. Furthermore, when the climate changes and the land are dry the gabions or holes left behind can be filled with stone to eliminate the hollow space created by rain water during the heavy rains. Poor air quality leads to severe damage of infant’s health especially when it is caused by people how are engaging with risky and dangerous activities like smoking. Tobacco particles blown in the air is extremely dangerous on a child’s pulmonary system (lungs). This pollution can lead to critical condition such as lung cancer, asthma and many more.
Health people.gov Environmental quality retrieved on 17/4/2013 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/LHI/environmentalQuality.aspx (2013)
Principles To Improve Curriculum Planning
The principles that are helpful in curriculum planning including inventing new strategies to meet measurements, documentation of a process, documenting every day experience to meet standards, learning from conflicting ideas, seek other perspectives in informing planning, and conducting assessments that are meaningful and relevant. These principles help in creating an effective environment for leaning in various ways. For example, the need to document a process because this enables children to see themselves as well as their peers discovering, learning, exploring and inventing. This means that having project work will help to give students a positive learning environment.
Another principle that helps in providing a friendly learning environment is investing in new ways that help in meeting the intended requirements this means that the child care provider has to be an inventor a challenger and a risk taker who goes beyond the status quo. This means that an educator has to understand the intended requirements of a curriculum and come upon with ways of meeting these requirements in a different way. The principle that might inform my future planning of teaching practice in the future is the one on the need to seek different perspectives that help to inform my planning.
This principle is applied in this scenario where Rhonda feels frustrated and needs someone share her ideas. She says that she had used her own values to assist children connect with others in different groups. She had not anticipated that in her use of documentation with children was the source of her need to talk to someone else to help her gain more perspectives, ideas and deeper understanding as well as strategies by extending her connections and thinking with other teachers.
Adopting this principle in future curriculum planning will help me have insights from experienced teachers and other experts. They will help to give different perspectives from my own of various issues to be included in the curriculum. They will also tell me their success stories on different strategies of teaching.
Week 7 discussion adapting a curriculum framework and assessment plan for your setting PDF, p 175-178
A Report on Mercury Contamination
Manufacturing plants and industries are the leading culprits of contamination of the environment. Manufacturing plants and industries emit volumes of waste in gaseous and liquid form. Industrial waste that is not properly disposed finds its way to the environment thus leading to environmental pollution. Environmental pollution poses grave risks to human and animal life. Animals and human beings rely on different spheres of the environment for their survival. Man, for instance, sources for food and water from the ground. Exposure to contaminants increases the risk of exposure to dangerous chemicals and metals that may impede on human health. The following report highlights the rising concerns over mercury contamination of nearby soil and water due to the plant’s emissions. Though the company has vehemently claimed that the mercury level that they emit is too low to affect human health, there is a need to address the matter and establish alternatives of mercury waste management. Mercury is a highly toxic metal and extremely small quantities can contaminate soil and water to the extent that it becomes unsuitable for human use.
Mercury as a Contaminant
Mercury an extremely toxic metal sometimes found in liquid form. Metallic mercury is common in manufacturing industries and thus it is released into the environment regularly compared to other contaminants. The severity of mercury poisoning to human health is intense, for instance breathing mercury fumes or even touching mercury can be detrimental to human health. Over the past twenty years, the effects of the use of mercury have raised concerns. These concerns are attributed to the fact that mercury is the most potent neurotoxin known. This means that there are no known chemicals that adversely affect the human brain than mercury. Such scientific findings raise concern over any suspicions of mercury emission to the environment by any manufacturing plant (EPA, 2013).
Concerns over mercury emission to the environment is thus a serious allegation that must be addressed to ascertain the safety of human, animals and plant life. The adverse effects of mercury are attributed to the fact that mercury does not breakdown in the body; instead it accumulates over the years. With accumulation, the mercury levels get to such high levels that they interfere with the normal body development. When mercury gets into water systems, the levels accumulate gradually with continued exposure (Dunmire, & Reeder, 2003). Eventually, the water becomes dangerous for human use as it becomes toxic life. Aquatic life such as fish also becomes poisoned with mercury. Mercury contamination of the environment is thus adverse as the effects of such contaminations are felt down the food chain.
Release of Mercury to the Environment
Manufacturing plants use mercury for different purposes. Mercury can be used to hasten the manufacturing process. Alternatively, mercury can be a by-product of a manufacturing process in a plant. Overall, the release of mercury in industries can occur through emissions and wastes that are generated during the manufacturing process. Mercury can be encountered in a manufacturing plant as mine produce, by-product or a recycled product (Sarikaya, & Srinken2010). Mercury can also be released as part of the manufacturing process, for instance, air emissions from the manufacturing plant can contain mercury element that get released to the environment. Mercury can also be released as residual products in the final product that was being manufactured. In some instances, products that are manufactured with mercury as a by-product usually retain traces of mercury that consumers are eventually exposed to.
Mercury can also be released during the process of recycling waste. Manufacturing plants have different kinds of waste. Some of the wastes are recyclable; however, the recycling process may lead to the release of mercury. Wastes, sludge’s, residues and equipment can also be carriers of mercury residue, which eventually reaches the environment (Agency for toxic substances and disease registry, 2011). Sludge can, for instance, be released into the environment resulting to water contamination. The contaminated water can be consumed by the public as they it is treated and directed through water pipes into people’s homes.
