Teachers create K-W-L charts before they embark on teaching a new topic so as to actively involve the students in the learning process. KWL charts allow students to recall concepts and ideas related to the topic about to be discusses. By detailing what they know about the topic, the teacher will gauge their level of understanding and determine effective strategies in teaching that topic. K-W-L is a teaching and learning process with three columns. ‘K’ represents “What we Know”; ‘W’ represents “What we Wonder” and ‘L’ represents “What we Learned”
Using K-W-L benefits the learner and instructor. The students are able to unearth any background information that s/he would have otherwise not recalled. The process also activities the students thinking process. They come to class not only to listen and absorb what the teacher tells them but to also make contributions to the discussion in class. Students are naturally curious and if pushed to think and con tribute to a class discussion on a topic, they will gladly do so. Some of the responses and thoughts may be misplaced while others could be right. The right points are noted while the wrong ones are also noted and explained (Crawford, 2005). Teacher’s use of K-W-L benefits the teachers in that it helps them determine the level of understanding of the students. Through discussions, the teacher gets an opportunity to discuss more complex ideas and gradually discuss them with the students. The level of understanding, when using K-W-L, is higher than simple spoon feeding of students with information.
The first step in using a K-W-L chart is writing out the chart. The chart will consist of the three main segments i.e. K, W, L. the firsts column to be completed is the ‘K’ column that aims to determine what the student know about a topic. If, for instance, the topic is about terrorism, the teacher will require that the students brainstorm over what they think terrorism is. Information that will be provided by the students will be entered in the ‘K’ segment (Crawford, 2005). Contributions such as definition, famous terrorism attacks, list of terrorist groups etc will be entered in this segment. Only information that is correct and relevant to the topic under discussion is entered in ‘K’ segment.
The second segment is ‘W’ column. In this column, the students are required to pose questions. These are questions that can be discussed in relation to the topic. Students can pose questions about issues they are uncertain off (Crawford, 2005). The teacher writes down the question in this column for further discussion. Students are free to pose as many question as possible regardless of whether they apply to the main topic under discussion or not.
The last column is ‘L’. This column lists down all that the students have learned. All the questions that students have posed in ‘W’ column will have been answered. The right information that relates to the topic of discussion is discussed and noted in this column. Overall, this column gives a summary of all content that relates to the topic.
K-W-L charts art beneficial to the students as they help them to comprehend on the topic discussed in class. The main idea/concepts related to the topic are highlighted in the chart for students to see, read and recall. The chart also helps the teacher to plan for their lesson. Having determined how much the students know, the teachers can organize to teach content that students are unaware of.
Crawford, A. (2005). Teaching and learning strategies for the thinking classroom. The International debate education publishers
Being A Multilingual
I am a fluent speaker of 12 languages which are English, German, Greek, Afrikaans, Kiswahili, Dutch, Russian, Spanish, Catalan, Italian, French, and Hebrew. I have learnt and perfected these languages for more than 30 years based on my passion to learn new languages and perfect my communication skills. I am currently 25 years of age. My mother is half Hebrew half Greek, and as a child, she used to speak to me in both Greek and Hebrew languages. In France, I learned English and French in my elementary level. I studied Catalan and Spanish languages in Northern Spain while schooling there. At the age of 15, we lived in Holland with my parents. I totally fell in love with the Dutch language, and I could not speak even a single word. This gave me the interest to learn Dutch through books and CDs. It felt great to start speaking with some friends I met with a language they were comfortable in it. I do make visits to Netherlands often to do some business and visit a close friend whom we communicate in Dutch.
My friend Van Harm has relatives in South Africa, and he convinced me to accompany him to visit his relatives. In South Africa, I leant Afrikaans, with the interest of wanting to know how Dutch impacted on Afrikaans. At the same time I met a Kenyan lady who thought of me as a genius for knowing so Many languages at a young age. She was able to teach me Kiswahili. We later came to England in the late 1990s, and I was able to study Russian and German languages at Oxford. Later, I spent a lot of time in a place known as Yaroslavl about 300 kilometers from Moscow where my father used to work. I was able to study Russian language but, I am still not good at written form.
It had always been my desire to master and speak different languages of the world. My mother and I have always been visiting Greece to Visit our relatives who make me practice Greek and Hebrew. My father was later transferred to work in Japan. I paying him visits in Japan proved a challenge because, I could not speak to any other person rather than my dad and few people there who speak English. Generally, the whole process of learning new languages is interesting. The trick to learn any new foreign language is learning from the context. One can easily remember the words through hearing and seeing more than cramming written words in a list. Music and lyrical poems are basically more memorable because they are rhyme that can be sung.
To me, I find each of these languages having their own uniqueness and identity or personality. Languages having the same identity can be easily be confused. The languages, which I commonly confuse, are Spanish and Greek because they have the same personalities. These two languages have similar pronunciations and are lively languages. However, despite Afrikaans being a language that originated from Dutch and sharing some words, they are different in personality. I find Afrikaans to be expressive and poetic, while Dutch is quite reserved and formal in nature. Of all these languages love Hebrew Greece and languages, because I have used them since I was very young. These languages are of value and make me love and remember my origin. I am currently studying the Italian Language because I am now living in Italy. I wish to end my classes in the coming year and use the language fluently. I do look forward to learning other languages such as Serbian, and Arabic languages. Generally, I have met made many friends through the diverse language skills I have. My Final message is that language can be learned at any age and not simply in childhood as many people think Edwards 2012).
