The course provided a comprehensive and intriguing knowledge in public health. It offered knowledge and skills in writing research proposals that are credible and can attract funding. It also offered fundamental knowledge in planning, designing and implementing public health programs. It helped me become more culturally aware in planning public health program. The course is key in future professional life. It has equipped me with key skills and knowledge that will help me in advancing professional care to the society.
The coursework provided a good practice exercise, and I could have performed better if I could have done more practice apart from the practice given in class. The topics were delivered in a superb manner. I feel I have a strong foundation in creating conceptual model in public health. However, I had challenges in grasping the concept concerning developing program evaluation program.
The effect of this course can be effectively assessed through the application of the skills and knowledge in hypothetical or practical scenario. This is so because of the practical nature of the course. The effective grasping of the content will be demonstrated by successive implementation of health program and writing of research proposals that meet scholarly and professional standards. My future application of the skills learnt in this coursework will be an effective way of assessing the depth of skills gained
In conclusion, the objectives of course have been achieved. Though, with further practices, I can effective propose a research topic, identify its hypothesis and questions that meet standards. It can also comfortably write the key components of a research proposal such as the problem statement, methodology and data analysis. The course also made me culturally sensitive in planning health programs.
Medical Care Supports
Medicare part A helps eligible individuals to pay inpatient costs in a health facility, skilled nursing home, hospice care, home healthcare and the medicines administered during the stay period. Medicare part B, help in paying for physician bills, outpatient services such as rehabilitation therapy, laboratory test and medical equipments. It also cover’s physician’s cost and medicines administered in the physician office. Medicare part D assists individuals to pay for prescription drugs that are used at home, insulin supply and certain vaccines.
Mrs. Zwick automatically qualifies for Medicare part A because of her age. Her bills in the initial inpatient services are covered within Medicare part A. she was hospitalized for five days, she will be required to pay $ 1,156 and the rest will be paid with Medicare. Medicare will fully pay for the first 20 days stay in the professional nursing home. Afterward, Medicare will pay a co-pay of $ 144.5 per day for the 21st day. The other 19 days are not covered with Medicare because they were as a result of hospital acquired infections. Medicare will cover the medication prescribed for home recovery, but Mrs. Zwick will have to pay 20% for the walker.
For Mrs. Zwick to benefit from part B, she must have paid an annual deductible as prescribed by law. However, she automatically qualifies for the coverage due to her age (74 years). Once the patient has paid her annual deductibles, Medicare will pay 80 % of the approved doctor’s amount and outpatient charges. The remaining 20 % will be paid by either the patient’s supplemental insurance or by the patient. Mrs. Zwick must not have been convicted of any social security offenses, as stipulated in the social security Act, to enjoy the benefits of Medicare part B.
Mrs. Zwick home prescription is covered under Medicare part D. However, the benefits are related to her income. Medicare part D was instituted to help low-income earners access home prescription thereby increasing adherence to medication.mr Zwick must have updated her monthly subscriptions and reached the true-out-of-pocket amounts. Under this coverage, Mrs. Zwick will pay 5% of the total drug cost with annual generic/ brand name medication. The center for Medicare will cover the catastrophic coverage.(Walberg, 2009)
According to the new Medicare regulations, Medicare does not cater for hospital acquired diseases. Urinary infection is one of the infections that are not covered with Medicare. In case of Mrs. Zwick, the urinary infection cost of medication will not be covered with Medicare. The antibiotic administered to fight the same will not be covered by part D. the cost of treating hospital acquired infections is transferred to the hospital/institution in which the patient is admitted. The initial estimated (prescribed) stay in the nursing home was 21 days. This was prolonged by the urinary tract infections to 40 days. The Medicare plan will
The urinary tract infection is a major cause of alarm in many public hospitals, in the country. It is common among elderly living in a nursing home or therapy centers. The condition is associated with uncheck hygiene and may be a sign of reduced patient care or neglect. Mrs. Zwick has right to quality health services. Hospitals are expected to own-up to hospital acquired infections by taking the responsibility of paying for treatment charges. Mrs. Zwick can also seek legal redress for reimbursement on costs as a result of the urinary tract infection. (Pozgar, 2013)
The consolidated omnibus budget reconciliation Act (COBRA) gives employers, and their families chance to continue with group health benefits for a limited period of time. The plan covers for group health with 2o or more employees. Davis’s company has 100 employees and therefore, covered in COBRA regulations. The COBRA requires most group health plans to provide temporally continuation of group health coverage that may be terminated due to various event. The continuation is supposed to cover the employee and their spouses or dependants. For one to be eligible for COBRA one has to be a qualified beneficiary, must experience an event listed in COBRA (qualifying event) and one must have lost a group health plan coverage because of one of the event listed in COBRA list of events. According to the list one is entitled to COBRA benefits if
- Termination of employee’s employment due to reasons other than gross misconduct
- Reduction of working hours leading to loss of coverage
- Death of the employee
- Divorce or legal separation from the covered employee
- Employee’s entitlement to Medicare
- The employer’s commencement of a bankruptcy proceeding.(Northrop, 2007)
Mr. Davis event of losing employment falls within the qualifying event. He, therefore, qualify for coverage. Mr. Davis will be required to disburse the total cost of coverage once his elect continuation coverage.
Employment is an important factor in access to healthcare in United State. Individuals whose jobs or lack of it, do not offer benefits of health insurance are often uninsured. The US government has been grappling with providing healthcare to individuals who cannot afford it for the last century. These challenges were partially solved by the introduction of Medicare and Medicaid. One of the challenges facing health care provision and health insurance among the chronically ill is hesitance of private insurance companies to enroll them in their policies. Insurance companies view the chronically ill as increased risks; they are at risk of incurring huge medical expenses and financial hardship. The Medicare program covers for the aged and fails to recognize those who are below 65 years unless they are disabled or orphaned. The other challenge facing provision of healthcare to the chronically ill is the increasing cost of health in the state. The cost of medication has been on increases for the past decade. The high cost is weighing much on the unemployed and elderly who are suffering terminal illness.
One of the solutions that can effectively reduce the burden of healthcare is the strict implementation of the health reforms initiated by the president. The reforms offer health insurance to all regardless of their employment status.
United state provides one of the most comprehensive medical care supports in the world. It is the highest spender on health care compared to western countries. In 2000, Japan started to implement a long term care insurance system. The system collects contributions aged above 40 years to provide universal services such as nursing home, visit care centers and home helpers. This is a progressive move toward caring for the retired. In United Kingdom, people with special needs are with national healthcare system, which provides special services to certain groups. In a survey done in 2010, USA was the last in terms of access, patient safety, coordination, efficiency, and equity. It is the only country among the developed nations that lacks a universal health insurance system. USA healthcare services are the most expensive in the world. Other countries such as UK offer unrestricted public health care unlike the Medicare and Medicaid that put restrictive age. However, USA boost of affective private and public cooperation in the healthcare sector.
Mark P. Walberg (2009). A patient-perspective approach to Medicare part D prescription drug plan costs
George D. Pozgar (2013). Legal and ethical issues for health professionals. Jones & Bartlett. Burlington, USA.