Mercury Contamination to the Environment
Mercury is a contaminant that can affect the environment. Mercury gets to the environment through the breakdown of its minerals into the soil. The mercury minerals are then dispersed through the movement of air and water. Historically, the emergence of the industrial revolution in the 18th century saw the beginning of the emission of mercury into the surrounding. Unfortunately, industries and manufacturing plants have increased in number throughout the years. Manufacturing industries involved in the release of mercury contribute greatly to mercury contamination on the environment. Mercury that is released by such manufacturing company can be released into the air in vapor form. The mercury in vapor form is then released into the atmosphere and moved by the wind across vast geographical regions (WHO, 2007).
Mercury can also settle into the soil or water bodies through rainfall. It is also due to rainfall that the mercury finds its way to water bodies that are used by locals. Once mercury gets into the aquatic system, it gets converted to methyl mercury and can accumulate and climb up the food chain, for instance, the mercury will contaminate algae in the water, which will be consume by crustaceans and smaller fish. The smaller fish are swallowed by larger fish which is then eaten by man as food. This food chain means that the mercury has been transferred from the algae up to man. Mercury is not broken down upon consumption; instead, it is stored and thus eases of transfer from one living thing to another (Dunmire, & Reeder, 2003).
Threat of Mercury to Human Health
Exposure to mercury poisoning can result to mild and severe mercury poisoning to human beings. Mild mercury poisoning leads to symptoms such as tingling in the lips, tongue, fingers and toes. Unfortunately, it is never easy to detect mild symptoms of mercury poisoning. Individuals with mild mercury exposure ignore the symptoms as they are mild. Unfortunately, this is detrimental to their health as it means an individual exposes himself to the mercury for longer durations before the poisoning is noted. Individuals can also suffer from server mercury poisoning. Severe mercury poisoning is more severe and results to symptoms such as severe headaches, memory loss, difficult movement coordination, joint stiffness, an extremely weak or extremely strong pulse and death (Streets, & Li, 2009).
Severe mercury poisoning occurs when an individual comes into contact with high quantities of mercury. The manufacturing company admits to releasing small doses of mercury to the soil and water in the vicinity of the plant. Unfortunately, it is the exposure to these small levels that results to extensive mercury poisoning which leads to adverse health effects.
Mercury has been found to be extremely harmful to pregnant women as well as their unborn children as the substance is able to travel from the mother through the placenta and reach the unborn child. The effects of mercury contamination on an unborn child are severe with research indicating adverse effects to the brain, and limb development of the fetus as well as interfere with the learning abilities of children. It is rare for human beings to be exposed to large volumes of mercury contamination. High doses of mercury contamination can only arise if there is an accident that involves accident emission of large volumes of mercury (WHO, 2007).
However, high doses of mercury exposure among expectant individuals can result to severe problems to the child such as birth defects and mental retardation to the unborn child. Man gets exposed to mercury in small doses. For instance, individuals living near a manufacturing firm that releases small doses of mercury into the surrounding soil and water will eventually be affected by exposure. A company may claim to release extremely small doses of mercury, but it is the small doses that will eventually result to health problems. Regular exposure to small levels of mercury leads to a buildup of mercury levels in the body resulting to various health complications. It is, therefore, not justifiable for a manufacturing plant to emit small doses of mercury to soil and water as it puts the users of these resources at risk of contamination and poor health (Lipman, 2002).
The safe levels of mercury release that a manufacturing plant makes may be based on set standards by regulatory bodies such as Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, it should be noted that regulatory bodies such as EPA make estimates of safe levels based on the body weight of an adult. This, therefore, means that an adult and a child who are exposed to equal levels of mercury contamination will be affected different (EPA, 2013). The child has a smaller body weight than the adult and will thus be affected faster and more severely than the adult. In determining safe levels, environmental regulatory bodies also fail to make considerations of the overall effect of combination of chemical toxic to the environment. Different types of toxic wastes are released into the environment creating a scenario of toxic cocktail. In most instances, a toxic cocktail situation in the environment results to dangerous chemical effects to the environment, human beings, and animals.
Mercury and the Food Chain
Mercury that is found in nature and used in batteries and thermometers is toxic only when human breathe it. This is because mercury in vapor form is breathed in and remains lodged in the airways until it gets to high levels that affect human health. Mercury is a chemical substance that expands and vaporizes with ease making it easy to inhale. Since this manufacturing plant admits to emitting small levels of mercury, it is probable that employees working in the manufacturing plant are at risk of breathing in vaporized mercury. On the other hand, mercury that mixes up with water turns to a toxic form of substance known as methyl mercury (Griesbauer, 2007). Metallic mercury is changed to methyl mercury by bacteria found in the sediments. Methyl mercury is the most toxic form of mercury due to the adverse effects it has on animals and humans. The severity of methyl mercury is based on the fact that the smallest quantity that gets spilled into ponds or rivers can be fatal. Aquatic life will be affected by the mercury contamination. Animals such as cattle that rely on water from rivers and wells can gradually be exposed to mercury contamination through the water.
