Research Paper: Sample Questions
Design specifications give detailed information to direct a designer into giving a thought on the criteria regarding the health information system being designed. A specification plays the role of generating, testing and evaluating design ideas. Throughout the project, the specification needs to be referred to. There are some vital headings that help in development of design specifications. Purpose is one of the key headings, which requires figuring out of the purpose behind a certain design. Aesthetics are also critical component, which refers to the physical outlook of a design. For instance, a design has to be attractive to the eye, have a clean, bright, and clear finish (Currie, L., Mellino, L., Cimino, & Bakhen, 2006).
Another fundamental element is regarding functional characteristics. In this case, the function of the software is considered. Safety is also worth noting. A designer should write a security plan that gives a software project description focusing on security. Form is another critical component that takes into consideration the style and shape of the product. Budget constraints including sale of product, material, and profit should be considered. Additionally, user requirements, resources, and time are also an essential component of design specifications (Currie, et al, 2006).
Currie, L., Mellino, L., Cimino, J., Li, J., & Bakhen, S. (2006) Requirements
specification for automated fall and injury assessment. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 122, 134-138
The key objective of testing health information systems is to determine their level of efficacy and identify any significant issue that might affect their functionality. Testing helps in knowing whether an information technology software or tool has been implemented correctly. The use of appropriate testing procedures and tools enables determination and provision of feedback information concerning standard gaps and ambiguities. It is thus clear that testing plays a vital role in ascertaining the safety and usability of an information technology system in healthcare organizations (Carrao, Robinson, Swiernik, & Naeim, 2010)
There are various forms of testing that can be used in health information systems. Usability testing is among the key forms worth noting. In this case, software or health information technology systems are tested for their functionality or usability. It is essential for any project design to effectively perform the intended functions. The testing allows for identification of any gaps or limitations related to the operation. Safety testing is another form of testing. In this case, a health information technology system is tested on whether it promotes the general security of the healthcare institution. It is essential for an effective system to promote the general security of an organization and its stakeholders (Carrao, et al, 2010).
Carrao, N., Robinson, A., Swiernik, M., & Naeim, A. (2010) Importance of testing for
Usability when selecting and implementing an electronic health or medical record system, Journal of Oncology Practice, 6(3), 120-124
There is a close relationship between IT agenda and organizational strategies. The IT is directly derived from the strategy of an organization. For example, if a health care organization’s objective is to improve patient safety, the IT agenda has to emphasize on applications such as error reporting, computerized practitioner order entry, and electronic medication administration records. If the intention of the health care organization is improving patient service, the IT agenda has to focus on applications like new clinic scheduling systems and patient portals. A critical assumption held by this approach of developing strategy is that once, the strategy of a health care organization is known, determining the IT agenda becomes easy. Additionally, the basis for an IT agenda may be information management and improvement of core processes (Wager, Glaser, & Lee, 2009).
Effective functioning of the organization depends on a number of information management tasks and core operational processes. For health care organizations, the processes may include ordering tests and procedures, patient access care, and management of the revenue cycle. It is therefore necessary for a health care organization to define its information management needs and core operational processes. Assessment of the performance of these processes enables an organization to develop a performance improvement plan. More often than not, such plans would clearly point out an organization’s IT agenda. Performance improvement plans may be derived from the organizational strategy. An organization’s strategic plan may focus in improving processes. In this context, it is clear there is a strong linkage between IT agenda and organizational strategy (Wager, et al, 2009).
Wager, K., Glaser, J., & Lee, F. (2009) Health care information systems: A practical
Approach for health care management (2nd Ed) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons
There are several components that make up an effective information technology (IT) organization. One of the key components is automated and repeatable information technology processes. Automated processes have the potential of creating repeatable practices within IT organizations. Such processes eliminate the need for organizational staff to define the process afresh each time they undertake an information technology management practice. Another essential component of an effective IT organization is minimal need to replace retiring information technology workers. In this case, the information processes should be able to capture the systems’ knowledge and associated processes from workers who are retiring. Consequently, this minimizes the need to directly replace these workers. New employees can be leveraged to develop and support newer methods and technologies (Hebda, Czar, & Mascara, 2009).
An effective IT organization should have an improved ability to recruit new information technology employees. This can be achieved by implementing the latest information technology management tools. Latest IT management tools minimize the necessity for new workers to conduct manual maintenance processes. This gives them an ample time to embark on projects that are more interests. An effective organization should also continually improve its information technology processes. IT management processes are standardized by putting in place updated IT management methods and capabilities. Standard processes can be managed, evaluated and modified easily. Finally, an effective IT organization should allow for consolidation and sharing of resources. By minimizing the time spent in maintenance of current systems, an organization can avail more resources for development of new projects and cost efficiencies like sharing and consolidation of IT services (Hebda, et al, 2009).
Hebda, T., Czar, P., & Mascara, C. (2009) Handbook of informatics for nurses and health
Care professionals (4th Ed), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall
The quality and accuracy of a system assessment in an organization will surely require diverse resources to be a success. Human resource is the first resource need in ever organization to enable thorough and accurate functionality of the entire organization. I concur with the idea of the Chief informatics expert being the one in charge of the organizations expertise assessment team. While the individuals with knowledge and skills with the current system plus Information Technology should be recruited and perform as system support specialists. This is because; the organization’s leadership system is also extremely significant in conducting a comprehensive system assessment program. The protocol in this organization leadership system is one of the key resources to quality and productive out come of the organization. Furthermore, a third party as another resource is also crucial in providing information with current market system technology, as well as, rules that the system technology will be able follow.