Edwards J (2012) Multilingualism, Understanding Linguistic Diversity. Bloomsbury publishers, p 136
Higher Education and Gender Equality
There has been a great increase in the number of women in higher education around the world. In the 21st Century, women are increasingly involved in postgraduate studies and advanced research as compared to other periods in history. Consequently, this is bound to have a huge impact in terms of gender equality. For many years, women have lagged behind men in studies. For instance, it was not until the latter half of the 20th Century that women started enrolling for doctorate programs in large numbers. Without pursuing higher education, women would struggle to match the economic development evident among men.
It follows that the increased enrollment of women in higher education programs will have a positive impact on gender balance (Connolly, 2005).Education serves as the most significant stepping stone towards the empowerment of individuals. The world's poorest regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa are characterized by high rates of illiteracy. This serves as an indicator that education is an important element of empowerment and economic development in the society.
With a greater number of women in higher education, it is inevitable that there will be greater parity between genders in the future. Currently, the western countries are characterized by a high number of women in advanced studies. This includes areas such as medicine, economics and information technology. On the other hand, authorities in the developing world have invested heavily towards educating the girl child. Such perspectives indicate that women gender equality will be greater in the future. Through education, women will compete effectively with men for employment opportunities and resources. Additionally, higher education will enable women to defend their rights in the society (Connolly, 2005).
Connolly, S. (2005). Gender equality, Black Rabbit Books
USGS (2012). “Start with Science: Hurricane Isaac, Weathering the Storm & Understanding Isaac’s Impacts”WRITTEN_BY Administrator
USGS (2012). “Start with Science: Hurricane Isaac, Weathering the Storm & Understanding Isaac’s Impacts”
This article by the US Geology Survey presents a scientific report about the damages caused by the Hurricane Isaac. The article documents how the scientists were able to assess the effect of the storm and also discusses some of the major impacts of the storm. One of the impacts of the hurricane was damages to the Tangipahoa Dam. Scientists were able to ascertain this using the T-lidar technology. The dam was damaged by the heavy down pour caused by the rain, causing floods in the downstream areas. Consequently, thousands of people living downstream were displaced by the floods. The downstream areas also experienced landslides due to the heavy rains and the floods. One of the landslides took place under the water.
Scientists compared images of the week’s aerial photographs with those of the previous week in order to indentify damages and changes made to the coast. The scientist found out that some coastal beaches hand undergone massive erosion due to the surges and waves of the hurricane. The Islands have experienced the problem of erosion in the past, the image reveal that hurricane Isaac had just made the problem worse. This revelation was a problem since erosions make the Island more vulnerable to future storms. The images also revealed that the hurricane had cause the over-wash of islands.
The massive erosion caused by hurricane Isaac also led to the disappearance of a berm and submergences of the some coastal areas. Chandeleur Island, Louisiana are the worst affected. The Islands are now characterized by submerged shallow beaches and underwater shoals. However, the submergence process was also as a result of the cumulative effect of previous hurricanes. Scientists are in doubt on whether the Chandeleur beaches will ever return to their original state.
Hurricane Isaac also led to elevation of land at some coastal areas. Scientists were able to ascertain this using light detection and ranging technology. The flyover also detected that the storm had a significant impact on the ecological environmental of the coastal areas. Vegetation cover had been damaged and animal habitats washed away by the raging waters. Breton Sound was the most affected area as the area experienced heavy flooding during the storm. Hurricane Isaac also left behind a massive wrack field. The storm carried along trash and debris, which were deposited throughout the hurricane’s path. The trash and debris barricaded major infrastructure and covered up the marsh areas. Consequently, there was a massive dieback of marsh especially in the Barataria and Terrebonne areas, Louisiana. These areas were characterized by brown and discolored marshes, which is an indication of flooding stress. However, evidence points out that the dieback of marsh may not have been from the impact of the storm alone. Other factors may have also contributed to this impact.
The storm also resulted in loss of wetlands. This was largely as a result of the sudden death of marshes and other vegetation leaving the wetlands open. Louisiana was also the worse affected by the loss of wetlands. Hurricane Isaac also led to the flooding of inland areas especially along the Mississippi River. Scientific evidence reveals that the hurricane led to heavy down pour in the inland areas and, thus, resulting in the increase in flow of the Mississippi. The elevated water levels in the river caused flooding in areas such as Wiggins, Black Creek and Wolf River.
US Geological Survey (2012). “Start with Science: Hurricane Isaac, Weathering the Storm & Understanding Isaac’s Impacts”. September 13, 2012. http://www.usgs.gov/blogs/features/usgs_top_story/isaac/
Research helps individuals learn new things that they do not know on different areas of study. It is through research people learn new things hence upgrade their knowledge for making new decisions. Research helps people develop sound decisions simply because of the knowledge they have. The role of the PhD scholar practitioner is to learn on new things and ideas that aid in decision making. The scholar should research on the new areas of his or her field so as to get new ideas. Another important role of a PhD scholar is to develop basic research as well as developing research questions for that given profession. The role of being a scientist is to develop research question and come up with sound research methodologies on the research that was developed, (Fink, 2008).As a basic scholar professional, there are few things that I have discovered important in research field.