Over time, the mercury level in the animals gets to dangerous high levels. It should be noted that human beings slaughter these domestic animals as and consume them as food. The exposure to mercury thus becomes a food chain. The cattle consume water that is contaminated with mercury and the man consumes these animals as food exposing him to the harmful toxic. The result is mercury poisoning coupled with its severe side effects. Another example of food chain mercury poisoning is fish. Fish is an aquatic animal, and with contamination of the water where it resides, the fish also gets exposed to mercury. Methyl mercury collects gradually in the fish’s body. Fish is a nutritious food for human beings (Lipman, 2002)
An individual who consumes fish that has lived in waters contaminated with methyl mercury will also be at risk mercury poisoning. Fish consume planktons and other small fish which are also contaminated with mercury. Over time, the fish accumulates large quantities of methyl mercury to the extent that the level of mercury may be higher than the overall amount of mercury in the water where the fish swims. Other aquatic foods such as shell fish and lobsters can also contain high levels of mercury that can be transferred to man through consumptions (Griesbauer, 2007).
Cause for Concern
The manufacturing plant admits to the release of mercury to the environment. However, it indicates that the levels of mercury emitted are too minimal to cause any adverse effects to human health. It should be noted that mercury can be naturally found in the environment. It occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and released to the environment through processes such as volcanic activity, weathering of rocks and human activities such as coal burning and waste incinerators. The release of mercury due to processes occurring in manufacturing plants introduces additional mercury to the environment. This creates a situation where the mercury levels are higher than the expected safe levels. In the US, for instance, the federal government has set limits of mercury levels that are safe to human health (Dunmire, & Reeder, 2003). For instance, FDA provides that only 2parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water and 1part of methyl mercury in million parts of seas food.
Whereas these are some of the recommended levels of mercury, mercury emission due to manufacturing plants and industries adds to the naturally occurring mercury in the surroundings. This means that though the manufacturing plant releases mercury levels that are minimal, there is a high chance that the total quantity of mercury that is in the environment is too high. As earlier mentioned mercury does not disintegrate, this thus means that there is a steady rise of environment mercury. Mercury releases from natural sources has for decades remained constant, however, human activities have resulted to a rise in mercury releases to the environment. Mercury released by manufacturing plants forms part of the mercury released due to human activities. Though the levels of mercury release may be small, its constitution with the natural occurring mercury leads to high levels of mercury that can have adverse effects to human health (Clarkson, & Magos, 2006).
Actions to Eliminate Mercury Release
Mercury remains one of the most hazardous chemicals with adverse effects to human health. Since the natural release of mercury cannot be controlled with ease, efforts can be made to stop the releases of mercury due to human activities. For instance, government can strive to ban the use of mercury to manufacture different commodities used by humans. The government can also implement strict rules that control the level of mercury that is released by the manufacturing industries. Mercury contamination can be eliminated through a joint effort of different nations (Pirrone, & Telmer, 2010). Creating a legally binding global instrument on mercury releases ensures that each nation adheres to set conventional protocol thus reducing the quantity of mercury release in the environment.
Since the manufacturing company admits that it releases mercury, but at minimal levels, the manufacturing plant should ensure that it integrates pollution control equipment in its processing activities. This ensures that the release of mercury is reduced or eliminated. The manufacturing plant should strive to create an environment that is suitable for the employees, as well as the neighboring communities. Working in an environment where mercury is released poses a risk to the employees. Communities around the manufacturing plant will also be adversely affected as the mercury releases lead to gradual accumulations (Senkowsky, 2004). The dangers of mercury lie in the fact that detection of mercury poisoning is not obvious. Early warning signs may not be clear indicators of mercury poisoning, as a result, individuals with mercury poisoning take time before they are correctly diagnosed with the condition.
Overall, the most effective way to eradicate the release of mercury to the environment is by finding alternative raw materials and production method that do not utilize mercury. Finding alternative raw materials may increase the cost of production, but it ascertains a healthier workforce and cleaner environment. The manufacturing plant will be indirectly serving its community by ensuring that the waste it releases is free from toxic chemicals. For gaseous releases, the manufacturing plant should ensure that their raise the height of the emission stacks. It is by raising the emission stack that gaseous emissions are released away from man’s reach (Agency for toxic substances and disease registry, 2011).
Mercury is a toxin with one of the most severe effects on mankind. The adversity of mercury relates to the fact that it is not easy to detect the presence of the chemical with one’s naked eyes. This means that man is regularly exposed to mercury deposited in the environment without his knowledge. Mercury positioning is also not easy to detect as the symptoms are similar to other common diseases. However, when the symptoms become severe, treatment is almost impossible, and it ultimately leads to death. Concerns over pollution allegations must be carefully examined as mercury contamination occurs even with the smallest quantities of the chemical. Mercury also accumulates over time in soil or water hence leading to adverse health problems to individuals exposed to these environments. As a manufacturing plant that emits mercury, it is vital that the mercury levels of the surrounding water and oil are regularly monitored. The level of contamination should not surpass the recommended level provided by environment regulatory bodies. Alternative the plant can select alternative raw materials and production process that reduce or eliminate the release of mercury.