D. Northrop, S. cooper $ C. Kimberly (2007). Health insurance resource manual: a guide for people with chronic illness.
Josh C. Felix P & Jin Zhu(2007). The UK health Care system. Retrived from http://ce.columbia.edu
After School Program
When evaluating an after school program, one should consider various thing. One should evaluate the needs for the program, conceptualization, operation, delivery and cost efficiency. The evaluation questions should be derived from the areas stated above so as to provide stakeholders with adequate information about the program. The after school program is aimed at providing free after school care to children from 3.30 to 3.50 pm. The program targets children in the neighborhood. The main objective of the after school program is to offer a safe and supervised environment for latchkey children. In addition, the program concentrates on enhancing the school performance of students via academic enrichment activities. The evaluation questions to be used to evaluate the after school program include (Scriven, 1991).
Need of the after school program questions
Identifying the needs of clients is vital when designing a program. The needs are used to determine the services to be offered and resources required. In this case, the children have various needs. The children need a safe and supervised environment. Also, the children need to improve their school grades (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2010). Thus, the program has focused on meeting the needs of the students.
- What problem does the after school program address?
- What is the extend of the problem the after school program addresses?
- What are the after school care services required?
- How long are the after school care services needed?
Questions about after school program conceptualization
The design and conceptualization of the after school program should be evaluated to provide stakeholders with adequate information to understand the program.
- What after school services are offered?
- How is the after school program organized?
- What resources are important and suitable for the after school program?
Questions regarding after school program operation and delivery
The questions determine the operation of the program and the delivery of services to clients. This enables the stakeholders determine whether clients get appropriate services and the program operates successfully.
- Are the objectives of the after school being met?
- Do clients get appropriate after school care services?
- Are there needy clients the after school program is not reaching?
- Are children/ clients satisfied with the after school care services?
Questions concerning the outcome of the after school program
Evaluating the outcome of the after school program is important as it enables stakeholders to determine whether the program is attaining the intended outcome or not.
- Are the goal/ objectives of the after School program being attained?
- Do the after school care services have an important effect on the children?
- Do the after school care services have adverse side effects on clients?
- Has the after school program made the school performance and made the laketchy environment for the school children safe and enhanced supervision?
Questions regarding the cost and efficiency of the after school program
The after school program should be cost effective. The benefits of the program should outweigh the cost.
- Are the resources need to provide services used efficiently?
- Is the cost of the after school program reasonable in relation to the benefits linked with the program?
- Would an alternative after school program produce the same benefits at less cost?
Data collection methods
There are various techniques used to collect data for the program evaluation. The methods include surveys, questionnaires, interviews and observation. Though the data collection methods are important, they have advantages and disadvantages that affect their effectiveness. In this case, questionnaires, observation and interviews will be used to gather data for the evaluation process. Questionnaires will be developed to obtain data from the children/ clients served by the program. The questionnaires will have open and ended questions to enable clients to provide sufficient information regarding the program. The questions will cover all the areas stated above (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2010). Using open ended questions gives clients an opportunity to explain various issues. The closed ended questionnaires limit the information obtained as clients answer the questions provided. Information obtained using questionnaires will be analyzed to get information vital for the stakeholders.
Interviews are an effective method of gathering information from the client as the clients interact with the interviewer. The interviewer gets clarification where needed from the participants (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2010). However, interviews are biased as the interviewer influences the opinion of the client/ interviewee. The observation method enables one to understand the client’s behavior. In this case, the observation method is effective in understanding how the environment affects the children. That is how the safety of the environment and supervision affects children. In addition, the observation method enables one to determine whether the objectives of the program have been met and determine the impact the program has on the children. In observation, a person observes the children from a distant place without influencing their behavior or distracting them. This eliminates biasness as one does not influence the behavior of the children. However, observation method might result to poor and unreliable data as one does not get a chance to clarify any issue from the clients being observed. Combining the three methods will eliminate all the limitations of each method (Powell, 2006).
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2010). Healthy Youth-Program Evaluation Resources. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/evaluation/resources.htm on 26/03/2012
Powell, R. (2006). Evaluation research: An overview. Library Trends, 55, 105-113.
Scriven, M. (1991). Evaluation Thesaurus. Sage
Binge drinking is an issue in the United States as it leads to death and increases economic costs. Binge drinking lead to increase in associated deaths and economic costs in 2006. Binge drinking accounted for over half of the 80000 death in a year (CDC, 2010). In addition, binge drinking accounted for $223.5 billion in economic costs resulting from excessive use of alcohol (Bouchery, Harwood, Sacks & et al, 2006). Binge drinking is a risk factor for many diseases and social problems. Some of the social problems associated with binge drinking include motor vehicle crushes, violence, unwanted pregnancies and suicide.
Binge drinking accounted for 85% of alcohol impaired driving events in 2006. Binge drinking forms over half of the alcohol used by adults and 90% of alcohol used by youngsters (CDC, 2010). In addition, binge drinking is a risk factor for diseases such as high blood pressure, fetal alcohol syndrome, sudden infant death syndrome and sexual infections. The high rate of binge drinking among adults forced CDC to evaluate binge drinking both nationwide and state. CDC examined development information from the 2010 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. It examined the intensity and frequency of drinking of adults who reported binge drinking. Lowering the prevalence of binge drinking among adults is one of the healthy indicators in healthy people 2020. Healthcare professionals should control binge drinking at all stages. That is downstream, mainstream and upstream (CDC, 2010).
Mckinlay’s has grouped the levels of influence on human behavior and intervention into different groups. That is downstream, midstream and upstream. Downstream interventions are found at the individual level. Downstream interventions include counseling, pharmacological treatment and self help programs. In this case, counseling interventions will be provided to adults who have reported binge drinking. Many people want to stop binge drinking, because of the negative effect it has on their relationships, health and job. However, they are not able to stop binge drinking due to lack of support.
In addition, most people find it challenging to stop binge drinking because they cannot control themselves. Hence, providing counseling services to individuals who have reported binge drinking enables them to stop binge drinking and have a healthy lifestyle. The counselor spends time examining the causes of binge drinking among individuals and developing a trusting counseling relationship. This makes it easy for the individual to share information with the counselor about binge drinking. Counseling programs are effective in preventing binge drinking as counselors offer customized or tailored counseling services to individuals. This ensures individuals get counseling services that meet their needs and help them overcome binge drinking problem (Naimi, Brewer, Mokdad & et al, 2003).
Moreover, midstream intervention focuses on the population. The main goal of midstream intervention is changing and preventing behaviors that affect a population health via organizational channels. A community based health program targeting adults who have reported binge drinking is effective preventing binge drinking and improving a person’s health. The programs focus on teaching adults about the causes and effects of binge drinking on their health and life. Also, the programs concentrate on educating adults about strategies to prevent binge drinking and benefits of stopping binge drinking (Naimi, Brewer, Mokdad & et al, 2003).
Upstream interventions are found at the macro level (state and national level). Upstream interventions entail changing policies and implementing formulated policies. The upstream interventions enhance social norms that encourage healthy behaviors and eliminate unhealthy behaviors. Media campaigns and public education on binge drinking in adults can be effective in preventing binge drinking. The public education programs and media campaigns should identify causes, effect and strategies to avoid binge drinking. They should concentrate on promoting social norms and eliminating unhealthy behaviors. The media campaigns and public educations reach many people and hence effective in preventing binge drinking (Naimi, Brewer, Mokdad & et al, 2003).