The first important thing in research study is to make and develop sound research questions on a given area. After that, develop research methodologies for the same research so as to get new ideas. Finally, it is important to draw logic conclusions from the results of the said research study. When conducting any form of research, there are few important things an individual is required to take into consideration. The first one is to make understanding of researching area so as to develop desired results. No assumptions irrespective of the nature of the research question should be done, (Fink, 2008).One of the pressing questions about the current study is whether the research I am conducting have been done earlier and whether I will be able to get necessary information, (Fink, 2008).
Fink, A. (2008). Conducting Research Literature Reviews: SAGE
Mixed method research is a method of research design that includes methods and methodology. What is involved in methodology is collecting, analyzing, and then mixing the quantitative and qualitative approaches in the many phases during the research process. Mixed method provides strength that offset the weakness of qualitative and quantitative research. During research question in mixed method, mixed methods need a clearly formulated question or the objective of the nature of integration, linking, or mixing (Creswell, J & Tashakkori, A 2007). The answers to the research question need to be explored clearly and then be presented at the end of the study. Mixed methods studies are of benefit to at least one mixed question, which provides the probability of a quantitative and qualitative type of questions.
This question links the components and objectives and study questions and it then sets the base for comprehensive mixed method conclusion at the end.The form and nature of research questions can be different in parallel and sequential (Creswell, J & Tashakkori, A 2007). Component questions are usually framed from the start in regards to parallel studies. Research questions in sequential study are that the questions of the second strand normally emerge as a result of the first strand findings. Mixing of the quantitative approach and the qualitative approach provides a proper understanding of the problem that the research is trying to investigate, than when one approach is used alone. The research questions in mixed method help in collecting more information concerning the study problem (Creswell, J & Tashakkori, A 2007). Today, it is important to use mixed method study because of the complex problems which should be addressed.
Creswell, J & Tashakkori, A (2007). Exploring the nature of research questions in mixed methods research Journal of mixed methods research1 (3)
Effective Instructional Strategies for Online Courses
In the recent past, various learner-centered applications have been developed for online or hybrid course instructions. In many instances, higher learning institutions, and colleges have integrated blogging with other instructional technological tools such as threaded discussions forums, learning management systems, chat-rooms and emails. The hybrid kind of instructions is that where students still meet in the traditional classroom but carry out communication and coursework virtually. Currently, many literature materials are calling upon staff and faculties to develop better instructional applications that are of benefit to learners. The Millennial and Network Generation reports indicates that students have grown up in the new information age of technology leading to the development of attitudes, aptitudes and skills. The internet offers a wide range of information and students are more comfortable to interact online leading to beneficial collaboration and interaction.
Furthermore, modern day students have high expectation of immediacy not only in knowledge acquisition and problem solving but with their instructors. The main question that faculty members and staff should ask themselves is what are the most effective instructional strategies or pedagogical models will they designs to cater for the needs of self-directed learners? The very first step that the staff members should consider is the development of scholarship models that incorporate innovative approaches of teaching that can be blended with technology based on a set of skills to be devoted in various areas in a core subject. The identification of best instructional practices will be incorporated within the pedagogical models. The paper will present various learning preferences such as live chat 500, Threaded discussion, weblogs 2, e-text, case study and emails that are suitable in teaching online courses.
Live chat 500
Based on the online chat, students have the opportunity of interacting with other students and to respond to the questions posed by their instructors. This communication is instant but lacks the ability of participants seeing any physical cues from the communicator or hears verbal inflections such as tones in a discussion. However, the chatters will be faced with the challenge of the speed of typing and sometimes spelling errors. The main goal of the instructor and faculty in allowing living chat as part of learning instructions is to enhance communication in a convenient manner to students and teachers based in far off geographical locations. The live chats are usually synchronized with threaded discussions found in learning management systems and course sites. The students and teachers will be able to access these sites at their own convenient time. The live chat platform will enable students and teachers to pass resources related to the courses that they have found on the network. Any new student can check in with lecturers and other classmates on live sessions. Students in integrated class can use live chats as a backup mode of communication when they are on holidays (Kahn, 1997).
Educators have explored their ability of using live chats on twitter and other social sites to supplement their courses. The live chat possibilities are of major help to online course students living in different geographical places. Such social sites enhance live chatting by students and lectures. They can develop live club in which books are read in the form of chapter assignments and participants will be encouraged to present their thoughts based on what they have read and their learning reflections. The exchange of ideas takes place asynchronously or synchronously. The students can be graded based on the live chat participation. The instructors should consider the following objectives:
$1· The instructors will formulate the time for discussions on live chats which can take more than one week
$1· The instructor will design questions to be discussed on the live chat related to the topic of study.
$1· Will evaluate and examine meaningful discussions contributed by students and grade them according to their participation
$1· Will create questions that will encourage thoughtful participation among students and not simple questions that will lead to simple responses or reporting that require minimal interaction among students.
$1· Will analyze how students interact online and ensure appropriate use of language that can be understood by all students from diverse backgrounds. The main goal should be to help students build on positive reputation and to experiment and explore new communication avenues.