Agency for toxic substances and disease registry, (2011). Public health assessment for mercury. Retrieved from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=112&tid=24
Clarkson, T. W., & Magos, L. (2006). Toxicology of mercury and compounds. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 36(8), 609-662
Dunmire, C. & Reeder, T. (2003). Mercury in fluorescent lamps. Ecos consulting
EPA, (2013). Mercury: law and regulations. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/hg/regs.htm
Griesbauer, L. (2007). Methyl mercury contamination n fish and shellfish. Retrieved from http://www.csa.com/discoextremelyguides/mercury/review.pdf
Lipman, Z. (2002). A Dirty Dilemma: The Hazardous Waste Trade. Harvard International Review. Vol. 23(4).
Pirrone, N. & Telmer, K. (2010). Global mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural resources. Journal of atmospheric chemical physics. Vol. 10: 5951-5964
Sarikaya, S. & Srinken, M. (2010). Acute mercury poisoning. BMC emergency medicine. Vol. 10:7
Senkowsky, S. (2004). Fear of fish: The contaminant controversy. Bioscience, 54(11), 986-988
Streets, D. & Li, G. (2009): Mercury emissions from industrial sources in China, Springer, New York, chap. 3, 67–79, 2009.
World health organization, (2007). Exposure to mercury. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ipcs/features/mercury.pdf
Does Environmental Factors Cause Cancer
Ambrose, G. & Sue. (2007).
Brenner, D., Hung, R., Tsao, M., Shepherd, F., Johnston, M., Narod, S., & ... McLaughlin, J. (2010). Lung cancer risk in never-smokers: a population-based case-control study of epidemiologic risk factors. BMC Cancer, 10285. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-285
The article highlights that lung cancer in Canada is the highest type of cancer that causes death in this country. An approximate of over 23, 000 new cases of lung cancer is reported annually some that indicates over 20, 500 lung cancer deaths in the country per year. Active tobacco smoking has been indicated as the key factor that develops lung cancer although several studies are underway to determine on the issue of none smokers who are also victims in the case of lung cancer. The influence of workplace exposures, previous history of respiratory disease on lung cancer development, and indoor air pollution are some of environmental factors that develop cancer to the non smokers.
The study touches on the topic of exposure information, which was vital, in the development of the study. Collectors of data indicated that environmental tobacco smoke (EST) in Canada is the second from the hand smoke that causes cases of lung cancer in the country. Results indicate that there is a current increase of never smoker’s lung cancer cases in Canada that results from the smoke exposure. Occupational exposures have been concluded to be the strongest environmental factor that increases the issue of lung cancer risk in the society.
Brody, J., & Rudel, R. A. (2003). Environmental Pollutants and Breast Cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8), 1007
The study shows that women between the ages of 35-55 years are commonly affected by breast cancer in the world. The authors of this article have discovered that poor prediction of individual risk, higher risk of regions, increased risk among migrants, and rising incidence are the key environmental pollutants factors that has contributed to the occurrence of breast cancer in women for a long period. According to this research, there are a number of environmental aspects that rise to the development of breast cancer in women. Lack of exercise and use of excess alcohol affects hormone level that leads to cancer. An animal model has been used by the authors in demonstrating on how hormonally active compounds are responsible for the development of risk factors that are responsible for breast cancer development.
The study touches on a number of sub topics such as the role of risk factors in incidence patterns, reproductive risk factors, hormonal factors in mammary carcinogenesis, and chemical factors in mammary carcinogenesis as part of their explanations. The study disagrees on the findings that scientific researchers have put across on that the environmental pollutants are not related to issues of breast cancer. Strong toxicologic are part of ubiquitous pollutants that linked with the occurrence of breast cancer in the society.
Israel, B. & Environmental Health News (2010). How Many Cancers are caused by the Environment? Retrieved from, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-many-cancers-are-caused-by-the-environment, On April 9, 2013
Authors of the article first disagree on the fact that most studies suggest that environmental factors are the only factors that cause cancer in humans. They argue that genetic factors and environmental factors play a role in cancer development. Cancer according to this study is a multifactorial disease that results from a number of aspects that range from environmental to genetic factors. Taking foods that are hydrocarbons, drinking of contaminated water, and smoking are some of environmental factors that are responsible for occurrence of some cancer situations. There is a relationship that exists between environmental factors and genetic aspects in the occurrence of cases of cancer in the society.
Managed care is an organized approach for delivering a comprehensive range of healthcare services to a list of members via efficient management of services. Managed care is the primary vehicle in managing the quality of service received by Americans since the 19990s. The National Committee for quality Assurance began its accreditation in 19991 as a way of responding to the demand of objective and standardized information about the MCO quality. A healthcare center participation is voluntary by at the same time has plans for accreditation. For an MCO to be accredited, it has to comply with the standards of NCQA. The review and evaluation process are conducted to determine compliance among managed care experts and physicians. The process is supervised by a national oversight committee of health practitioners. A rating system is combined with accreditation with five status categories which are accredited, denied, provisional, commendable and excellent (NAS 2012).