Brewer, R.D., Mokdad. A., Naimi, T.S., & et al. (2003). Binge drinking among US adults. JAMA, 289:70–5.
CDC. (2010). Vital signs. MMWR, 61(1):14-19
Harwood, H.J., Bouchery, E.E., Sacks, J.J., & et al. (2006). Economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in the United States. Amj.41:516–24.
Reflection Of US Health Care System
This course has expanded my understanding of the US health care system. The US health care system differs from other systems around the world. Most developed nations have a centrally controlled system that permits finance and delivery of services. On the other hand, the United States health care system is complex and consists of several players who use different payment and financing mechanism. In addition, the US healthcare is research based, and players have focused on innovation to attain new technology levels. This has resulted to increase in cost of care as hospitals invest in innovation. Also, the state does not dominate health care in the United States, unlike in other countries. The complication of the system has led to many challenges including health disparities, employee turnover and high cost of care (Levit, 2002). Further, the course has improved my understanding on leadership and management in healthcare. Health care organizations need good leadership and management so as to attain their goals. Leaders should have appropriate traits so as to link the world of administration to medical practice. Also, they should have good leadership traits to understand people needs and providing the necessary healthcare services.
Additionally, the course has helped in understanding the increase in US healthcare cost. The healthcare cost in the United States has increased considerably and hindered many people from accessing health care services. Most people are not satisfied with the current healthcare scheme including practitioners, companies, healthcare administrators and communities. The healthcare scheme has led to increase in healthcare cost, drug cost and increased the number of citizens uninsured. Besides, I have understood the challenges special groups or population face when getting healthcare services. Though the government provides medical services to all citizens, people from special groups have not managed to access medical services due to economic issues and lack of insurance. Most of people from special groups do not have health insurance and hence cannot access healthcare services. Lastly, I have understood the changing nature of US healthcare system and the delivery of local healthcare services. The healthcare system will change due to population changes; technology and change in focus by the healthcare field (Somnath & Sharma, 2005). The healthcare field will change from curative care to promotion (Levit, 2002).
There are various issues that were of greatest importance to me including special population and access to health and healthcare cost. The increase in number of citizens unable to access healthcare services due to increase in healthcare cost has led to increase in deaths and diseases. Uninsured patient’s especially special groups have not managed to access medical care due to increase in healthcare cost. The two issues have shown the challenges patients including special groups face when accessing care and how they have impacted them. Thus, in order to improve access to healthcare services, the government should focus on lowering the cost of care and providing insurance. Though the government has provided insurance cover to all citizens, most people do not have health insurance cover and cannot get quality care (Szczepura, 2005).
The knowledge I have acquired will be useful in my profession as a healthcare professional. I will use the knowledge acquired to improve access to care among special groups and other patients by considering financial factors that hinder them from accessing care. Also, I will use the knowledge obtained to advocate for policies that reduce cost of care and increase insurance cover among citizens to improve their quality of life and access to medical services. Further, I will utilize the knowledge gained to change leadership in healthcare organizations so as to enhance medical care offered to patients by improving safety and quality (Szczepura, 2005).
Levit, K. (2002). Inflation spurs health spending in 2000. Health Affairs, 21(1):174-81. Retrieved on 02/20/2013 from North Central Pro-Quest Database.
Somnath, R. and Sharma, B. (2005). Community participation in primary health care. Health and Population - Perspectives & Issues, 9(4): 15-36. Retrieved on 01/30/2013 from North Central Pro-Quest Database.
Szczepura, A. (2005). Access to healthcare for minority communities. Journal of postgraduate medicine, 81(2), 141-7. Retrieved on 02/28/2013 from North Central Pro-Quest Database.
Torres, F. (2008). A distinctive system of healthcare delivery. Journal of Health Management, 23(2). Retrieved on 01/30/2013 from North Central Pro-Quest Database.
The IOM future of nursing is important for changing the healthcare system in the United States to ensure patients get quality care. The United States has a chance to change the health care system so as to offer affordable and quality healthcare to patients. In addition, the United States has the capacity to change the healthcare system to ensure patients get patient centered care and hence improve their outcome. In addition, the IOM is important in changing the health care workforce. The committee of the IOM provided various recommendations that can be used to ensure nurse practice to the education and training. Second, the recommendations enhance nursing education and offer opportunities for nurses to become leaders. Further, the recommendations enhance data collection to aid in making of policies and employee planning. The nursing profession has the capacity to change the healthcare system. Nurses interact with patients regularly and understand the needs of patients. They understand the care process and hence this enables them to partner with other healthcare professionals to change the health care environment. Therefore, nurses help overcome challenges in accessing healthcare services. Nurses play a vital function in preventing diseases and coordinating care. However, nurses face numerous challenges that hinder them from providing care. Nurses need more education and preparations to enable them perform new responsibilities (Institute of medicine of the national academies, 2011).
The committee identified 4 key messages crucial to the nursing profession. The committee claimed that nurses should practice full based on their education and training. The committee noted that nurses have the ability to lead innovative strategies to enhance the health care system. However, many factors including policy, regulatory and historical factors have affected the ability of nurses to bring healthcare transformation. The obstacles have resulted due to the flaw of the healthcare system. The regulations state scope of practice limitation differs by state. Some states have detailed regulations while others do not. Some states have modified their regulations based on the evolution of the healthcare system (Institute of medicine of the national academies, 2011). Other states have not modified their regulations, and this has lagged them behind. This has hindered nurses from practicing fully based on their training and education. The changing health care environment has also affected nurse’s ability to practice as they do not have adequate education and training.
The committee recommended expansion of the education system to meet the education needs of nurses and ensure they have appropriate competencies to change the healthcare system. Improving the education system will ensure nurses offer safe, patient centered and quality care. Nurses should join the workforce with a baccalaureate degree so as to meet changing requirements of the patients. Nurses should advance to other levels including masters and doctorate to prevent shortage of primary providers and nurses. Moreover, the IOM has enabled nurses to work with other healthcare professionals and physicians to improve healthcare in the united sates. Nurses should participate in decision making and making of policies. They should shape healthcare policies instead of the policies shaping them. In addition to that, nurses should take leadership roles so as to change the healthcare system (Institute of medicine of the national academies, 2011).
Strategic workforce planning in the healthcare sector has been affected inadequate reliable data. Therefore, improving collection of data and information infrastructure will enhance workforce planning as healthcare providers will have sufficient information to plan. Thus, the IOM improves the planning of the healthcare workforce by enhancing data collection. Therefore, the IOM report will help eliminate problems that nurse face and hence enhance the care provided to patients (Institute of medicine of the national academies, 2011).
The future of Nursing: Campaign for Action refers to a country initiative aimed at guiding the implementation of recommendation identified in the future of Nursing: Leading change, advancing health. The campaign focuses on creating a healthcare system where all citizens are able to access high quality medical care with nurses practicing fully. The campaign is coordinated via the CCNA, AARP and RWJF. The campaign consists of 49 state Action coalitions and numerous healthcare providers, consumer advocates, academic leaders among others. The Campaign for Action was established after the IOM report was released (California Action Coalition, 2012).