$1· Revise on students engagement in that, the instructor should ensure that the conversation is based on the predetermined discussion or topic of the question
$1· The instructor will review reading assignments so as to ensure better understanding on how students comprehend the concepts and their use of learning materials.
$1· Will propose and design solutions to various problems that students face related to the topic.
$1· The instructor will interpret resources and links provided by the students.
Threaded discussion/weblogs 2
Through threaded discussion tool and weblogs, students are given an opportunity to read and publish their work. Students using these new technological tools are able to complete their assignments in an easy way while having fun. The technology based instruction technology requires the instructors to develop a simple and text-based blog using Bloggger.com, the free version. Each student will be required to seen their blog’s URL to the instructor who will then give them their open- ended assignments (Liebowitz, 2003).
Further, through the threaded discussions, the teachers and students will post their reflections concerning their weekly learning, teaching and even the use of the technology. The threaded discussions are structured. Students a will be required to provide insightful and timely responses to discussion questions presented to them within the course of the semester. Anybody using the internet can access the blogs including community member’s educators and classmates but, threaded discussions are more limited to students pursuing a specific course and their instructor. With weblogs, students as contributors to any form of social conversation that can be viewed by any kind of audience just like publishers. Both the blogs and threaded discussions do provide a chance to students to provide valuable insights that can be evaluated by their lecturers. The lecturers can also gain insights to the thoughts of students who prefer to remain silent in class. Furthermore, in online courses, teachers can learn more about students who they have never met. Generally, the weblogs and threaded discussions provide the lecturers with an incredibly valuable asset to gain a sense of their student’s level of thinking.
$1· Instructors will design blogs and threaded discussions to the topic under study on a weekly basis.
$1· Construct related topics to be discussed for it will help the instructor to analyze the actual acquisition of critical thinking, skills, and concepts among students rather than just providing them with quizzes.
$1· Instructor will analyze the content of the weblogs and threaded discussions based on the course design especially when the course is done online.
$1· Instructor will create an auto-summarizer just similar to the ones of word processors, but be within the discussion tools and the blogging.
$1· At the end of a study, instructors will be expected to analyze the time taken in online courses and compares with on campus instructions as well as his or her role in supporting students.
$1· Design a plan suitable in ensuring that students are provided with full support to any form of challenge they face in their online courses.
$1· Design materials for online versions that speak for themselves through strategically choosing books and articles or power point presentations that can be used for the usual class sessions. The main idea is to place concrete concepts of the topic accessible to students.
$1· Construct a bulletin board on a weekly basis that students will discuss the materials all through the week. The lecturer will lead through the discussions presented by the students and post his own comments and responding to the posts provided by each student (Baily, & Wright, 2000).
eTexts are similar to copies of digital textbooks. They simply act as a simplified form of learning materials. Learning institutions coming up with the e Text initiative is with the aim to deliver students with new materials for learning at highly reduced costs and at the same time for faculties to develop new learning and teaching tools. The eTexts acts as a reinvestment of the sale of textbooks traditionally in a new approach that focuses on costs reduction to each individual student and at the same time eliminations of restrictions made by publishers on access and printing of textbooks. The eText helps ensure that the limited materials especially textbooks are available to every student, it has unlimited access to materials for the course, students can print on demand, enables annotations and highlighting and supports collaborative studying. Online e-text provides course objectives for every unit of the online courses. the e-text is provided in the form of PDF content files that are printable.
Other additional learning resources are also in the form of e-text and provided as online materials to students. These materials include practice problems, Instructions in video clips, review exams, and other required assignments to students. The link on “My Status” provide students with their personal profile where they can access their examination results, total points and grading scale of the course. The students will be expected to buy the e-text online so that they gain access to course materials available online. Alternatively, when the instructions take the option of creating their e-text, they will be expected to provide the Course ID to students.
When students have bought their e-text, they will be provided with the learning platform concerning the course information that they will be doing for the semester. Through the use of their eText they will make adjustments on their course setting so that they join other additional coursers they intend to do. Pearson eText enables students to gain access to online context together with other resources that enhances learning and teaching. The eText can be personalized through adding notes and highlights that can be shared with other students. the other additional resources include Test Gen, Companion websites and Grade tracker assessments. The titles of the eText can be accessed via mobile, online or download to mobile device, iPad, and personal computers.
$1· Instructors will design eText materials that students can download or print.
$1· Share content and access time.
$1· The instructor will access high quality materials for learning based on his or her choices.
$1· Shape the eTexts models terms.
$1· Create new learning and teaching tools.
$1· To estimate and drive down the digital materials costs for students.
Case studies normally use the framework on How People Learn as its main conception model. The main goal of the HPL framework is the learning environment and it indicates that effective learning occurs in a learning environment which is learner –centered; knowledge-centered, assessment-centered, and is community-centered.
$1· Learner-centered environments that which learners have the ability to use their already existing knowledge to develop new knowledge, which they are and what they know in ways they will be able to integrate new knowledge. This places online course teachers with the responsibility of developing awareness to the difference of learning among their students as well as other aspects such as religion, ethnicity, race, strengths, weaknesses and socioeconomic backgrounds.