In addition, third party members have the knowledge and skills sufficient enough to conduct assessment with equity. Finances are also other vital resource. It is common knowledge that the staff needs salaries and money to purchases tools for work is also needed. Structure can not be exempted since they are also part and parcel of the system assessment in the organization. The last significant system assessment is time. Time enables the team members to work as they consider deadlines and by observing this time limitations the staff will be punctual and efficient in performance. It is of immense connotation to note that functional requirements hold the anticipated mannerism of the system. Services and tasks can be described as the mannerisms required for performance in the entire organization system.
These functionalities combined together are necessary for differentiating the system from competitors’ products and from variants in the dealer’s own product pathway. The basic stratagem the dealer uses to launch their solutions to markets is to produce the central part or bring down, basic product, and putting more features to variants of the product to be let free later after a short period of time. This plan is also profitable in the information system growth, creating the middle functionality for early releases and putting more characteristics over the course of a number of subsequent liberates. The issue of over customizing product becomes tiresome to dealers, since for the m to upgrade through this style becomes terribly a complex issue to accomplish. Going through the agony of a process of modification is better than using over customizing process. It is undoubtedly true that no system can do everything the same way since no organization has matching processes or modifications. I agree with the idea that the hardest part is to tell the nurses that the system cannot function.
This is the same retort I got from my female colleague at Nazareth computer solutions when I told her that her laptop could not function since the hard disk had crashed. To convince her that it was not in my ability to revive the disk was a complex thing to do for me. Psychologists say that females are not friendly to machine I believe them, since her reaction to my explanation about the paralyzed hard disk was a veritable puzzle for her to comprehend. The only solution she expected from me was to see her laptop functioning regardless of the impossibility surrounding us. Therefore the best way to solve the challenge is to work with the system and take full advantage of its capabilities, while making adjustments to the sytem restrictions.
Glaser, J. P., Lee, F. W., & Wager, K. A. (2009). Health Care Information Systems: A
Practical Approach for Health Care Management (2nd Ed). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
SBAR Hand Off
Description of the practicum:
SBAR is a communication tool standing for Situation, Background, Assessment, and Background. This tool of communication has its origin in the US military and has been adopted in the medical filed. The tool provides guidance on an appropriate and quick knowledge transfer without having to repeat issues. The fundamental assumption for the SBAR communication tool is that there is a possibility of relationships having unforeseen value. This is a situation known as generative potential. The development of the SBAR tool of communication would see better developments in the enhancement of effective communication. By enabling organized communication, having the correct information, will promote critical assessment skills and thinking and in developing a plan that is mutually accepted. The SBAR works by defining expectations and goals and presenting a picture in a consistent and standardized manner. All staff members’ right from the nurses can contribute to the happenings of the project and present their contributions and finally, the SBAR works by presenting a new mode of fixing tasks (Mascioli, Laskowski-Jones, Urban, & Moran 2009).
Major insights from the practicum
The training has presented me with divergent paths based on medical school vs. the nursing school. By understanding the main causes, it will promote collaboration and reduce frustrations. Having an incomplete picture will lead to omission of making practitioners do wrong things. Such as frustrations and time wasting as a result of incomplete communication
Detailed activities of the practicum
In my nursing career, communication process is the heart of all the activities I get involved in. I work in assessing, recording, and reporting of care and treatment. I further ensure that sensitive information is handled carefully, and confidentially maintained. Most of the time I receive complaints that have to be effectively handled and conscientious in providing reports to all nursing aspects I am concerned with. The implementation of the SBAR first involved involving members of staff concerning the effectiveness of this tool of communication. The printed SBAR reminder was then placed at the pocket size sheet. The ward staff members during the practicum handed over by the use of SBAR anagram. Apart from these uses of the SBAR tool, we suggested that further use of the SBAR was necessary beyond just the nursing staff members alone. Consideration was on how the nurses handled information on the condition of a patient and handed over to the doctors. The SBAR structure was applied in the transfer of patients from and to the cardiac laboratories and progressive care units.
A nurse is in charge of care to a patient with low oxygen saturation, and low Bp. The patient’s condition present as the nurse with a challenging case. The nurse calls the doctor by saying, “Hey, doctor, Benson is not ok, please come and check him”. Doctor replies that he is busy dealing with the A& E admissions. The nurse replies back that he comes as soon as he can.
Based on SBAR, the scenario can be analyzed practically as; the situation being Benson health is much poorer than before. Background is that Benson was admitted in the hospital 2 days ago after suffering from neck femur injury. At the time of admission, he didn’t look confused at the time of admission. Assessment includes. Respiration 40. BP, 89/40unable to retain the output of urine and therefore not catheterized Blood sample showed oxygen water saturation 85%, Hb 7. Recommendation, observation concerning the patient’s condition is checked after every 15 minutes, bed rest.
Based on the way of the SBAR tool of communication, the nurse have to ensure that all the relevant information on the condition of a nurse is readily available before calling the doctor (Christie & Robinson 2009). The provided information should be logical and concise. The SBAR approach on handing over aims at improving the relationship among healthcare practitioners. This will solve the main problem seen when departments and wards are handing over. Through the use of SBAR anagram, a profoma was established. The SBAR referral form is important in taking verbal hand off from other staff members in the wards. This will see the prevention of rework. The filled sheet of paper showing the patient condition is handed over to the other staff members. Practicing SBAR involves looking at a conversation that did not present the desired results or one which did not go well. One has to think about the problem as needed in the Situation. Relevant and brief context can be attained by looking at the Background. Assessment involves one thinks is going on and Recommendation involves what one wants.