Different states have established action coalitions including California. The California Action coalition is aimed at promoting a healthy state using nursing services and leadership. The Action coalition focuses on the implementation of the recommendation identified by the IOM report via strategic partnership. The California Action Coalition focuses on improving the health of the residents. Workgroups have been established to implement the 8 recommendations. The California Action Coalition has focused on implementing the 8 recommendation. First, the California Action Coalition concentrates on eliminating obstacles to scope of practice. California has conducted an analysis to determine the gap between the IOM future of nursing scope of practice and the state laws that govern RN and advanced practice registered nurse responsibilities. This will help identify factors that prevent nurses in California from practicing fully. Moreover, California compares its advanced practice nurse cope of practice laws with the National Council of State board of Nursing Consensus Model for ARN regulations. This has enabled registered nurses and advanced practice nurses to practice fully without being limited by the state law (California Action Coalition, 2012).
Second, the California Action of Coalition concentrates on implementing nurse residency programs to meet the education needs of nurses. The current education system has not addressed the needs of nurse students and this has hindered them from bringing change in the health care system. Nurses do not have competencies to address the needs of students. Also, they do not have the knowledge and adequate training to provide quality services to patients. California has expanded programs for new graduates to incorporate community based opportunities. Expanding the new graduate programs will ensure nurses in the state have the right skills and competencies needed to serve patients (California Action Coalition, 2012). It will also overcome the current shortage of the nursing education system in the state by eliminating obstacles that prevent nurses from becoming competent. In addition, California has developed an evaluation method used to evaluate present programs in the state to ensure they meet the objectives set. Evaluating the programs will identify problems or barriers to healthcare provision in the state and then make the necessary changes. In conclusion, California state has focused on eliminating challenges that nurses in the state face when providing care to enhance patient care quality and safety (California Action Coalition, 2012).
California Action Coalition. (2012). Advancing Health in California. Retrieved from http://www.caactioncoalition.org/ on 13/3/2013
Institute of medicine of the national academies. (2011). The Future of Nursing. The National Academies of Sciences
Preventing A Brave New World
Preventing a brave new world is an article authored by Keon Kass. Keon examines therapeutic cloning of embryos and reproductive. According to Keon, therapeutic cloning of the embryo and reproductive is considered unethical. Technology development has had a negative effect on the society. Technology development has led to new uses of biotechnical power that goes beyond the intent medical goals of curing diseases and eliminating suffering. Technology growth has led to change of human nature through cloning and other methods. Keon Kass has presented his argument on cloning of embryos and its impact on human beings before concluding that cloning of the embryo is unethical (Kass, 2001).
Cloning refers to production of people who are genetically identical to existing persons. Keon Kass has objected cloning of the embryo and he considers it unethical. Keon Kass supports the abolition of human cloning as it affects morality and human dignity. Keon Kass claims that people should respect the revulsion individuals feel regarding cloning of human beings as people respect their revulsion at cannibalism. Many people are repelled by all characteristics of human cloning. Keon Kass claims that repugnance refers to the emotional expression of wisdom to articulate it. He pinpoints the shortcoming of the modern ethical discourse which stresses on independence, utility, equity and does not offer moral guidance that the modern world needs (Kass, 2001).
Keon Kass argues that cloning defiles and affects human beings as proactive beings. Cloning is also considered a type of child abuse. Keon Kass has presented different reasons as to why he considers reproductive and cloning of embryo unethical. Cloning human beings is considered an unethical experiment. Cloning human beings leads to production of unhealthy human beings. Coning of other animals including rats and cows has led to deformities and unhealthy animals. During cloning, an egg having a new somatic nucleus should reprogram itself within minutes and hours. Errors occur when translating genetic instructions and this leads to developmental defects. Some of the development defect appear early and others later. Scientists believe that cloning human beings has many risks of producing abnormal, malformed and unhealthy babies. Therefore, scientists consider cloning of human beings unethical because of the risks it poses to the baby (Kass, 2001).
Further, Keon Kass believes that cloning of human beings leads to serious problems when it comes to identity and individuality. The clone experiences concern regarding his unique identity because he is identical to another person and that he might be twins to another person (father or mother). People consider interfamilial cloning ethical, but it has risks when it comes to combining twin relation with parent and child relation. This causes problems in the family especially during divorce as someone cannot withstand the clone. Additionally, cloning of children affects them later in life as people judge them in relation to their previous version. Cloned children will have a genotype that has lived in contrast to normal and identical twins. The cloned child will not be a surprise to the world and people will compare his action and behaviors to the person used to clone the child. Moreover, human cloning transforms begetting into making and changes procreation into manufacturing. This is evidenced in the in vitro fertilization and genetic testing of embryos.
Begetting differs a lot from making. Naturally, human beings come together to procreate. In clonal production, a person gives existence to a person based on their intention and design, but not what they are. Human cloning has turned procreation into manufacturing. It has further being affected by commodification. This has led to growth of genetic and reproductive biotechnology firms. Many companies are selling human eggs used for cloning. Human cloning will lead to misunderstanding of the meaning of procreating and affect the relationship between children and parents. When couples decide to procreate, they are agreeing to bring a new life to this world regales of how the child turns out to be. Hence, Keon Kass has clearly outlined the impact of human cloning on human beings and their roles before concluding human cloning unethical (Kass, 2001).
Keon Kass argument regarding reproduction and therapeutic cloning of human beings is strong. Kass has identified various reasons why he objects human cloning. Kass considers human cloning immoral and unethical as it affects human morality and dignity. In addition, human cloning affects the role of human beings in the society. Human beings play various roles including procreation. Human beings should procreate naturally. However, human cloning affects procreation as it encourages manufacturing of children. Further, human cloning gives parents a chance to design their children according to what they want. In procreation parents agree to have a child and love the child regardless of how the child turns out to be. Kass has presented his arguments well. This has made it easy for the reader to move from one point to another. In addition, Kass has used simple language to enable the reader understand his argument. Therefore, Keon Kass argument on human cloning and how he considers it unethical is strong and relevant to morality of human cloning (Kass, 2001).
Kass, L.R. (2001). Preventing a Brave New World.
The more information technology and power of the internet is increasing, the more my interest in computer science is growing. I have completed an associated degree from College of Technology & Electronics, and I am currently working in a team project. In order to understand the issue of computer systems, I chose to do a course on English as a Second Language Program. This have all assisted me improve my understanding of the subject and increase my passionate to discover more in the field of computer systems.
My interest in computing is not restricted in class work; my uncle has helped my gain experience in the network industry. From the knowledge and the experience I have from the past, I would like to express my interest in your learning institution in undertaking a graduate degree in computer science. My research shows me that your learning institution offers the best learning materials for computer science courses.
Apart from the academic knowledge and skills, the experience I have received when working as a network administrator and the current project I am working on gives me courage to enroll for the graduate degree in computer science. The willingness to learn new experience and knowledge gives me desire to learn in your esteemed university.
I look forward for a consideration in your university to pursue further studies.