$1· The knowledge centered environment is that which ensures that concepts are presented that relate to the already existing knowledge of students to a new understanding. This means that the teacher will be required to first analyze the pre-existing knowledge that students have so that he can develop new concepts that students will relate to them. The goal for knowledge -centered approach is to create a higher level of thinking among each individual student as a basic aspect in the designing of a suitable curriculum. It is important for teachers to carefully construct on aspects they teach and basic reasons on why they teach the various concepts.
$1· Teachers will have to design an assessment strategies tool box to cater for the needs of online students so as to provide them with an assessment-centered environment. This will ensure that students have the suitable learning strategies and can be provided with immediate feedback that will help them improve on their achievements
$1· It is also critical for educators to formulate formative assessments because students will have a chance to revise their personal work and learn how to conduct their personal self-assessment on their progress.
$1· Lastly, instructors are supposed to create an environment which is psychologically safe to students that will make them thrive. The instructors will be required to developed collaborative activities based an on behavioral norms commonly acceptable across cultures to give students a sense of community (Edwards and Hodge 2000).
Choosing the right email tool can help teachers and students for online courses. The email can either be internal or external and establishing a mixture of both email systems will support the establishment of desirable features that will support the objectives of the course and work habits of both the instructors and students. The course management systems (CMS) for web-based courses do support internal course emailing. CMS such as E-College™, Angel™, and Blackboard™ provide an email tool restricted only for class members and does not support outside communication.
However, the instructor has the option of choosing an external email system such as client server as for the case of Eudora™ or Outlook™ or an institutional server such as Microsoft Exchange™. When using internal emails, students and teachers can easily trace the messages sent to them based on the class, recipient and sender ID. Questions placed by the instructors are open and not deciphered when it comes to internal mail. The internal system has all the information such as the original sender due to the fact that those involved are students registered to the web-based class and are the ones who have access to the system. Another important benefit to internal emails is that it is not crowded with spam because it is not connected directly to the internet.
$1· The instructor will create extensive resource library comprising of lecture outlines, web links, author chat sessions, role play exercises, online conferences, audio and video clips and other beneficial resources.
$1· Instructor will revise internet-based activities conducted by students and provide them with video quizzes, power point slides, lecture materials, and lecture materials among others.
This paper has managed to discuss the effective learning strategies that are technologically based to assist students doing online courses. They include eTexts, case studies, weblogs and threaded discussions and live chats. These new technologies have made students to embrace the new information age leading to the development of better skills, attitudes, and aptitudes that differ from the traditional form of instruction. this paper has presented a module for staff and faculty members on some of the effective strategies of instructions for online courses.
Liebowitz, J (2003) Teach People Skills Totally Online? Vol 51, p 82-85. Retrieved from
On September 17th 2012
Edwards S and Hodge D (2000) Using Online Technology to Enhance a Social Work Practice Course. New York, NY.
Kahn, B ed (1997) Web-Based Instruction. Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Baily, Y and Wright, H (2000) Innovative Uses of Threaded Discussion Groups. Bowling
2008 Voices of Alzheimer's disease
During this meeting, there were many views and topics that were discussed. The topics that were discussed included the experience of people with AD and the reaction of the people around them, changes taking place and how to accommodate the changes, and their interaction with the medical community. During this meeting, people who were suffering from AD were able to explain their stigma. This was extremely important because, it is through the openness of the people that Alzheimer's association was able to identify the diagnostic challenges and the dissatisfying interaction that the people living with AD were having with the medical community. From the meeting, people living with AD were provided with some principles which they would use so that they can make their experience better. From the principles, it will provide to people who are sick to accept that they need help with the illness even if it is going to affect their families at one point. It is important for AD patients to always say the truth, since most of them are in denial. People need to be honest about what they now and why they believe in it.
This report has been of great help to people, because families are now aware of taking the first step to undergo testing so that the patient can have enough time to receive treatment as early as possible and have information about the appropriate clinical trials. This report has also provided extremely essential information about taking a person’s concern very serious regardless of their age. It is true that the biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's is age, but Alzheimer’s disease is not a usual part of aging therefore, some other concerns should be carefully considered since it is also possible for one to be affected with the disease at the age of 40 or even 50. Working with the medication is important as it is a plan for healthy living as it helps in modifying the symptoms. From the reports, it is extremely necessary for people to keep themselves healthy through exercise, social engagement, and diet.
Alzheimer’s is a disease that causes a problem with thinking, memory, and behavior. The symptoms for Alzheimer’s usually develop very slowly and then it worsens with time when it gets sever such that it interferes with the daily tasks. It is a type of dementia which is not a normal part of aging. The greatest risk factor for the disease is an increase in age with most people with 65 years and older. This research aims at focusing on the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in the aging population of Hispanics, African American, and whites. The research will focus on a comparative study of these groups in regards to its impact on education, health, income, and race.
Alzheimer’s among African American, white, and Hispanics
Statistics indicate that African Americans have two times more likely and Hispanics have one and a half chances more probable that the whites to have Alzheimer’s and any other dementias. The whites make up a greater number more than 5 million people with Alzheimer’s and other dementia and the Hispanics and African Americans have a greater possibility of developing the disease. Diabetes and high blood pressure is a known risk factor of Alzheimer’s in all groups, but it is more common in Hispanic and African Americans than the whites. Some other factors, which are related with a high possibility in causing Alzheimer’s in both groups is social economic factors such as low income and low level of education. From data that was collected after a federal survey was conducted on older
Americans indicated that Hispanics and African Americans are slightly represented among the socio economically disadvantaged people (Mitchell & Turkington 2010). Socioeconomic and health factors contribute to a greater prevalence of AD in Hispanics and African Americans. AD is substantial in the Hispanic and African American communities. Since diabetes and high blood pressure is a risk factor to AD, better management the conditions can help in reducing the prevalence of AD, mostly if the treatment begins in the midlife. Since diabetes is more common among the Hispanic community that the whites and diabetes and high blood pressure are further widespread in the African Americans that the whites, providing effective treatment for the conditions can be of great benefit to the groups.