The qualities of healthcare delivery do differ based on expertise one plan to another, resources and commitment of every care plan provider. The plans of managed care offer a wide range of services whenever there is the challenge of resource constraint. This type of incentive may not adequately serve people especially that at-risk population and the sickest people. The main under managed care consumers is the possibility of managed care plans to hinder access to the required providers and services. This makes quality care that is independently monitored to be imperative. This is because the services needed by consumers may fail to be the type of care that is well monitored as assured as per the provisions of managed care. The challenged mainly result from corporate downsizing, restructuring and professional loss as well as the capacity of facilities in the healthcare industry that have continued to present barriers for patients to access quality services. In order to monitor these concerns, there is the need to collect uniform data from all managed care plan. Managed care plans have, unfortunately, failed to produce uniform data about patient’s encounters because of lack of routine generation of individual financial claims. If this data could be profiled and aggregated on a routine basis by quality evaluators, it will allow a comprehensive assessment of patients encounter as they aim to receive healthcare services. This data would also allow the performance of the managed care plan be measured against other standardized quality indicators.
Individuals who are enrolled under Managed care do not have rights to an independent appeal like those beneficiaries of Medicaid and Medicare who have independent right to appeal. These beneficiaries have their own right to appeal beyond their own health plans on internal appeals system and grievances. The consumers under managed care plan also deserve to be given their appeal right so that the plan keeps to its word and remain the responsibility in satisfying the needs of its members. The enrollees deserve their right to be independent so that they can have external appeal of service denial or benefit within a given time framework for resolving a dispute.
Another aspect that hinders the assurance that members of managed care plan will have quality service is the lack of access of other comparable services, quality and prices. This gives managed care plans tobe at its comfort zone without real competitions farm similar plans. The lack of information hinders consumers to seek other alternative services that offer high quality of healthcare services (Shi, 2011)
NAS (2012) Focus on quality in changing healthcare system. Retrieved from
On April 28, 2013
Shi, L (2011)Delivering healthcare in America. Jones & Barlett publishers.
I am registered nurse working in a public health clinic. I got an opportunity to shadow my nursing supervisor Saji. Saji is a nursing supervisor at the public health clinic. She has a BSN in nursing and is currently pursuing a MSN/MPH program. I got an opportunity to learn various skills and competences during the shadowing exercise with Saji. This paper discusses competencies that I was able to meet during the exercise. The paper also analyzes a study that relates to my experience and presents a reflection of my experiences.
One of the competencies that I was able to acquire during the shadowing exercise is the integration of evidence based practices in leadership processes within the nursing profession. Evidence best practice has become a vital concept within the medical profession (Hauck, Winset and Kurick, (2012). This concept emphasize on the use of recent best evidence in the delivery of care to patients. Saji has managed to apply the concept of evidence best practice in her leadership role within the healthcare organization. The MSN/MPH program that Saji is currently pursuing has provided her with the impetus to implement evidence best practices. The program exposes her new evidence, best practices, and developments within the nursing and medical field. Saji makes certain that these best practices are employed in the public health clinic. One of Saji achievements entails the development of the fast-track protocol that reducing the waiting time for patients. The fast-track protocol program was a massive success and is currently being executed in other health centers across the city.
I also got an opportunity to examine the influence of the voice of an individual nurse in shaping a preferred future of nursing. The American healthcare system is experiencing a number of challenges including increase cost and aging workforce. Every nurse has a responsibility of shaping the future of the health system by making contributions toward increasing the efficiency of the system. During the shadowing exercise, I was able to observe how an individual nurse can make a difference with the nurses and the overall healthcare system. Through her individual initiative, Saji was able to introduce a program that is changing the services delivery of public health center across the city. Saji is currently spearheading a program that seeks to fight HPV infection within the city.
The shadowing exercise also gave me the chance to apply and enhance leadership and management skills through participation in a service learning leadership project. Service learning is an experiential learning process that seeks to promote skills and competences by giving the learning an opportunity to have hand-on experience in performing a task. The shadowing exercise gave me the chance to effect management and leadership skills in a practical environment. This exercise was instrumental in enhancing my leadership and management skills.
Study: Role of Nursing Leadership in Facilitating Evidence Based Practice
Integration of evidence based practice in nursing is one of the competencies that I acquired during the shadowing exercise. Evidence based practice has become a popular concept in the healthcare industry due to the benefits associated with this concept. However, many nurses are unable to integrate evidence based practice into their nursing practices. A study conducted by Hauck, Winsett and Kurick (2012) examined the role of leadership in facilitating the integration of evidence based services in a healthcare establishment. Hauck, Winset and Kurick, (2012) noted that while many nurses acknowledge the benefits of evidence based practice, many organizations lack the readiness to implement this concept. Integrating evidence based practice into an institution requires beliefs, skills, knowledge, infrastructure and sufficient leadership. According to Hauck, Winset and Kurick, (2012) leadership facilitate integration of evidence based practice in three main ways; providing mentorship to other nurses; advocating for resources that are necessary for the implementation of evidence based practice, and incorporate evidence based outcome into the strategic plan of the establishment. Saji is effective in providing mentorship to other nurses, when it come to implementation of evidence based practice.
The shadowing exercise has been a vital learning process for me. I have acquired various skills by observing and spending time with Saji. I knew about evidence based practice, but I had no experience on how this concept can be implemented in a real context. Through this experience, I was able to learn how one can put this concept into practice. I also learnt the role of nursing leaders in promoting best practices with a healthcare setting. Saji did not just issue direction; she led from the front. She demonstrated how knowledge acquired from reliable sources can be implemented so as it can have an effect on the patients lives. I also learnt that leaders also have an essential role of providing inspiration to others. Saji work is extremely inspiration. The contribution she has made towards enhancing the quality of services within the institution inspires all nurses within and outside the clinic. I would also like to have a similar influence when I assume leadership roles in the future.