Cell Phones In Schools
Cell phones have a major impact on teaching in schools. Cell phones cause disruption in class. Cell phones cause disruption in different ways. They cause disruption when urgent text messages are send across the class. In addition, cell phones interrupt learning through rap song ringtones. As a result, cell phones have frustrated educators effort to deliver instructions and improve student performance.
Moreover, cell phones have led to increase in exam cheating cases as students use their cell phones to cheat during examination time. Also, students have used cell phone to harass their peers during class time. Though cell phones are considered a nuisance in the class, not all educators see them as nuisance. Some educators have used cell phone as a teaching solution. Educators in different schools in the United Kingdom and Asia have used cell phone as teaching tools. Schools in North America have also used cell phone as teaching tools. In Canada, cell phones have been integrated in the curriculum especially at the Craik School in Saskatchwan.
Teachers at the school decided to use cell phones for teaching instead of considering them evil. They noted that the text messages and alarms could be used to remind students about homework and tests. The teachers tested the use of cell phone in class and realized that it facilitated sharing of information via the Bluetooth. In addition, the Cell phones helped the educator and students share what they did in their groups. This improved management of groups. Students used video to record the content. Dolman the class teacher claims that students did not use cell phones to disrupt the classes. She considered the belief that cell phone use in class and disruption a stereotype. Further, Matt Cook an educator in the Keller Independent School District used Cell phone to record his work. May people have realized the benefits linked with cell phone and decided to provide support to schools? Verizon and AT& T, GoKnow have donated technology to 5th grade students.
The advancement in technology has changed different sectors including education. Technology has influenced teaching and learning in schools. Schools have integrated different technologies in learning and teaching. Some schools have integrated computer technology in learning and teaching. This has improved teaching and learning. However, teachers have not integrated cell phone technology in learning and teaching. This is because of the notion that cell phones causes disruption in class and affects teaching and learning. However, I believe that cell phones have many advantages compared to disadvantages.
Cell phones can change teaching and learning in schools if used well. Cell phones have many features that facilitate learning and teaching in schools. Some of the features include video recording, Bluetooth and alarm. The features make teaching of students easy. Students can use cell phones to obtain information from the web and also share information. Hence, parents or adults should not discourage students from using cell phones in schools instead they should support them. They should show students how to use cell phones to improve their grades and learning. Additionally, schools should use cell phones positively and consider cell phones essential technology tools that can be used to equip students with important skills and knowledge. This will eliminate the gap between schools using technology and those not using technology.
Lifting the cell phone ban
Literature Review:Vibration Technology and Strength or Power Output in a Collegiate Athlete
Technological innovations have seen the establishment of vibration technology that can be used by sportsmen for exercise. Vibration exercise was an unfamiliar training method until the recent times. Man has fibrous and bony connective tissues that provide him with excellent structures to achieve speed, height and strength during movements such as walking, tendons transmit forces generated by muscles to the bones which serve as effective levers. It is the diverse responses of a bone to its needs that have been acknowledged. However, the responsiveness of connective tissues in relation to exercise and conditioning has begun to be appreciated recently. The aim of the paper is to conduct a detailed literature review on vibration technology and strength output in collegiate athletes. Specifically, the paper aims to analyze the concept of vibration technology as it is used for exercise. In the end, it is expected that trainers will be able to determine whether vibration training is an ideal option that they should consider for their athletes.
Vibration technology itself has been in existence for many years. In fact, studies reveal that the practice of vibration training was used by people of ancient Greek to speed recovery after a person is injured. The Greek would wound a sheet of fabric on the injured part e.g. a limb and attach a flexible straw that wobbled with movement. From the wobbling, vibrations would emanate which would be transmitted to the injury. The vibration concept in relation to treatment of patient developed further with the introduction of the vibration chair and platform bar by John Kellogg. Further development into the 20th century saw the creation of the rhythmic neuromuscular stimulation. In the medical field, vibrating technology has been used for rehabilitation and prehabilitation exercises. For instance, patients with chronic back pain could use vibrating exercises to alleviate the pain. Patients with muscle-wasting injuries such as paralysis could also rely on vibrating technology to overcome the risk of muscle-wasting.
Vibrating technology is also vital in the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson’s disease. Russian scientists later refined the vibration technology to assist astronauts combat the lack of gravity in space. Further studies and use among the athletes revealed that the technology boosted the strength, power and the vertical ability. The technology also aided the athletes during recovery from injury. It is the realization that the vibration technology can be used among athletes; that resulted to intense research leading to the development of athlete machines such as the power-plate. Other vibration training machines such as the Galileo sport and Vibrogym have also been created. The Galileo uses a titling mechanism where the sides of the plate move up and down while power-plate and Vibrogym use the vertical vibrations where the training plate move up and down at the same time.
Information relevant for discussion in relation to the topic was sourced from journals that specialize in sports. Sports journals and exercise reviews are some of the basic search engines that were essential in sourcing information. Phrases such as vibration technology, vibration training, and vibration technology and athletes were used to source for articles and journals that contained information close to the topic of discussion. Additional sources were found by perusing the reference lists of the credible sources selected for the completion of the assignment. Studies that explained the concept of vibration in relation to training were selected. Studies that also focused on the effects of vibration training were also considered. The opinion of different scholars on the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of vibration technology for training purposes was also considered.
The Concept of Vibration
Scientifically vibration is defined as a mechanical stimulus that occurs due to oscillatory motion. Oscillatory motion refers to movement that repeats itself as it remains confined within two extreme positions. Frequency, amplitude, and magnitude are some of the biochemical parameters that are used to determine the intensity of a vibration. The extent of the oscillatory motion determined the amplitude of the vibration, whereas the repetition rate of the cycles of oscillation determines the frequency of the vibration. During whole-body vibration training, high vibration frequencies have been found to cause greater acceleration forces. Studies indicate that motor unit recruitment during tonic vibration reflex increases with increasing frequency regardless of the maximum contraction strength that will be exerted. Further research also reveals that the natural frequencies that athletes’ leg muscles respond to are normally in the range of 10-70Hz.
Using whole-body training means that an athlete will have to sue frequencies of at most 30Hz so as to attain maximal activation of the muscles. However, individuals differ, and the maximal frequency level for one athlete may be different for another. An athlete should thus work with his trainer to determine his maximum frequency. An athlete should strive to know his electromyography analysis prior to the commencement of a whole-body training program. Analysis of the EMG provides the athlete with a range of the ideal optimal frequency to use. Scientists and fitness experts reveal that low amplitude and low frequency mechanical stimulation of the body are a safe and effective way to strengthen the skeletal muscle and general body power in athletes. The skeletal muscle is defined as the specialized tissue that changes it functional capacity depending on the stimuli that is encountered. This is to say that the skeletal muscles are exposed to different stimuli that result to differentiation in functional capacity. When performing normal task, the muscles that are exposed to various actions of gravity are able to uphold their performance capabilities. However, when the gravitational load is reduced the muscle exhibit decline in mass and force generating capability. In contrast, an increase in gravitation load increases gravitational load, which in turn increases the cross-sectional area and force generating capacity of the muscles. The effectiveness of the vibration technology amongst athletes is seen in the ability to create a sense of hyper gravity on athlete muscles. An athlete’s muscles steadily contract and relax in an effort to dampen the vibrations. Vibration training is one of the exercise program that have been established with the intentionally of increasing gravitational load so as increase strength and stamina.