Hispanic and African Americans are likely than whites to have Alzheimer’s, but they are less likely than whites to have a formal diagnosis of the disease. Hispanics and African Americans are less likely than whites to report to the doctors that they have disease related to memory (Mitchell & Turkington 2010). The members of African American families value having diagnosis, but there is a long delay between the family member recognition of the symptom and scheduling of a medical evaluation. This case is also true for Hispanic communities. This means that the Hispanics and the African Americans are having delay thus; they do not get treatment at the early stage of the disease. That is the time when the treatment is likely to be effective hence not having to make financial, legal, and care plans.
People with few years of education usually appear to have a greater risk for Alzheimer’s. According to a research that was conducted by (Ennapadam et al 2010)), people who did not complete their high school education have high chances of developing Ad than in someone who has graduated from the university. This is because learning usually stimulate the brain cell growth therefore, the years which a person spends in the college or university help in building individual cognitive reserve which helps in protecting against Alzheimer’s. People who are highly educated are likely to have mentally stimulating job, more disposable income, travelling, and other activities, which are believed to enhance the health of the brain. It is also hard to detect AD in people who have more than 15 years of education who sometimes hide the symptoms of memory loss. The educated people are sometimes diagnosed with AD when the symptoms of the disease can no longer be ignored, and this people tend to decline following the late diagnosis of the disease.
Low levels of education is liked with poor diet, malnutrition, poverty, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, high levels of hypertension, and restricted access to medical and health care. Hispanics and African Americans who are undereducated, poor health, and impoverished normally appear to be at high risk of AD. African Americans usually have high chances of suffering from stroke and heart disease that the rest of the Americans. Hispanics of the age sixty five and older are at greater risk of AD and other dementias and less educated, and low income Hispanics also have a high risk of vascular disease, which is associated with dementia (Martin & Soldo 1997). Survey also indicated that the Hispanics are usually less likely to see a doctor than other Americans because of the language and financial barrier. They sometimes mistake the symptoms of the disease with normal aging. This tends to delay the diagnosis, and it worsens the effects of the disease.
Low income translates to reduced access to health care, which thus reduces the opportunities of avoiding or better managing the increase of Alzheimer’s. The treatment and management of Alzheimer’s is expensive. It does cost a lot after one is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s therefore, people with low income sometimes do not have money to by the medications and this increases the risk of the disease illness. Those families that have a person who is suffering from Alzheimer’s and they are working, have to employ somebody to pay attention to the old. Sometimes they even have to be absent from work so that they can make sure that this people are taken care of and given their medication on time (Martin & Soldo 1997).
Most patients who are diagnosis with Alzheimer’s are not usually insured. Hispanics and African Americans are normally at risk of being insured. It is hard for the uninsured Hispanics and African Americans to obtain access to health care than the uninsured whites. Despite low income hindering them from access to healthcare, some of the Hispanics are not able to apply for benefits because of they do not understand the program due to language barrier or they do not have enough knowledge about insurance, or do not understand the application process.
“Voices of Alzheimer’s Diseases” accessed on 17th September 2012 From http://www.alz.org/national/documents/report_townhall.pdf
Cummings, J. Prince, M. & Ennapadam, S (2010). Dementia Cambridge University Press
Martin, L. & Soldo, B. (1997). Racial and ethnic differences in the health of older Americans The national academy Press
Mitchell, D & Turkington, C (2010). The encyclopedia of Alzheimer’s disease Infobase Publishing
MULTICULTURAL JOURNAL ENTRY:
Wilmington Christian School.
Component #1: Spirituality as a Cultural Component.
The school has a vision of becoming the best Christian school in California, providing a mix of challenging academics, assisting students who are not fairing up well. It also provides spiritual support for students as well as families. The school acts as a place where students may find direction to help them in their lives. There is a verse in the school website Proverbs 22:6 that states that: Train up a child in the way he should go; and when he is old he will not depart from it. The school offers quality Christian education and encourages a vibrant personal relationship with Christ. The school promotes a Bible centered interpretation of Christian stressing salvation via Jesus Christ. The website offers a daily bible verse. For this day, the bible verse is Proverbs 1:7-19. The website has various faith statements, which has quotations from the Bible. The first statement is to the effect that the administration believes in God to exist eternally in three forms: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The Bible is believed to be inspired and the only authoritative and infallible word of God for practice and faith.
Component #2: Multicultural Awareness/Checklist.
The school has created a deliberate attempt for linking Christ's gospel with the school's daily life. The school has created an atmosphere of encouragement, respect and acceptance. There is sensitivity to individual needs whereby the self esteem of children along with confidence. The children have the ability to make mistakes without fearing to be criticized. There is a partnership between children and adults who comprise the teachers and parents. There has been a development of sensitivity towards fears, hopes and beliefs of parents. The school offers a stepping stone to and from the community. The curriculum of the school puts together academic firmness with sensitivity, fun and prayerfulness.