Effectiveness of the practicum
The SBAR tool of communication can be used for both outpatient and inpatient care, for non-urgent, and urgent communication, over the phone or in person communication with a physician. The SBAR tool of communication is useful in conversations between MD-MD consultations and RN-MD communications. The SBAR based on the electronic medical Records (EMR) gathers relevant information concerning the patient - both on what is about to happened and the patient’s medical history (Permanente, 2012). A standardized way of presenting information will mean that the nurses will discuss the condition of a patent in the same way especially when a patient is transferred in a new medical area for further treatment and care. Standardization will help in ensuring that no any information concerning the patient is left out. The tool is also useful for physical therapy and respiratory therapy and among conversations with peers on work related issues such as reporting on change of shift.
A concern can be escalated through the SBAR. In the implementation of the SABR tool of communication, it is important to question its aim and goals to the general organization. The SBAR based on the electronic medical Records (EMR) gathers relevant information concerning the patient - both on what is about to happened and the patient’s medical history. The main goal is to enable a much easier way of doing things and using secret shopper, survey of staffs and metrics to evaluate the success of this tool. Through other supporting aspects such as reliability, escalation policy, and leadership support, the SBAR become a success (Pope, Rodzen, & Spross, 2007). This is because this tool of communication is not a stand alone approach, it rely on other aspects for it to become successful.
The use of the SBAR meant that direct and clear information can be exchanged. The SBAR will present the mechanics of doing things and other alternative approaches that can be used when SBAR is not functional. Such alternatives include organizational support and assertion skills. Some of the resultant aspects associated with the use of SBAR involve, the enhancement of patients safety, and increased time for direct care due to the elimination of rework. For everyone working practices, SBAR installation is possible and lastly, is that the disciplinary team will have far much improved communication.
Learning experience in SBAR in relation to the MSN Program Student Learning Outcomes
The MSN program aims at enhancing exemplary and professional practice, lead students to the development of new innovations, knowledge, and improvements and transform leadership. Health organizations are working hard to enhance the quality of services provided to customers. High quality service is attainable through effective communication. Further, the EMR technology that lack SBAR hand off software will not be able to adequately share important information with other staff members in the transport for medical procedures and tests. The implementation of SBAR technology can be the adoption of IV Smart Pumps that directly captures data from the pharmacy department.
This means that medicine can be first be evaluated on its effectiveness by looking at the interaction warnings, dosages, and medication. This kind of technology prepares a student in the nursing field to be aware of the importance of effective communication and continuity of care of a patient right form the time one is admitted in hospital up to the discharge time. This kind of technology aids the healthcare staff members in communicating in cases where treatments are changed. Electronic data on patient’s information presents a summary of patient’s care which health facilities and hospitals can follow in developing their own plan of care that is established at the time of hospitalization.
How practicum experience contributes to my professional nursing career
Based on the theoretical knowledge of this program, it will be possible to link the SABR theoretical framework with an analysis on effective communication needed by healthcare organizations. In so doing, my expectation is to view the embedded and underlying theories and assumptions that the medical practitioners use in their daily practices to enhance effective communication. Further, based on the SABR communication tool approach, my plan is to constructively contribute ideas and feedback that will strengthen the various activities undertaken by the hospital in ensuring patient’s safety and the general success of the healthcare service to patients. With my specific interesting of research development and extension, I expect to be part of the issue that will enhance communication between physicians and nurses based on the SABR model (Nelson, Batalden, & Lazar, 2007). I also, expect to expand my knowledge by being part of workshops, trainings, and conferences dealing with various multidisciplinary teams on enhancing better communication.
The central idea for the SABR tool of communication is to support patient-centered communication, focus on the welfare of parents and enhance safety in treatment and care (Wentworth, Diggins, Bartel, Johnson, and Hale & Gaines 2011). This practicum experience has educated me on how to deal with difficult communications resulting from being judgmental, depersonalize language, and lack of setting goals for communication. Other important concerns form the experience are on the escalation of policy and command chain that should support the effective means of communication, and working with colleagues and physicians in order to develop a plan that is mutually acceptable.
Nelson E, Batalden, B, & Lazar, J (2007) Practice-based learning and improvement. Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois. Commission Resources.
Permanente, K (2012) SBAR technique for communication, a situational briefing model. Retrieved from http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/Tools/SBARTechniqueforCommunicationASituationalBriefingModel.aspx
On August 19, 2012
Wentworth L, Diggins J, Bartel D,Johnson M, Hale J & Gaines K (2011) SBAR Electronic handoff tool for noncomplicated procedural patients, Nursing Care Quality, 27, p 125-131.
Pope, B, Rodzen, L & Spross, G (2007) Raising the SBAR, how better communication improves patient outcomes. Nursing, p 41- 43.
Christie P, Robinson H (2009) Using a communication framework at handover to boost patient outcomes. Nursing Times, p 47, 13-15.
Mascioli S, Laskowski-Jones L, Urban S, Moran S (2009)Improving handoff communication. Nursing, p 52-55.
Case Study: Jail-Based Substance Abuse Treatment Program
The aim of Jail-Based Substance Abuse Treatment program is to deliver and assess substance abuse treatment services during jail term and after release from prison (Hedden, Guard & Arndt, 2011). The program provides services in Pork, Story, and Woodbury counties. United Community Services, Community and Family Resources, and Center for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Services respectively provide treatment services in the three counties.