Physiologically, the vibrations stimulate nerve fibers responsible for the transmission of impulses from the sensory receptors to the central nervous systems. It is the responsibility of the central nervous system to process and interpret information it receives from the receptors and react accordingly. The central nervous system generates a response through the motor output thus the muscles need to respond. For instance, if an athlete stands on a vibration plate and the plate moves up, the sensory receptors at the feet sense that the body is moving upwards. This message is transferred to the central nervous system informing the leg muscles to contract so as to counteract the upward movement. The lowering of the vibration plate results to an opposite effect as the CNS sends a message to the leg muscle to relax. The process of muscle relaxation and contraction as presented during the movement of the vibration plate is vital for an athlete. Athletes are involves in different sports that require different levels of muscle strength and power. The relaxation and contraction of the muscles using vibration training ensures that the sportsman is physically robust with the energy to perform.
According to Wilcock, & Keogh, (2009) one of the effective ways to increase strength in an athlete is by increasing the cross-sectional area of the muscles. Increasing the number of myofilament cross-bridge attachments mean that the muscles will also increase. Strategies such as exposure of muscles to high loads as can be done when an individual stands on a vibrating platform and gets exposed to accelerating loads. The accelerating loads as the athletes stand on the vibrating platform leads to an increase in muscle activation. Vibration through exercise or not has been found to result to an increase in EMG activity, in the muscle. When vibration ceases, the EMG activity has been found to also cease. EMG activities thus reduce immediately after vibrations.
The reduction is so fast that it reduces below individuals that are using non vibration training devices. The positive aspect regardless of the drastic changes is that the acute changes are not carried forward into any long term changes in EMG activities of the affected muscles. It is a known a fact that mechanical vibration causes tonic vibration reflex. This means that the vibration causes afferent neurons from affected muscles to become sensitive to stretch which in turn increases the activation of alpha motor neurons. The response due to release o the alpha motor neurons leads to improved synchronization, increased speed and forceful muscular contraction that occurs at the point of rapid stretch.
One of the most common exercising device is the whole body vibration device that functions by means of oscillating plates using a system of vertical displaces and uniform up and down oscillation. Overall, strength and power represents the two critical components in any sport. It is vital for sportsmen and athletes to determine effective training methods that will enhance these two components and enhance athlete development. The second form of vibration exercise is the segmental vibration where an athlete is grounded but places specific part of his body on vibrating mechanism. Vibration mechanism differs depending on the whole-body vibration device that the athlete uses. An athlete can chose to use the vertical, horizontal or the pivotal accelerations of the whole-body vibrations. The use of vibration technology for purposes of training is still in its infant stages, and thus researchers have not yet certified whether the different techniques give differing physiological effects in terms of strength and performance.
Result of Search
Explorations on the reliability of vibration training among athletes and sportsmen are on the rise. In theory vibration training means that the athlete uses more muscle fibers than normal. During normal activities such as walking, running or jogging at least 50% of the fibers are activated. The ability of the body to activate these muscles is based on the reliance and coordination of the neuromuscular system that sends signals indicating the need to activate muscles. It is through the activation of these muscles that an individual is able to walk, jog or run with ease. The reliability of vibration training lies is based on the use of vibration technology; the body bypasses the neuromuscular system and pushes the body to activate 90% of the muscles. Vibration training also enables the body to retain a near-constant state of muscle contraction as the athlete uses the vibrating platform. The ability of vibration technology to push a trainee to the limit enables an individual to train harder, thus a preference among athletes.
According to Cardinale & Bosco (2003) considerations of the use of vibrations as an exercise intervention is an idea of the recent times. Prior investigation on the effectiveness of vibration revealed that they are essential for strength enhancement. The effectiveness of vibration was especially evident amongst individuals who were fit and already well trained. Athletes are individuals who train on a regular basis. Their bodies are thus well toned and used to regular exercise. The introduction of vibration exercise would further boost the athlete’s strength and fitness. According to Foster (2007) athletes have embraced vibration exercise as a reliable form of fitness and exercise despite the conflicting view over its effectiveness. Performing exercises such as lunges and squats on the vibrating platform stipulates neuromuscular activity and enhances fitness. The vibration technology is also preferred as the athlete uses less weight and power in the exercise, but still realizes its benefits. Sports professionals and collegiate athletes have adopted varying degrees of vibration platforms in their exercise platform. Unlike the traditional forms of training for athletes, vibration training is fast. For instance, if the platform is set at a frequency of 40Hz, then the leg muscles and the stabilizers will contract 40 times in a second.
Vibrating training enables a trainee to experience automatic stretch reflex that occurs between 30-70times depending on the frequency that the trainer sets. The frequencies that a trainer sets determine the strength with which the trainees muscle will tense. A high frequency will result to the muscle tensing very strongly whereas, a lower frequency will result to moderate muscle tense. The advantage of the vibration exercise is that the tensing of the muscles occurs almost unconsciously and thus can be maintained for much longer with all motor units or muscle fibers remaining active. High levels of muscle tensing cannot be maintained using the traditional methods even if 70-80% of the motor units are engaged (Luo, & Moran, 2006).
An athlete will take less time to achieve optimal fitness using vibration training compared to traditional forms of athlete training. Studies on the electromyography activity with the use of vibration training reveal that the target muscles have higher vibrations compared to voluntary contractions used in traditional resistance training. For instance, the root mean square EMG of brachii muscles is usually 200% times higher in boxers exercising using the vibrating dumb-bells compared to another boxer who engages in voluntary arm flexing as a form of exercise. The consequence of higher vibration is reduced antagonist muscle activity and higher recruitment of muscle fibers, which are all desirable outcomes for an athlete’s training program. Athletes strive to increase muscle power and the ability of the vibration technology to guarantee this means that it is the ideal platform that they should use.
Research also reveals that effective training would be one where the nervous system acts closely with the endocrine system so as to coordinate and effective training response. The nervous system controls movement through rapid electrical impulses whereas the endocrine system releases hormones to the blood. Training using vibration technology increases the release of growth hormones IGF-1 and testosterone while at the same time reducing the production of Cortisol. Growth hormone IGF-1 and testosterone are vital hormones that the body needs so as to adapt to different changes it encounters. Testosterone is an anabolic steroid hormone that interacts with skeletal muscles and contributes to cell growth. Testosterone also stimulates the secretion of GH and IGT-1.
Adequate levels of these two hormones guarantee an athlete of excellent performance and strength. Cortisol, on the other hand, is the hormone that is released to the body in response to the body’s exposure to long-term stress. Efficient production of testosterone result to inhibiting of Cortisol actions with regard to protein degradation. High levels of Cortisol in the body can be destructive to an athlete as his performance is based on his ability to succeed by putting his body through high stress levels. Training using vibration technology is thus vital for the athlete who is considered a stressed individual because of pressure to the body.