Hauck S. Winset R. and Kurick J. (2012). Leadership Facilitation Strategies to Establish Evidence-Based Practice in an Acute Care Hospital. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 69 (3): 664- 674
Critical Thinking In Leadership Paper
Lack of resources and being overworked or understaffed are some of the common complaints in the nursing healthcare environment evidence indicates that a number of health care facilities overwork employees, underfund their services and programs, and understaffed something that does not yield positive results. The question at hand is whether these health care facilities will be in a position to succeed and excel in such an environment. This paper will look at the problem that exists due to the lack of resources in the nursing industry, reasons why employees are understaffed, and why they are overworked. The essay will also develop a proposed statement of the solution, describe how the proposed plan will be developed, accepted, and approved. Finally, the paper will state proposed implementation including barriers that are likely to develop in the course of solving the problem.
The problem of resources and employees being understaffed has affected the nursing industry at a greater length. Lack of resources available to nursing industry is one of the complaints that nurses and other professionals in health care facilities have been worrying all along. The current global problem of resources and nursing shortage is widely affecting patients and nurses in the health care environment. Available nurses are equipped with resources that are not adequate in providing quality nursing services something that is dangerous to the entire population. It is estimated that the nursing industry has 12 million nurses who provide health services to the general public. This organization is not well understood because what these people do is totally different from what the general public thinks about them, (Buchan, 2006).
Nursing health care industry is an autonomous and distinct scientific field with professionals who are skilled in saving lives of people and at the same time improve patient outcomes in their everyday activities. The problem with the nursing industry is the lack of enough nurses and those available being overworked. Evidence shows that nursing health care has a lot of work that requires extra professionals who are not available. The shortage of nurses affects patients and nurses available in the services offered and attention required to provide healthcare services. Most people prefer entering into other professions as compared to the nursing industry. Another thing is that the nursing industry is comprised of baby boomers who are retiring at a high rate, (Aiken, et al., 2008).
There are some fundamental factors that have developed some of the problems in the nursing healthcare. Some of these underlying fundamental factors include poor, working conditions, nurse short staffing, expanded career options for women, the aging workforce, inadequate resources for nursing research, and the increasing complexity of health care and technology development. The rapid aging populations and nursing predominantly female nature in the nursing healthcare is another problem that has been affecting how patients are provided with health care services. According to, (Robinson, 2007) the inadequate quantity of skilled nurses in health care setting poses a serious negative impact on the patient’s outcomes. The increase in the level of mortality rate can be associated with lack of nurses.
Results from a study conducted by International Council of Nurses (2012) suggest an increase in the global shortage of registered nurses. The aspect of the nursing shortage in a clinic setting is literally taking lives of the aging population. Apart from taking lives, it has been noticed that it has impaired the wellbeing of millions of people and affected their health conditions. Nurses fail to provide quality and relevant health care services simply because they lack relevant resources that are required in providing health care services. A number of factors have been combined to produce the problem of lack of resources and employees being overworked in the nursing healthcare. According to Buchan 2006, there is a clear evidence of inadequate nursing resources in most countries, in the world. Lack of health care resources has prevented the use of available resources in providing health care services to patients. Professionals in health care industry face challenge on operating without required health care resources. It has been difficult for clinic staff members in attending patients because they do not have required or proper resources in their practice, (Buchan, 2006).
Lack of resources and nursing shortages is consistent factors that impact health care system. These factors have at length undermined health care industry effectiveness, and they require a solution in order to establish a system that provides quality health services to the population. Unless sound strategies are put in place, and we ensure proper use of available sources, health care industry is doomed to the occurrence of uncoordinated, inappropriate policy responses, low quality services, high level of patient unsatisfactory, and obsolete services that lead to overworking nurses available in the healthcare profession. The issue of understaffing employees in the nursing industry has developed negative impacts in a clinic setting, (Paul, 2011).
Health care facilities are full of patients who are discharged in the middle of the service provision. Available doctors struggle to look at the patients who are in need of emergency services. This calls some of patients to go without getting full services because doctors must take care of those with emergency problems. According a study conducted by (Paul, 2011) there is a dwindling number of nurses working out of hours as well as staff shortage something that is likely to develop strains in providing health care services to patients. Many health care services in the current world operate with some departments which lack the qualified personnel in that area. This develops a condition where an employee is forced to operate in more than two departments. It is clear that, in such an environment, specialists are unable to attend patients in the required manner. Recent statistics from the International council of nurses shows that one of ten health care departments operates without the required expert. Employees in other departments are forced to work past their usual time, (Aiken, et al., 2008).