Alcohol and drug misuse in the Iowa State correctional facilities is a complex problem. It is widespread and occurs at all levels of the system. Large proportions of populations in institutional correctional centers and community-based correction centers are drug users (Iowa Department of Corrections, 2006). 70 to 80 percent of clients in community-based corrections use drugs. In Iowa prisons, 80-85 % of inmates are drug users. The statistics are rising too fast for effective correctional management. At the moment, correctional institutions in Iowa handle over 6000 inmates (Iowa Department of Corrections, 2006). The current client population outstretches the capacity estimated at 3600. The prisons in Iowa expand at a rate of 12% annually, whereas resources dedicated for substance abuse clients or inmates are scarce and showing no signs of rampant expansion.
In the past, the state signed contracts with external organizations to provide managed care for all substance abuse programs operating in public institutions. Conventional managed care services limit admission of prison populations into public programs. Certain individuals in Iowa prisons face limitation in admission or readmission to essential services. The criteria for inclusion, in most cases, depend on the client populations in community correctional centers. The dual nature of the problem with inmates complicates the nature of services (Sullivan, 2009). The problems are criminal personality and substance abuse.
Effective management of substance abuse relies on dealing with the complex nature of the criminal mind, resistance to treatment, and prolonged dependence on a variety of substances. In Iowa, existing program designs for substance abuse treatment are not suitable for criminal clientele. Limited treatment resources are available for substance-abusing criminals. These issues affect the availability of treatment and communication between various relevant institutions. It also includes tolerance of health care staff to anti-social behavior of drug-abusing criminals. This results in early discharge before clients receive essential and complete treatment.
Hedden, S., Guard, M. & Arndt, S. (2011). “Jail-Based Substance Abuse Treatment Program”.
Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa
Iowa Department of Corrections. (2006). “Substance Abuse”. Des Moines: Author
Royse, D., Thyer, A. & Padgett, D. (2010). “Program Evaluation: An Introduction”. Belmont,
Sullivan, F. (2009). “Prison Religion”. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
In the current world of globalization and technology, healthcare industry should focus on ways that enable them provide quality health services to the population? Development of a county hospital requires different strategies so as to have a system that offers quality reliable services. It is through vision, mission, and being social accountable health organizations manage to deliver quality services to the population. Below is a brief analysis on how an organization may be socially responsible as well as apply different strategies in achieving set objectives. Discussion
To be the leading health care facility in the region that offers quality services to patients as well as develop focused research strategies on health care issues. To have a dedicated work team that will at all time focus on quality services.
The county hospital is focused in developing the best healthcare services in the best way possible. Services will be offered in a way that patient’s dignity is respected and at the same time provide quality healthcare services to all including those who can not afford quality services, (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2009).
Social accountability means being accountable and have obligations towards the society within the setting of the aspect. As the county hospital, there are different social accountable aspects that may be focused in order to develop a healthy environment for the population. In other words, social accountability of county hospital is the obligation to address some of the society problems and develop measures on how to prevent any health problem that might be a problem to the society, (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2009).
Although most health care organization realize that they have some healthcare obligations towards the society, most fail because they do not know the extend they are socially accountable. Obligations and priorities have different interpretations depending on the nature of the circumstance. In this case, the county hospital may have different obligations towards the society. Equity of health services and quality of health services are the two main social accountable aspects the county hospital has towards the society, (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2009).
There are so many ways under which the county hospital may be socially accountable towards the well being of the society. Quality health care services are one of the aspects of social accountable obligations that the hospital has to the population. Apart from any other obligation that the county hospital has quality services stands to be the top obligation it has in making the environment a better place for the residents. One of the basic needs of any given society is quality health care services. Most health care organizations always work towards delivery of quality health services to the society. The county hospital on the same not should ensure that it has the right physicians who are able to handle and deal with health related problems in the right aspect. According to analysis, most patients do not get the right type of health care services. There are so many reasons that make it impossible for the hospitals not to deliver quality services to the society, (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2009).
Equity means the provision of quality health care to the entire population where the hospital is situated. The county hospital must ensure that all patients are able to access reliable health services at all times and that they have the potential to meet payment conditions. Although the hospital may avail quality services to the society, the hospital may put some restrictions on who should get what under what conditions. The hospital should be socially responsible in that patients have equal health care facilities. Provision of quality health care equally among patients is the sole obligation of any health care organization. It is the work of the health care organization to ensure that the society has the potential to have the right health care services whenever they get sick, (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2009).
In order for the county hospital to achieve its vision, it has to apply its mission in all activities. To become a leading health care organization in the area requires the organization to provide quality health care services which is the mission of the hospital. Social accountability relies on both the vision and mission. In order to provide quality services as well as equal health care services, the organization must focus on mission as well as vision and vise versa, (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2009).
In order to communicate to the internal as well as the external stakeholders of the county hospital, as a manager, one should focus on what benefits the society plus the organization will have towards development of the project. The manager should develop a strategy that connects vision as well as mission of the hospital towards the benefits of the society, (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2009).
Emanuel E J, Emanuel L L. (2009). Preserving Community in Health Care. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. ; 22(1):147–84.