Vibration platform for exercises is also vital as it improves the athlete’s flexibility. The vibration exercise can also be manipulated in such a way that it can be used for training, during games, during workouts and after games. Trainers that are unsure of the viability of the vibration technology are using the exercise as a form of warm-up routine prior to their established strengths and conditioning workouts. The use of vibration technology for training purposes among athletes is still a long way to go. Some researchers claim that the exercise does not result to any significant effect on performance whereas; others claim to have noted some positive trends with the use of the technology. The varying findings explain the skepticism and the slow pace of the adoption of the technology. However, it is expected that the vibration technology as a training module for athletes will catch up as societies acquire better comprehension of the technology. Cochrane (2011) introduces the terms direct and indirect vibration technology and explains that the technology is in use in the health and rehabilitative fields. Direct vibration technology is applied specifically to a selected area, whereas indirect vibration therapy is generally applied to the whole body.
Regardless of the category of vibration technology adopted, the training adopted enhances muscle force, power and flexibility. Direct vibration technology reduces pain that an individual may experience as a result of the exercise. In most instances, athletes face muscles soreness after a series of intense exercise. The effectiveness of indirect vibration technology is not clear though medical researcher claims that it can alleviate muscle soreness symptoms in patients. Researchers indicate that the effectiveness of indirect vibration technology is based on the fact that the exercise warms the intramuscular muscle temperature which is essential for exercise associated rehabilitation. Indirect vibration technology has also been found to increase torque and range of motion in chronic lower back pain
Cardinale & Bosco (2003) reveal that acute enhancement of mechanical power has been noted among the elite and amateur athletes who use vibration technology. Similarly, whole body vibration implemented via vibrating plates has been found to enhance vertical jumping ability. Vibration exercise has also been found to increase mechanical power output of the legs through horizontal leg press exercises. Overall vibration exercises activate the muscle which in turn induces strength and power. The strength and power is similar to the same strength and power experienced with strength training. Vibration exercise ensures that individuals exercise with an increase in gravitational load. It is the increase in gravitational load that will lead to additional power and muscle.
Vibration exercises are also effective as they impose hyper gravity activity as a result of high accelerations. This is to say that the mechanical action of vibration results to production of fast and short changes in the length of muscle tendons during exercise. The rapid changes are detected by sensory receptors, which enhance muscles stiffness in an attempt to minimize the vibratory wave. Vibration exercise is thus a reliable technique for athletes as it enhances neuromuscular performance in athletes. Athletes require muscles and physical fitness so as to compete effectively in their specialization. Vibration exercise enhances muscle formation and strength. Mechanical vibration to the muscle or the tendon can result to a type of muscle contraction known as Tonic Vibration reflex. The tonic vibration reflex refers to the deformation of the soft tissue due to vibration. The deformation activates muscle spindles and leads to the enhancement of the stretch reflex loop. Cardinale & Bosco (2003) points out that vibration exercise is vital for sportsmen like athletes who require muscle. However, the exercise would not be suitable for the general population hence the need to determine alternative exercise options.
Wakeling (2005) reviews the aspect of the whole-body vibration in an effort to determine whether it is healthy. Wakeling (2005) states the body relates with the environment during sporting activities. It is during sporting exercises that human beings experience externally applied forces such as vibrations and oscillations. The oscillations and vibrations are felts through the tissues of the individuals. The tissue vibration occurs when the body or part of body hits an object. For instance, an athlete jogging will have his feet hit the ground several times. The effect is that impact shock that leads to tissue vibrations. The effects of the tissue vibration continue to oscillate as free vibration in the body.
According to Wakeling (2005) a continuously oscillating force drives soft tissue vibrations to have the same frequency as the input force. However, the amplitude of the vibrations is greatest hen the frequency of the tissue is close to the resonance. This means that an athlete engaging in vibration exercise will experience soft tissue vibrations whose frequency will be determined by natural frequencies. Wakeling (2005) also points that vibration as an exercise, enhances muscle activation and muscle tuning. Muscle tuning is possible as the body has its own mechanism for minimizing muscle vibrations irrespective of the input force. According to Wakeling (2005) considerations should be made on the training protocols and sporting equipment that cause alterations to muscle activity during exercise. Such considerations are vital for athlete training, rehabilitative training after the athlete suffers and injury and ensuring that the athlete boosts his competitive performance.
Hand (2009) conducts a series of tests to determine the effects of whole-body vibration training on the upper extremity. The study was conducted with consideration that vibration therapy has mainly focused on the lower extremities of an athlete than the upper extremities. The randomized trial involved 13 female student athletes with some members engaging in whole body and resistance training while other relied purely on resistance training. Hand (2009) introduces whole-body vibration (WBV) as a technology that was developed in the second half of the 20th century. The introduction of WBV was done with the expectation that the exercise will reduce bone density loss and muscle atrophy in astronauts exposed to areas with zero gravitational forces. A research study on the 13 athletes indicated no significant difference on the effects of exercise on the vibration platform. However, there was a significant effect on the Rotator cuff as it acted a stabilizer (Hardyk, 2000). It was also discovered that exposure to vibration during isometric contractions resulted to greater gains of strength. The whole-body vibration thus emerged as a precursor for multi-joint exercises.
There have been various studies that have demonstrated the numerous benefits of vibration training. Vibration training reduced training time compared to traditional training methods. Athletes can integrate vibrating training into their normal training schedule that integrates other training methods. For an athlete, vibration training is essential, but inadequate as a sole training method. Vibration training has also been found to improve strength and power in athletes. Vibration training also improves flexibility with regard to the type of training machines that an athlete can use. An athlete who relies on vibration training can use various vertical plates for training without a struggle. Vibration training also increases blood circulation and reduces the occurrence of training-related pain. Pain as a result of muscle soreness is normal for individual involved in aggressive exercise. Vibrating training has been found to be efficient in delaying the occurrence of muscle soreness that can impede effective training. As mentioned earlier, vibration training is essential for increasing essential hormones for athletes. Hormones such as IGF-1 and testosterone are essential for the efficient performance of sportsmen and athletes. Vibration training also enhances balance and coordination as the receptors and the central nervous system get to work together during and after training.
Other than the use of vibration technology for training, athletes can also use vibration technology for therapy in the quest to reduce pain and enhance performance. Hendrickx (2012) analyzes the effectiveness of the rapid release therapy (RRT). RRT is a form of vibration therapy that is used in the professional environment for the cure of pain. RRT is thus used by athletes during the management of injury, before and after workout sessions. Hendrickx (2012) analysis of literature on the use of RRT in the sports environment reveals that the use of RRT for workout warm up together with the use of the traditional form of warm-up routine resulted to enhance performance among the players that used it. Similarly, the application of the RRT application as workout recovery strategy revealed that the RRT treatment for workout recovery was highly effective. For the treatment of injury among athletes, those that used RRT for treatment purposes indicates that it was highly effective compared to other traditional treatment methods. RRT was used for the management of ailments such as pectoral strain, pectoral repair, biceps strain, triceps strain and lumbar strain.