The scarcity of professionals in health care industry is a contributing factor that forces health care facilities practice the issue of understaffing. It is one of the biggest problem that prevents healthcare environment achieve its health care missions and goals in an effective manner. According to the health millennium development initiative program, health care industry is affected by human resources crisis that should be addressed in urgency so as to provide quality services to patients. The human resources shortages have a negative impact on the health care setting for it makes this available overwork thus reducing their level of productivity. Nurses are the key factor in the health care systems, (Robinson, 2007). Their contribution and participation in nursing health care is recognized as vital in meeting development objectives, goals, and delivering effective care and safe services to patients. Study shows difficulties of determining the level of challenges these nurses face in a clinical setting, but what is known is that lack of enough professionals is among the key challenges in health care industry. Shortages of nurses in the healthcare professional have affected millions of patients because they are not able to get the quality services whenever they are in need. Something should be developed in order to deal with this problem or else the health care industry will continue experiencing other challenges while patients suffer as a result of services they get, (Paul, 2011).
Different studies conducted on the issue of nursing shortages in health care industry have proposed several strategies that this industry should apply in order to deal with the shortage of nurses. Employees who work for longer shifts in the healthcare industry are eventually tired by the end of the day. The approach that should be used in such a situation is to assign activities evenly. Most employees are overworked in nursing industry something that prevents them from delivering quality services to patients. I believe that sharing health care activities evenly will help nurses do equal work and prevent others from skiving from their duties. Patients will also have the opportunity to get the quality services from the professionals. The approach enables patients to be attended because, at the end of the day, no single patient will be ignored. Patients are given enough attention by the available nurses for each of the employee is allocated the time required to conduct their activities, (Buchan, 2006).
Dealing with the issue of lack of resources, shortage of nurses, and impacts towards patients in the healthcare industry, several factors should be put in place and addressed in accordance. In solving the above problem, the first thing one should do is to accept that there exists a problem of lack of resources. Staffs should voice out their concerns on having a lack of enough resources to the concerned department or director. When raising this concern to the director of nursing, it is vital to suggest the type of resources that lacks in the organization. Also put across the suggestion on how to rectify the problem by developing ways on how to approach the problem. This type of information is necessary in a problem solving situation for it enables the concerned party explain clearly to the management how the problem affects the organization and some proposed measures that should be put across, (Paul, 2011).
The next step is encouraging other nurses and shows them the importance of addressing the same issue to the director of nursing. The director of nursing will see the seriousness of the matter hence establish a strategy on how to negotiate with the upper management on how to solve the issue. Several nurses’ voices have the power to be taken into consideration thus several nurses raising the same worry to the director will be considered serious. Acknowledging that lack of resources in nursing health care industry is a vital step. Although this does not solve the problems, it is vital to recognize that your health facility is not the only one that works with these problems. This will help reduce some of stress such as psychology problems that are associated with lack of nurses and resources in the health care setting. When available nurses are aware of the problems they have in the organization will reduce the level of stress they may develop during their duty operation. They will manage to develop some of the key strategies on how to handle these problems, (Paul, 2011).
I will also seek help and advice to senior personnel. New nursing employees should seek help from their seniors simply because these are people who have been in the industry and know how to deal with such problems. Senior employees may have a rough idea on how to acquire better working resources and strategies that will reduce the high level of problems affecting the healthcare industry. The last approach that should be applied is to utilize the available resources in meeting goals and objectives of the organization. Evidence shows that although in not an ideal way, utilizing the available resources will help get the job done, (Chapman, 2012).
Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S.P., Sloane, D.M., Lake, E.T., &Cheney, T. (2008). Effects of hospital care environment on patient mortality and nurse outcomes.Journal of Nursing Administration
Buchan J. (2006). Nursing shortages and human resource planning.International Journal of Nursing Studies.Journal of PubMed; 31:143–154
Chapman, B. (2012). The Nursing Shortage: A Literature Review of Factors of Causation, Impact on Health Care, and Solutions to Fix the Problem: Utica College
Paul, R.W. (2011).Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World. Rohnert Park, California: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique
Robinson, J. A. (2007). An Understanding of Professional Nurses' Perceptions in Providing Quality of Care During the Nursing Shortage: ProQuest
A. Board of Directors
1. Who is on the board Robert L Nardelli: He is the president, chairman and CEO since early 2002.
Kenneth Langone: co-founder and lead director since 1998
Gregory D. Brenneman: Board of directors
Richard H. Brown: board member since 2003
John L. Clendenin: board member since 1996
Berry. R. Cox private investor since 1978
Claudio X. Gonzalez,
Milledge A. Hart
Bonnie G. Hill
Richard A. Grasso
William S. Davila
Roger S. Penske since 1982
2. The top executives and institutional shareholders are paid via stock options.
There is one insider among the board members who controls a separating voting of shares.
4. Skills and expertise
Nardelli the CEO of the company focuses on home improvement retailer as a way of enhancing the core retailing network via innovative, distinctive merchandise, store modernization and technology investment. Langone, Marcus Bernard and Arthur Blank established the orange-blooded culture that aims to maintain the company’s principles. Mr. Brenneman has helped lead the company in its strategic plan of expansion and growth. Richard H. Brown provided the company with technological and business solutions that have seen the business of this company improving. Clendenin has the expertise and knowledge in communication service and he is outstanding in targeting a specific customer segment and retail consumer. Claudio Gonzalez is strength to the company in expanding to international operations. Through him, the company has managed to successfully entry Mexico and has 12 stores in operations. Grasso is also an expert in international matters. He has experience in most technologically advanced aspects in the world.