Research Paper: System Implementation
System implementation refers to the deployment, installation and transition of an information system into an operational system (Hunt, Kitmiller, & Sproat, 2004). However, system operation has to meet the expected outcomes for the organization. Results can only be possible where through a project plan that defines the major implementation tasks in terms of the overall resources require to support the system implementation. Other requirements include target dates, responsibility of team members, and available budget. Proper utilization of resources per project task requires that the project implantation team operates through a work flow such that each task is allocated the right amount of resources.
Hunt, E., Sproat, S., and Kitzmiller, R., (2004). The nursing informatics implementation guide. Springer. USA.
System implementation is one way of introducing change in any organization. Change sponsors are very essential in overseeing smooth change transition to the new system (Wagner, Lee & Glaser, 2009). With change sponsors, it becomes possible to define system scope and define responsibility for each employee. Employees’ responsibilities make it easy to have employees involved in change and feel as part of the system implementation process. Since each activity has its own objectives and resources requirement, the management oversees proper resources utilization, timely accomplishment of tasks and satisfactory project results. Prior to system going live, the management ensures that all employees are well trained in preparation for the change.
Wagner, K., Lee, F., & Glaser, J., (2009). Health care information systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CA: San Francisco.
I believe the main aim of system documentation is not just to own a bunch of code but to have it sustainably productive. For any organization employees are not guaranteed to remain there till eternity. This being the case, new employees can understand the system by going through the system documentation to understand why some decisions were arrived at and why the system is as it is (ehow, 2012). For all work teams, documentation ensures effective system adoption and new applications use. Through documentation, system maintenance, enhancements and migration are enabled. An effective documentation includes interactive tutorials that offer animation ton enable end users to easily follow and understand the system.
Ehow, (2012). Importance of software documentation. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_6706857_importance-software-documentation.html
It is important to have system documentation prior to training (Hebda and Czar, 2009). System documentation offers a better chance for employees to train as they go through the documentation. This way, it becomes possible to understand the system by asking questions on points not clear to the system. During downtimes documentation serves as a source of reference for system troubleshooting and any new system information should be recorded for future reference. System continuity is dependent on system documentation since it serves to offer the required guidelines.
Hebda, T., & Czar, P. (2009). Handbook of informatics for nurses & healthcare professionals (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Importance of system implementation
The system implementation is what makes a new system available to a ready group of users (Abdelhak, Grostick and Hanken, 2012). In any organization, a system that is not operable is will do nothing much to meet its expected results. However, with an operating system, an organization’s users are made more productive and more responsible in achieving organizational objectives. System implementation is also important for positioning on-going support ad system maintenance during transition. In order to have a smooth system transition to the performing system. During system deployment or introduction to the users, all necessary steps in education of consumers on how to use the system are executed.
With a system implementation plan, it is possible for the organization to carefully plan, execute, and manage system execution and avoid direct operational and financial any miscues at this point. The project team can also rely on the implementation plan to determine the appropriate contingency plans in the event of a problem (Abdelhak, Grostick and Hanken, 2012). With a project implementation plan, the organization can establish detailed description of employees’ roles and ensure that these roles are well communicated and employees well prepared to take them up. With an implementation plan, the identification of error sources during system implementation and their correction is possible. Additionally, a system implementation plan serves well in ensuring that the system implementation process is not overemphasized and the organization stuck in it.
Abdelhak, M., Grostick, S., & Hanken, M. A. (2012). Health information: Management of a strategic resource (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.
In the effort of developing the best conversation in film, David Templeton chooses fascinating people to make his movies groping. Ben Fong Torres says that the movie Almost Famous displays a greater job in the re-creation of the time period and setting of the story. The film according to Ben Fong-Torres further displays that intense feeling of being in love with music and of generally falling in love extremely. This is a movie which captures the hustles that one feels when he or she is deep into the rock music. This is a kind of music that is slowly being integrated into the musical stardom inner circle.
Despite the fact that Fong – Torres, has commented a lot concerning the movie, I have to main points to share. First is that year that Fong Torres is referring to is 1973. This was at the time that the writer as the editor of the Rolling Stone magazine which was only four years at that time. The Oakland native, Fong Torres, was deeply in love with the rock music. He owned Elvis Presley the rock-and roll that was sang way in the 1950s.
The movie Almost Famous is a funny and entertaining film, edges that are a little dry seen in Cameron Crow’s the rock-and roll semi-autography based on his personal star struck days when he was seventeen when he was writing for Rolling Stone. Crow is the director of this movie. The movie presents a classical story involving an embarrassingly, innocent and cool boy is sent due on the road. Ben Fong Torres had assigned over 20 to cover of shenanigans at the backstage for Still water, a then upcoming, rock group. The Stillwater is an amalgamation that Crowe had written about in the1970s. Patrick Fuguit takes the role of a young kid, with wide stout eyes. Billy Cruduo is the intense guitar player for the band and is seen as the favorite groupie by the band. Another favorite band Aide is the sweet but brittle Kate Hudson. A number of goof scenes that portrays Fong-Torres, by Terry Chen.
In the collection on Not Fade Away: a Backstage Pass to 20 Years of Rock & Roll, we see the Rolling Stone memories written by Fong-Torres. It also comprises of interviews and a colorful forward presented by Cameron Crowe. Cameron managed to show how it feels like to be an on road writer with a band and at the same time vividly presents the challenges and frustrations of being on the opposite side of the line. This is because, when one is a journalist, he does not belong to the band and simply not considered as being an insider. In Not Fade away, some memories of Fong Torres are captured from the Rolling Stone. He says that, though the music has been pulled back and gone to backstage and musicians have taken him simply as a reporter, then that forms the final line and one is still considered as an outsider and an enemy. (Journalism jobs.com 2012).