However, the school should recognize, respect and celebrate cultural diversity. Students should be able to recognize the place of Christian faith in people's lives. They should also be left to develop a sense of mystery, awe, curiosity and awe.
Component #3: Culture and Counseling Theory and Techniques.
Counseling in Christian school like Wilmington integrates religion and bible with psychology. Christian counseling and secular counseling have some overlapping aspects. Counselors in Wilmington look to the Bible along with other Christian teachings to get guidance in the ways of assisting children and for advice to provide. When there is a different in secular and Christian values, counselors with Christian affiliation will probably provide different advice to their clients as compared to psychologists and secular counselors.
Component #4: Professional Development.
The school is committed to attaining high standards. It has high expectations concerning personal responsibility in respect, conduct, dress and academic achievement. The school has qualified teaching staff that give children the academic, social and spiritual foundation required to succeed in life. There is good discipline combined with compassion that creates conducive learning environment. The Wilmington Christian academy offers combination classes. Students benefit from multi grade classrooms professionally as they gain a lot of skills from these classes.
Component #1: Spirituality as a Cultural Component.
The school aims at serving Christian families by offering them a biblically based; Christ centered education that is crowned by spiritual vitality and academic excellence. The school aims at producing effective and powerful student leaders and action in obedience to the great commandment and the great commission. The school promotes involvement of citizens and community via school wide ministries of benevolence as well as community service programs. There is the creation and nurturing of caring servant attitude. The school is dedicated to serving the needs of students, students' parents and staff. It is recognized that these people are very crucial to the success of the school.
Component #2: Multicultural Awareness/Checklist.
The school values are to have to have respect and compassion for all individuals. The academy is convinced that, different people were created uniquely and given unique abilities and gifts. The abilities and gifts promote Christian love and encourage mutual respect and provide motivation for resolving conflicts in biblical and peaceable manner. The school has a commitment to values of the family. It exists to offer service to Christian families in the education process. Therefore, the school is supportive to matters of the family. The school exists to make stronger the family through a balanced educational program that considers the academic along with relational needs of a family.
Component #3: Culture and Counseling Theory and Techniques.
The counselors in the school consider the multicultural nature of the school. They have awareness of their cultural values, assumptions and bias. They try to be aware and understand the world view of students. They have knowledge and apply intervention strategies that are accepted culturally. The counselors should avoid being judgmental, sexist, defensive, non emphatic and argumentative. They should shun that which does not help in fostering a positive trusting relationship with students. To deal with students from different cultures, counselors have been trained to have good emotional health, competent, and alliance builders. Counselors should also be experienced, high internality, realistic, open and emphatic.
Component #4: Professional Development.
The school has a consistent focus on academic excellence. It acts as a college of preparatory program. It has a challenging academic curriculum along with a comprehensive co curriculum program that enables students to pursue academic excellence as they develop intellectual, social, physical, and spiritual areas of life. Since biblical objective truth direct white field learning, the administration is against secularism and relativism that goes with ideological, political or philosophical agendas. The intellectual inquiry in the school gives affirmation to the answers offered by Christianity. To enhance professionalism, the school uses the ethical absolutes of the Ten Commandments together with the moral teachings of Christ. The institution advocates for preservation of the Christian worldly view. The education offered in Whitefield Academy helps in developing students who will offer service to God and affect the society in various aspects of life.
Chapelfield Christian School.
Component #1: Spirituality as a Cultural Component.
The school has a spiritual emphasis that helps in developing the character and strong relationship with God. The school has a mission of inspiring, guiding parents to become efficient champions of the education of their children at home as well as the community. The school has religious backing to increase the students understanding of Godliness and how they should adhere to the Christian teachings as they build their careers.
Component #2: Multicultural Awareness/Checklist.
The school is aimed at producing multidimensional thinking. It is hones talents like visual and performing art, photography and sign language. The school is involved in sports activities that help in bringing together students from different backgrounds. This helps in fostering unity and love among students of different places. There are different courses offered in the school which helps in having people in different specializations together hence this is expected to nurture talent.
Component #3: Culture and Counseling Theory and Techniques.
For efficient counseling to take place, councilors should be trained with clients from different cultures. Some of the concerns that ought to be addressed when doing multicultural counseling in schools are calming violence that is racially motivated, avoid name calling of students. Segregation of social groups should also be avoided. Racism can take different forms hence it should be avoided by all means. Racism experience can de devastating and bring about results which are not appealing when dealing with counseling cases. By use of a model of multicultural education in schools' developmental counseling process, counselors in schools will have a positive impact on the changing school environments.
Component #4: Professional Development.
This institution is not just a school but a program. The program is designed in a manner that will embrace six living imperatives. These imperatives are Godly lifestyle, modest, attractive, faithful service to humanity, commitment to church and Christ and volunteerism. The academic programs are of high quality. The programs offered develop different professional prowess like art, music, as well as other co curricular activities. There are awards for top academic performers that will in return enhance competition among students. The school programs foster multidimensional critical thinkers in literature, writing skills, history, language and fluid use of technology.