5. The Board members actively engage in strategic management. They participate in drafting of management proposals and consult with other experts who help in giving future direction of Home Depot (Hunger, & Wheelen, 2003, p 90).
B. Home depot Top Management
1. Organized and governed
Home Depot has a multidivisional organizational structure. At the top is the Management with both horizontal and vertical linkages in different management within the firm. At the bottom are the department managers consisting of store managers responsible for upper directives by the management and delegation of duties. The store managers report to regional managers and have connections with various functional departments. These departments are advertising, legal matters, information services and merchandise accounting. The senior management has a direct link to every individual store.
2. Top management
The top manger has to be a person who supports the corporate culture as the main strategy of the firm. The top managers are expected to have had experience at the local store department and move up the rank. This means that the firm has a linear organizational structure and breeds its own professionals of people with knowledge from the ground to upper level. For now, this leadership position is under the hands of Robert Nardelli.
3. The manager’s qualifications
Mr. Nardelli before joining Home Depot worked as the CEO and president of GE Power Systems. He is credited for upgrading the firm’s services, technologies, and innovative products. Langone the lead director has brought major changes to the company especially in the improvement of retail. Mr. Brenneman has helped in strategic planning of continued expansion and growth. Mr. Brown’s impact to the company has been felt since 2002 especially in his investment of technology that has improved customer shopping experience. Clendenin is as expertise and has knowledge in communication services. These among other managers are rewarded through monetary and other incentives for their performance.
4. Stock options
Stock option is a type of incentive compensation that is used by firms to retain and encourage talent. The stock options owned by the top managers and CEO of Home Depot is at 70. 06 below -0.63(-0.89%)
5. Top management's chief characteristics
The top management style of leadership is based on sharing of idea. The stores managers make decisions autonomy, and these stores have their own entrepreneurial culture. The changes made by Nerdellli led to saving of a large amount of money. These changes included centralizing of purchasing operations[i].
The top management has been responsible for the performance of the company many of the managers have stayed in their position for over three years. The executive team are internally hired because it breads is individuals with knowledge as they climb the leadership ladder.
7. Management skilled
The top management is well prepared for the future challenges the firm might face. For instance, when qualified employees leave the firm, its existing members who have been cultivated by the company will take up the vacant leadership positions. This shows that this company has a clear corporate strategy that is supported by its corporate culture.
8. Incentive structure
The company has established its unique compensation strategy that ensures that the management has the right incentives and is rewarded based on their contributions towards the profitability and growth of the company. This strategy supports and aligns with the interests and objectives of the stockholders. There is an annual review of the compensation programs that are open and known to every member of the management.
9. Company's disclosures
The company has transparent disclosures that ensures equal employment opportunity fair share to shareholders and improvement of diversity. The company outshines its competitors in transparency.
10. Company habit
No, the company does not have the habit of showing charges in their books.
Hunger, J & Wheelen, T (2003) Essentials of Strategic Management. Upper saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, p 90
Article: Van Allen Probes Discovers a New Radiation Belt.
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
A team of scientists from the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), NASA’s Goddard space flight center, Md.; Los Alamos national laboratory in Alamos and the institute for the study of the earth, ocean, and space at the university of new hemisphere have discovered a new belt of radiation. The scientists were working on the previsions van Allen probes/radiation belt storm probes, which was designed to help scientist understand the influence of radiations on earth. This are the second mission in NASA’s living with star program that explores how the sun-earth system affects the human life and society. Goddard was in charge of the program while the applied physics laboratory was in charge of building the spacecraft that manages the program. The discovery of the new radiation was made by a particle sensor, the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT).
The scientist discovered the existence of a third transient belt of radiation. The third layer of radiation ads up to the existing two belts of radiations that were earlier discovered in the 1950’s. The earlier discovery had reported the existence of two distinct radiation belts that were referred to as the inner and the outer radiation belt. The third belt was observed for four consecutive days before it was annihilated by a strong interplanetary shock wave from the sun. According to the researchers, despite the fact that these radiations had in effect on the lives of human being in the earlier years, they are very crucial today. The radiations are important in the modern high technology society. The modern satellites that are used in weather stations, GPS and television can easily interact with the radiation causing short circuiting. The researcher indicates that the knowledge of the radiation will help in controlling their storms thereby saving electronics from the possible damage.
Radiations from the earth’s magnet field are very important in different fields. They cause motion in electrical charges such as the magnetic field in a magnet bar. These important magnetic fields captures solar winds and prevent them from entering the earth surface. A group of scientist believes that the neighboring planet of mars was blown dry by these solar winds. Continued research in this field will help answer the controversy or shed more light on their claim. The study of magnetic fields is also relevant in controlling airspace and navigation. Modern transport in air, ocean and space depends heavily on satellite information. Telecommunication sector is also highly dependent on high frequency radiations.
The knowledge about the earth’s magnetic field has also fascinated my life. I believed that the magnetic field is one single layer of magnetic field that covers the planetary earth. It is informing for me to learn that there are actually three layers of radiations that surround the earth. Their role in protecting the earth from solar winds is also a new concept to me. However, the increasing knowledge in this field will help the science world to understand further the magnetic fields. This knowledge will help in devising satellites and high frequency radiation equipments that can withstand interruptions from these belts of radiations.