These portraits are presented vividly in the movie and made the movie more appealing. However, I consider the depiction of Ben Fong-Torres as a substantial disgrace just as Ben Fong Torres says that he will call the attorneys immediately like Hunter Thompson to provide immediate care to Cameron. Generally, the movie was not rated poorly. Fong- Torres says that the whole sentences of the movie are not viewed as crazy but, he affirmed with nodding that he liked the movie. Thus, for the record, on Terry Chen doing a better impression on Fong Torres, further calls more issues to be discussed.
The pessimist ratings that rock-and roll is dead music by Lester Bangs, Fong Torres responds by indicating that the death of rock started in the 60s, and since then the discussion on the death of this music is a subject that is constantly recurring. This is because; the song sang by Lester Bangs had a sense in the new approach that people undertook. That is more rebellious; take no prisoners and rebellious approach to the rock and roll music that made people to think that music is dying. Another aspect that died about the music is the belief that this music would one day change the world. This hope is also dead.
The commercial aspects that have engulfed the music industry had taken over rock, and roll and this led to the destruction of the revolutionary soul that was once present. Rock founders were Chuck Berry and Little Richard among others who were not much focused on happier revolution. Therefore, the element of revolutionary that took place in the 60s found its way to co-opt with rock and roll music. However, Fong Torres urges angst the co-opting by saying that music of any kind such as rock and roll is always conjoined to the societal changes, to other causes and to political interests. He says that the common perception, that people have, that rock-and-roll is dead, is wrong because through the integration of new aspects, it means ownership of the music. This is exactly what Lester Bang meant to say. Fong Torres warns against people like Mr. Bangs with most articulate voices and is the loudest but, they are not the majority.
Journalism jobs.com (2012) Interview with Ben Fong Torres. Retrieved from
On August 19, 2012
Before the development of education for all handicapped children Act in 1975, only a small number of children were enrolled in public schools. Only1 out of 5 children with disabilities were enrolled in public schools. Many states had laws that prevented disabled children from attending public schools. Deaf, blind, mentally retarded and emotionally unstable children were not allowed to attend public schools. Over 1 million children in United States were unable to attend public schools. The disabled children were placed in state facilities where they obtained limited education or no education at all. The 3.5 million children who joined school were taught in segregated institutions and did not get effective instructions. As a result, the government developed other laws to enable disabled children to access education.
The individual with disabilities education Act (IDEA) is a law developed to govern how state agencies and public agencies offer intervention, education and related services to disabled children. The individual with disabilities education Act addresses the education needs of disabled children from birth to 18 years or 21 years. The individuals with disabilities education Act is applicable to state that obtain financial support from the government according to the IDEA. The establishment of the IDEA increased the number of disabled children in public schools and improved the quality of instructions provided to children. The IDEA has various provisions that guide provision of education and other services to disabled children. Having a disability does not mean that a child qualifies for special education according to IDEA. Disabled children should require extra services or different services to attend school so as to qualify for special education. Children with intellectual, visual, severe emotional disturbance, autism and traumatic brain injury are considered disabled according to IDEA. This is because they need special education and other services. Disabled students who do not qualify for special education under IDEA can qualify for accommodations and modifications according to section 504 and ADA (Wright, 2004).
Schools are supposed to adhere to the provisions of individuals with disabilities education Act. Schools are required to provide services to disabled students to enable them access education. However, most schools are unable to comply with the provisions and this has resulted to legal suits as evidenced in Cedar Rapids community school district v. Garret F 526 U.S. 66 in 1999. The law suit was prompted by failure to provide related services to Garret F. Garret F. were a disabled child attending Cedar Rapids Community School. Garret was paralyzed from the neck downwards after a motorcycle accident when was 4 years old. However, the accident did not affect Garret mental capacity as he is able to speak. The Supreme Court described Garret as friendly, creative and intelligent. Garret family had arranged Garret to receive physical care during school days. The parents used insurance funds and family volunteers to provide care to Garret when at school. However, the parents were not able to continue providing the related services to the child and requested the school to provide the services. The school refused to accept financial responsibility for Garret health care services while in school. The school administration claimed that providing health care services to Garret was expensive as the school had limited financial resources (Wright, 2004).
The Supreme Court ruled that the school was supposed to provide the health care services according to individuals with disabilities education Act. The related services provision in the Act required disabled students to be provided with supportive services. In this case, the school was supposed to provide a ventilator dependent child with supportive services despite the issue raised by the school administrator about the cost of the services. The Supreme Court relied on the Irving independent school district v. Trato case in 1984 to make the decision. The court stated that only medical services that should be provided by a doctor should not be provided by the school. The judges insisted that the Cedar Rapids community school district should have provided the health care services to Garret (Hulett, 2009).
The individuals with disabilities education Act offers federal funding to state and localities for the provision of education to disabled students. The funds are supposed to be used to provide free suitable public education to disabled children. Disabled children should be able to access special educated and related services. The individuals with disabilities education Act has identified a series of services that schools are supposed to provide to disabled children. Schools are supposed to provide transportation services, development services and corrective services. They are also expected to offer supportive services. Schools should offer a wide range of supportive services such as speech pathology, audiology, psychological and physical therapy. In addition, schools should provide occupational therapy and recreation. Other services are counseling, medical services and therapeutic recreation. The medical services offered should be aimed at diagnosing and evaluating a disabled child so as to help him benefit from special education (Russo &Osborne, 2007).