Another advantage of vibration training is that it super compensates the body. Naturally, during movement the body gets tired, and it is only with relaxation that it recovers. With vibration training, the body is exposed to constant repetition and instead of tiring, the body adjusts and the athlete’s performance improves. Vibration training guarantees that the same super –compensation phenomenon is upheld. The main advantage with vibration training is that the training period is shorter, but the training effect and hormonal output are high. An increase in hormone balance results to an increase in the secretion of hormones essential for repair and regeneration. Body vibration as a result of vibration training results to 100% tensing of muscle fibers as a result of tonic vibration reflex. Vibration training allows the muscles to achieve maximum stretch, thus the more the muscles stretch the harder the muscle tenses.
Other than the advantages, scientists claim that some studies have revealed that the vibration technology can cause harm to the athletes and impede performance. Studies have revealed that over use of the vibration technology for the purpose of fitness can result to the long term effect of damage to the spine. Specifically, the whole-body vibration as a form of training was found to have detrimental effects of the health of the trainee. Study of subjects exposed to whole-body training revealed that they experienced pain in the jaw, neck, and lower extremities. The severity of the injury was dependent on the intensity and frequency of the exercise performed by the athletes (Duchateau, & Enoka, 2002).
Training Effects Using Vibration Technology
Numerous studies have revealed that there are various effects that arise due to the use of vibration technology for training purposes. Whereas some of the effects are immediate and felt in the short term, others are long term and have a lasting effect on the body. Athletes that use vibration training experience activation of motor units and muscle fibers. The activation is higher that what would be felt with traditional training strategies. Whole body vibration allows for muscles to be used quickly and efficiently hence produce more force that, with the use of traditional training methods. However, optimal use of muscle can only be felt if the stimulus is not too intense to the extent that it reduces performance due to fatigue (Rittweger, & Felsenberg, 2000). Whole body vibration training results to improvement of blood circulation in the body. This is a short term effect that is felt when athlete engages in training activities using vibration technology. Vibration training allows for rapid muscle contraction and relaxation at a rate of 20-50times per second allowing the body to pump more blood through the blood vessels. Biologically, the blood vessels dilate as vibration intensifies throughout the body.
Optimal performance in athletes requires that an athlete has a good heart that is able of pumping blood effectively throughout the body. The long term effects associated with the use of vibration technology for training requires that the athletes engage in exercises that expose the body to fatigue and moderate stress. The continuous exposure to fatigue and stress results to adaptation of the body hence an increase in performance. Scientific research done on amateur and professional athletes reveals that exposure to extreme training using the vibration technique results to gradual adaptation as the body gets accustomed to the stress. Vibration training has also been found to result to improved bone mineral intensity in trainees. Strong mineral intensity of the bones is vital for athletes who are mostly on the tracks. Vibration training ensures that the vibration causes compression and remodeling of the bone tissue leading to activation of cells responsible for bone building. The compressions also hinder the activity of osteoclasts i.e. the cells responsible for the breakdown of bones. Continued exercises using vibration technology stretches the muscles which in turn increase the pull of bones around the muscles. In the end, the athlete increases his bone intensity which also improves circulation leading to improved supply of nutrients through the bone tissues.
Considerations for Exercise amongst Athletes
Excellent performance is sport is determined by the intensity of the physical exercise that the individual does. Exercise requires the coordinated activation of different muscles in the body. The muscles act through the body system to provide force and power that can be translated to become skilled movement. The quantification of physical performance is indicated using international systems of measurements such as force, energy and heat. Force is defined as that which changes the state of rest of motion in an object. It is the endurance level of a trainee that determined his limits with regards to force or level of power. Power in sports is crucial for performance (Hendrickx, 2012). Athletes thus need to engage in exercises that encourage metabolic power production in the body. Optimal levels of power guarantee optimal performance in an athlete, whereas low levels of power result to limited performance. Muscle action in sportsmen arises when the force developed by the muscles interact with external forces as presented in the sporting activity that the athlete is undertaking.
Athletes must possess high levels of strength so as demonstrate their optimal performance. The term strength is used to refer to the maximum force (torque) that is developed by the muscles during performance of an action. Exercise increases the stroke volume of the athlete. Stroke volume refers to the quantity of blood that is pushed in a heartbeat. Regular exercise improves the performance of the heart and with the adoption of new technologies such as vibration training; an athlete can achieve the maximal heart rate (Donaldson, & Ross, 2006). Regular exercise among athletes leads to adaptation as the athlete’s body become tolerant to the intensity of the exercise. Traditional methods of exercising may mean that an athlete may fail to achieve the ideal stroke volume as the body has adapted to the exercise. New technologies such as vibration training ensure that the athletes heart manages to attain it maximal heart rate hence enhance performance.
Exercise is also essential as it improved the AVO2 difference. The AVO2 difference is the amount of oxygen available in the blood before and after penetration through the muscles. Exercise and training ensure that athlete’s muscles become effective at taking oxygen. An increase in AVO2 difference ultimately leads to a reduction in the heart rate as the heart is also dependant on the oxygen that the muscles are absorbing form the blood. Increasing the stroke volume through training is thus the best way to ensure that the athlete’s heart rate remains high and that the muscles absorb adequate oxygen from the blood. Exercise and training are also vital so as to increase the VO2 max (Grampp, Henk, 2001). VO2 max is the maximal oxygen that the body can partake during intense exercise and training. This is to say that an athlete who engages in intense exercise will be fit than the one who engages in moderate exercise. Subsequently, this means that the athlete engaging in intense fitness and training will uptake high levels of oxygen thus optimal performance. Adopting new technologies such as vibration training ensures that the athlete’s body is pushed to the limit hence its ability to take in high oxygen levels.
Application of Vibration Training
Vibration is a strong stimulus for musculoskeletal structures due to the muscles needs to rapidly stiffen so as to accommodate vibratory waves. The rapid stiffening of the muscles triggers specific hormones that are responses for specific responses within the body. The findings of the different research studies and application of vibration technology reveal that it can be used as an effective exercise intervention for athletes. Vibration training enhances neuromuscular performance of athletes as the nerves and muscles work in tandem to achieve the desired result (Panjabi, & White, 2001). Studies also reveal that vibration exercise is vital for reducing the effects of aging in musculoskeletal structures. Vibrating training has been found to be effective in rejuvenating bone cells hence reduce aging, which puts the athlete at risk of injuries. Vibration training has also been found to have a positive effect with regard to hormonal activity. Hormones such as Cortisol are hindered from production and functioning thus enhancing performance of the athlete.
Vibration training is an essential mode of exercise that offers a host of training benefits to users. The vibration technology has been successful in the medical field, and its introduction in the sports field is bound to result to greater benefits to sportsmen and athletes. Vibration training enhances muscle build up and stimulates the body to have more power and stamina to perform even under stressful environments. Vibration training should not be considered as a substitute resistance exercise; instead trainer should adopt it as an essential component of an already existing comprehensive training program. Vibration technology for training purposes is effective among athletes if properly used. Collegiate athletes who desire to improve their strength and performance should incorporate the vibration platform in their regular training routine. Vibration training should be done moderately to avert the risk of health complications due to excessive uses. Athletes should realize that the vibration training shakes up the entire body and for safe use, athletes should rely on the vibration platform for a maximum period of 15 minutes per day. Excessive use has been found to put athletes at risk of health problems such as hormonal imbalances, and in severe cases organ failure.
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