Erford, B. (2011). Transforming the school counseling profession (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement (1st ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education.
Stone, C. (2009). School counseling principles: Ethics and law (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.
Data Analysis Using Microsoft Excel
$1a. The CSV file will be converted to excel by saving it as an excel file using the file save as option. The CSV file should be well saved to ensure the data is useful. It should be saved in the right format.
$1b. Open Microsoft Excel with a new spreadsheet. Each excel has numerous worksheets that can be used. The margins of the worksheets can be set up depending on the data. Using the page set up option select the orientation that is suitable for the data. After opening the worksheet, one should click a cell on the sheet and start keying in the data in columns and rows.
$1c. Spark lines are important in representing data for the individual stores. A line chart will be used to represent data for the individual stores in a given period.
$1d. To prevent the boss from deleting the formulas, I will protect them using the excel protection option. I will go to format, cells, protection and then hidden to protect the cells with formula. Then I will go to tools, protection, protect sheet then put a password to protect the data. The boss will not see the formulas and change them as they are hidden.
$1a. Since the Excel list has two columns labeled customer category and zip code, I will adjust the whole list in order to apply filters. Then I would use the filter option to select customers coded as PROS or potential customers. Then apply filter on Zip Code column to select the zip code of choice. This will give me customers with the same physical address as the business zip code.
$1b. I will modify every letter individually if the list has no more than 10 customers by including the mail information for each customer. If the list is more than 100, I would utilize the mail merge functions in Microsoft words. I would link the excel file during the mail merge wizard steps. Then populate the letters with customer information.
$1c. I will develop a macro to run the steps mentioned in part A and save it as a different worksheet so as not to confuse with the present data set. This will also make it easy to monitor the sheet. The worksheet will be set up well to be able to use it together the Mail merge document produced in Part B.
$1d. I will utilize the “if analysis function” found in excel, develop an excel file with different worksheets so that each sheet shows a different scenario. The situations will be developed according to the zip code and kind of customer. Then I will prepare a summary report at the end of the excel. The report will have look up functions such as V look UP and call to certain cells to have a clear picture of the possible options. I will utilize a pivot table to administer the data and change the values calculated easily.
$1a. The worksheet will consist of three columns. That is employee name (C), department (D), Guest (E) and Cost (F). The Guest column will be populated with 0 or 1. Column G (will attend) will have 0 or 1 value. The cost column will have the formula (45+45* E2))*G2. The cost of the attending will be 0 if column G is 0. If the worker brings a guest, the value for column E will be 1 and the cost will be double. If the value of Column E is 0, the cost will be $45.
$1b. I will use the following formula in column C. 0= (COUNT C (Sheet1! A: A))-1. Sheet 1 will have the list of employees prepared in Part A. -1 is used to ensure the header is not counted. I will add another column on the sheet prepared in section A known as Group Discount. The column will be populated using the following formula If (Sheet 2! C1>0, IF (B2=1, 10, 5)). This formula will place 5 if the worker does not bring a guest and 10 if he does. The difference in price is $5 per person. Then a second worksheet with a pivot table will be used to calculate the cost of the party.
$1c. I will set up a conditional formatting so that when the value of column G stated in part A will be 1, then column C will have a yellow background.
$1d. I will produce a copy of the pivot table produced in section A and save it as a different file. The pivot table function will create a link to the base file automatically. Then the base file in section A and the file with the pivot table in the net work folder. The pivot table will be titled employee party report. The file will refresh automatically when one opens it and show the present data. The pivot table will be developed to show workers attending and cost of the parry when the management team accesses it.
$1a. I will develop several columns. That is production (A), revenue (B), cost(C) and scraps (D) columns. Other columns are mini-gizmo (E) and magna-gizmo (F).
The total revenue = (A* C)-(D*C).I will set a conditional formatting so that when the value of Scrap (D) is more than 10 of the production. Total production of mini-gizmo (E) = Sum(A)-sum(F).
b. I will use the “what if function” to generate summary reports after creating the scenarios. I will generate a copy of the pivot table generated in Section A and save it differently. The pivot table will link the base file automatically. The base file and file having the pivot table will be put in a folder in network named summary report.
c. I will add a header to the worksheets and summary reports using the macro option. The header will have the date and name of the reports and sheets.
d. I will produce bar graphs to accompany the summary reports and worksheets.
a. The excel look up function is used to find and return the interest rate. The other information needed is principal loan and period. The interest rate is determined using the principal and period.
b. Building a list in access in the banking environment will make it easy for the staff to get information concerning a particular customer. This will enable them to offer faster, satisfactory and up to date information to customers. This will in turn attract and retain customers.
c. To create an input form, open an excel workbook and use the file menu to access it. Use tools, macro, and visual basic editor, click insert and choose user form. Then drag a command button into the form. Click View and properties windows to label the command buttons. Select the command button on the form titled “OK”and label it “cmdOK” and then use the properties window to set the command button OK. Repeat for the other buttons. The macros are used to develop the form. Click the other command button and name it cmdCancel and set the caption in the properties widow to “Cancel”. Repeat the process for the third button and mane it “Clear”. Then type a code into the code window.
Jelem, B. (2002). Guerilla Data Analysis Using Microsoft Excel. Tickling Keys, Inc