The decision made by the Supreme Court in Cedar Rapids community school district v. Garret F. had an implication on the provision of education to disabled children. People reacted differently to the ruling. Disabilities advocates supported the decision made by the Supreme Court as it would benefit disabled children. The advocates stated that the decision was a victory for disabled school children in united sates as it would improve access to education. In addition, the advocates claim that the decision was important to disabled children with medical needs as they will be able to get medical services. On the other hand, the superintendent of the school were Garret was admitted claimed that the case had a major effect on the country as it would increase the cost of accessing education in public schools greatly. Also, the national schools boards association claimed that offering in school nurses would increase the cost of education (Wright, 2004).
The case has affected school districts as they are supposed to provide related services to disabled students. The case has affected funding for services offered to disabled children and forced schools to look for ways to fund related services. Schools have been compelled to look for Medicaid and department of education government grants to fund special education and related services for children. In addition, the case has also affected the individuals with disabilities education an Act funding as the government has been compelled to increase the funds allocated to state and localities to fund special education and services provided to disabled children. The government has amended the education flexibility partnership Act established in 1999 to increase individuals with disabilities education Act funding (Weishaar, 2007).
School districts my schools have been forced to comply with the provision of the individuals with disabilities education Act so as to avoid law suits. The schools comply with the related service provisions and special education provision. They ensure disabled students get the services they require in order to learn with other children. School boards have determined other ways of raising money to meet the needs of disabled students. This has given the individuals with disabilities education Act meaning (Hulett, 2009).
In conclusion, the individuals with disabilities education Act have changed the education system in United States. The IDEA has increased the number of disabled children enrolling in public schools as more disabled children get a chance to study in public schools. Disabled children were unable to access education or get quality education before, the individuals with disabilities education Act was formed. This is because the students were taught in segregated classes and got poor quality education. This led to poor performance among disabled children and high levels of illiteracy. The Act ensures schools provide support and services that are necessary to enable the children access education. The Act provides financial support to states to ensure disabled children get education. The Cedar Rapids community school district v. Garret F. case enhanced the provision of related services to disabled children after judges ruled that the children should receive medical services not offered by doctors. It has also improved the enforcement of the Act as more schools adhere to the provisions of the Act to prevent law suits.
Hulett, K. (2009). Legal aspects of special education. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill
Russo,C.J.,&Osborne,A.G.(2007).Essential Concepts and School-Based Cases in Special Education Law. Crown Press
Weishaar, M. K. (2007). Case studies in special education law. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Wright, P. W. D. (2004). The next wave of special education litigation. Harbor House Law Press, Inc retrieved from.http://www.harborhouselaw.com/articles/highstakes.litigation.wright.htm– on 31/08/2012
Advisory circulars in federal aviation administration is a set of guides that offer strategies on development of given operating procedures. On the same point, there are guides that enhance implementation process of giving operating standards. In short advisory circulars are set of the development process that gives direction on expected procedures in aviation. Airworthiness directives are part of advisory circulars offered in federal aviation administration. These are notifications provided to aircraft owners or operators on a given safety deficiency that relates to the said aircraft and must be checked and corrected. On the other hand, airworthiness alerts gives the right action to take in correcting said deficiency safety aspects. They are suggestions given to the owner of the aircraft on how to deal with airworthiness directives, (Blanchard, 2001).
65.71 Eligibility requirements: General
In order for the applicant to be eligible to get a mechanic certificate and any ratings in the field, a person must have a minimum age of 18 years, have basic skills in reading, speaking, and writing English. Individuals who does not meet the above qualifications must have a certificate that is valid but outside US. Individuals must have gone and passed all required test within the duration of two years. In addition to that, an individual must comply with all required sections under his or her applications, (Blanchard, 1998).
There are two main ratings an individual must have according to this subpart. Powerplant and airframe are the two main ratings that one should have. Another requirement is a certificate on mechanic that has aircraft engine or aircraft rating and was issued before the effective date (June 15, 1952) and should be equal to mechanic certificate that has the above said ratings. The certificate may at any given situation be exchanged with valid certificates that have the same ratings, (Maintenance Planning Guide, 2001).
65.75 Knowledge requirements
Under this subpart, the applicant of mechanic certificate must have enough experience as per the experience requirements numbered 65.77. Apart from that it is a must, to have attended a test that covers areas of construction and maintenance of the certificate an individual applies. The test should also cater for all ratings that relate to maintenance of aircraft as well as its construction. The Powerplant test must include all the basic principles required such as propeller installation and maintenance of different parts. Applicants must adhere to rules and regulations of the tests and must at the same time pass the entire test before proceeding to the next step, (Blanchard, 2001).
65.77 Experience requirements
Individuals applying for mechanic certificate must present relevant certificates that show that they had attended classes and completed successfully. Those mechanic certificates must be from certified aviation maintenance technical institutions and must adhere to the laid rules. Certificates should show an experience of not less than 18 months where the applicant had exposure to practices, machine tools, procedures, materials, equipments, and tools for the intended work. The applicant must have a minimum of 30 months experience that relates to Powerplant ratings as well as airframe ratings and should go concurrent with the previous experience, (ATA Specification, 2012).
65.79 Skill requirements
Individuals seeking given ratings must pass oral and written test before getting their certificates. Tests should cover all areas of concern that relates to ratings that the applicant has applied for. On the same note all applicants should show concern in developing strategies on how to handle minor repairs, (Blanchard, 1998).
This is the care or servicing offered by personnel in order to maintain given equipment in its position so as to provide operating services as expected. This includes inspection of failures of the equipment and taking the right measures.
Maintenance concept is the management of activities carried out in managing the developed risk of given equipment. It is set of rules that prescribe measures that should be carried out in responding to a risk.
ATA Specification 2200. (2012). Information Standards for Aviation Maintenance. Air Transport Association. www.airlines.org, Washington, DC
Blanchard, B (2001). “Logistics In The Context Of The System Life Cycle”. SOLEtech Article. International Society of Logistics. November 2001, Volume 4.11. Retrieved from, http://www.sole.org/soletech/soletech.asp?id=39, on August 9, 2012
Blanchard, B. (1998). Logistics Engineering and Management, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ
MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT OF AIRCRAFT (USAF, 1998). Retrieved from, http://afpubs.hq.af.mil/pubfiles/af/21/afi21-101/afi21-101.pdf, on August 9, 2012
Maintenance Planning Guide. (2001). Retrieved from, http://web2.deskbook.osd.mil/data/001GZDOC.DOC, on August 9, 2012
Wu, S. & Zuo, M.J. (2010). Linear and nonlinear preventive maintenance, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Volume 59, No. 1, 2010, 242-249.
Army Animal Care Specialists:Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Government Phone
Animal care specialists have a primary responsibility of providing comprehensive care for animals owned by the government. Of equal importance, they prevent and control infections transmitted from animals to humans. Job description of animal care specialists includes physical examination of animals, administration of medicine under the direction of veterinarian, and provision of surgical support to veterinarians. Just as human health, animal health has a lot of emergency situations. In addition, the government needs to supervise their work performances. Efficient communication system is essential to these officers. In this respect, the government provides them with government phones for the purpose of official communication. There are advantages and disadvantages of veterinary officers using government phones in their daily routine assignments.
Employee surveillance is essential for supervision, on-job training, and evidence storage (Friedman & Reed, 2007). Use of government phones by animal care specialists provide a platform for employee monitoring. Mobile tracking and control enables the employer, in this case the government, to listen to phone calls, conduct video surveillance, and monitor internet usage by government employees (Dempsey, 2010). This is particularly essential in the provision of high quality animal care in all army units. Government can actively perform its supervisory role in order to improve the performance of its employees. Through mobile tracking, the government ensures compliance with the policies relating to the professional code of conduct by its employees. When managers actively monitor the communication by employees and observe how workers conduct their functions, it is easy to identify employees who may require improvement in terms of coaching and training.
Supervision, through mobile tracking, is essential in isolating particular work habits and aspects of behavior responsible for poor performance (Friedman & Reed, 2007). When employees are aware of potential monitoring through surveillance, they are likely to work hard and conduct themselves professionally. Animal care specialists can work at a level that ensures customer satisfaction when aware that their work is under surveillance. They conduct their duties in a commendable manner and focus their effort in serving clients. Monitoring ensures compliance to work procedures and regulations. On every call, they seek to resolve issues appropriately in a bid to satisfy the clients.
The other advantage is that special work phones provide documented evidence. Surveillance through a government phone implies generation of evidence which may be essential in case of an incident. For instance, a complaint concerning an animal care specialist may arise. Listening to the recorded telephone conversations may help determine the guilt of the officer. In this respect, the employees are punished for offences on the basis of evidence from surveillance.
Supervision through mobile tracking can cause stress levels among government employees to rise (Dempsey, 2010). It may also lead to the development of a feeling of dissatisfaction and mistrust. When employees know that they are under surveillance, they will tend to be conscious of behavioral conduct. In case employees perform their duties in the best way, the fear of losing their job due to small errors could become a source of stress. In this respect, they may view quality as less essential than attaining particular metrics. They may become pressured to follow certain behavioral conduct or work methods perceived to appeal to certain supervisors. These may compromise appropriate conduct and procedures.
In relation to dissatisfaction and mistrust, monitoring animal care specialists make them feel not trusted by their supervisors. They may relate such supervision as being treated, not as adults, but as children. Such perceptions often lead to dissatisfaction with work and may prompt workers to search for other opportunities for employment. Surveillance may lead to the creation of a feeling of isolation especially if employees perceive inability to approach managers. This atmosphere makes them believe they lack direct control of the functions that they perform.
The third disadvantage is the expense or cost. Provision of government phones to animal care staff requires additional of staff and equipments essential for the purpose of surveillance. This comes in the form of computer networks, and expense that go into the upgrades and maintenance of the surveillance systems.
Alternative to Government Phones
Increasing surveillance distracts employees and makes them overly conscious of their work conduct and behavior. In addition, surveillance creates stress, morale, and health issues among employees. It carries enormous costs in terms of facilities required, installation, and maintenance. Employees regard surveillance as intrusion into their privacy by the employer. One off spot checks can be an excellent noninvasive alternative to mobile tracking (Friedman & Reed, 2007). It is essential for the government to ensure that its employees are performing their duties as expected while engaging in professional and ethical conduct. However, supervisory procedures must not distract employees by intruding into privacy of employees.
Friedman, B. & Reed, L. (2007). “Workplace Privacy” Employee Responsibilities and
Rights Journal, 19(2): 75-83
Dempsey, J. (2010). “Introduction to Private Security (2nd ed)”. Belmont, CA: Thomson