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Monday, 17 February 2014 18:23

Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Legalized?

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Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Legalized?


Introduction

Marriage is a union between two people that love each other. The two people intending to be joined in marriage are expected to remain committed to each other. Traditionally, it has been assumed that marriage is the union between a man and a woman based on love. The man and woman are joined in marriage so that they can grow their love, bear children and become a family. This traditional perception has, however, come under sharp criticism due to its specification of marriage in relation to a man and a woman. The modern society has seen a rise in other forms of sexual orientations: same-sex couples. Men and women are finding love and affection in individuals of the same sex. Homosexual relations have been on the rise with individual in these relations seeking to be recognized. One area that same sex couples are seeking recognition is in marriage. The traditional that marriage is between two individuals of the opposite sex should be abolished, and same sex marriage should also be recognized and legalized.


Body

Same-sex marriages should be legalized as it does not constitute any illegal practices as provided by the laws and constitutions of the country. Section 1 of the 14th amendment provides that all American citizens (by birth or naturalization) shall not be deprived any privileges, property, life or liberty without any justifiable cause. Same-sex couples comprise the large American citizen population and hence should not be denied an opportunity to happiness (Legal Information Institute, 2013). Same sex couples earn a living like any other heterosexual couples; they pay taxes and abide by the laws of the state. They should be accorded the same rights and legal protection, which includes the right to marriage. Making same sex marriages illegal will amount to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. The constitution forbids any form of discrimination against any American citizen. Same-sex couples should be permitted to enjoy their union in public like the heterosexual couples.Critics, however, argue that permitted same-sex marriage will create an opening for other unnatural sexual habits such as incest and bestiality. There are also concerns that illegal relations such as polygamy and bigamy may also become common (Allen, 2006).


 Same-sex marriage should be permitted as the traditional perception of marriage is inaccurate and past its time. Traditionally marriage was believed to be the union between a man and a woman with the intention of starting a family. This description of marriage is skewed if the rising number of single parents can be considered (Black, 2012). Today, marriage is about commitment and strong relations. Two people, who desire to live together as a couple, in-love, should be permitted to marry regardless of their sexual orientation. The purpose of marriage is no longer about child bearing and rearing a family, but about companionship and happiness.Critics of same-sex marriage have argued that legalizing this union would further destroy the institution of marriage (Gallagher, 2004). The perception of the institution of marriage revolves around religious perspective of marriage as a scared union. In Christianity, for instance, marriage is perceived as the union between a man and a woman with the purpose of procreation, rearing children and raising families. This perception is, however, one sided as people are marrying for other reasons beyond children.


same-sex marriages should be legalized so as to recognize the union as an ideal family unit for rearing of children. Same-sex couples cannot have children hence opt for adoption. There are many children that desire to be adopted, but find no families to do so. It is estimated that there are over 100000 children in foster care. Legalizing gay marriages will open up opportunities for adoption for the many children that would have otherwise, been left in foster care till adulthood (Klein, 2013). Critics argue that same sex couples should not be allowed to marry and raise children. The critics argue that children require an optimal environment of a mother and a father for normal development. There is a perception that children raised by same-sex couples have a tendency to adopt the same-sex sexual behavior as they have been raised believing it to be the ideal way of life (Rekers, 2005). Critics argue that children must be raised by father and a mother and legalizing same –sex marriage will hamper these efforts.


 Conclusion

Societies have undergone dynamic changes and what was considered abnormal in the past is now a norm. Issues such as same-sex relations and marriage were never considered in the past as the ideal family was believed to be made of a mother and a father. The rise of same-sex relations and gay marriages provides a scenario where societies have to reconsider their stand. Marriage is about love and the desire to commit to one person forever. Two men or two ladies who love each other and desire to marry should not be denied an opportunity to enjoy their happiness. Same-sex marriages should be legalized as it is not prohibited under the constitution and will create the culture of acceptance of differences in sexual orientation.


Reference

Allen, D. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/~allen/samesexmarriage.pdf

Black, B. (2012). Gay marriage: why same-sex couples should get married. Huffington post

Gallagher, M. (2004). (How) will gay marriage weaken marriage? University of St. Thomas law journal. Vol. 2(1); 33

Klein, E. (2013). Sorry Justice Scalia: there is no evidence that gay parents aren’t great parents. Washington post. March 27, 2013

Legal Information Institute (2013). Amendment XIV. Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

Rekers, G. (2005). Same-sex marriage: not in kid’s interest.  Catholic education resource center

Friday, 12 July 2013 08:46

Gasland

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Gasland


 Health and environmental concerns are becoming significant issues for the 21st century. Nations are currently, experiencing adverse environmental effects of pollution and climatic changes that result in extreme weather. Pollution and global warming are the two major causes of these problems. Currently, there are concerns about most commercial activities that negatively affect our environment. However, lot of emphasis has only been laid on industrial manufacturing activities with least regard being directed to environmentally harmful practices of mining, which are actually widespread in the United States, especially as companies gas and oil companies increase their prospecting activities.


This grim reality is what Josh Fox presents in the documentary titled “Gasland.” The 2010 production takes the viewers through challenging environmental issues which populations in gas drilling localities face (Top Documentary Films, 2011). Gasland shows how the “fracking’ the drilling technology developed by Halliburton has enabled the gas boom to sweep across the nation (Breslow, 2011).  Josh Fox would have been one among the victims swept by the wave had he not listened to his intuition to sought the truth first. In his journey through the documentary we get to learn how, the $100000 dollars for to him as a lease fee for drilling on his property would have been costly (Fox, 2010).


 It is a pity when I consider how much little Americans are offered in return for the offer of their lands and environment. The drilling corporations go a head and reap plenty, but leave behind death among the people. The resultant damage that is finally left behind after the hydraulic drilling is nothing less of “rape” to the environment at measly compensation that cannot even pay for the health damage that results from waste left behind after drilling. The sight of a flaming tap in the kitchen is indeed a threat to life and property. I was shocked to realize that gas leaks from such sources may end up in drinking and both surface and underground water sources, and this left wondering whether it would become necessary for us to check gas leaks not only on our cooking systems, but our water taps too.


         Interviewed experts of the industry within the documentary were quickly to offer alternative explanations for the gas leaks on water taps, associating them with from peat and coal within some water well. But, interestingly none of them offered an assurance that such an occurrence cannot occur due leakages from ‘fracking.’ They can defend all they can but am sure every American that watches the movie and really loves the life s/he lives and that of their family, will want nothing to do with the $100000 buy out for leases on land provided for drilling (Breslow, 2011).


              The dangers posed by this form of drilling are numerous. They include leakage of gas and the contamination of underground and surface water bodies. The chemicals used in drilling are hazardous to health and they may cause various serious health conditions such as cancer if they get into drinking water sources (Hyne, 1991). The gas leaks that migrate from the depths of the earth during drilling also lower the quality of air and pose a health challenge to people in such localities. There is also potential mishandling of waste from the drilling processes which may lead to contamination of the environment and result to the death of both human and plant life (Hyne, 1991).


            In conclusion, the possible resultant cost associated with necessary environmental clean up and loss of the value of fixed assets such as land and the degradation of the environment are not actually commensurate to the damage caused on the environment.  Despite the legislations made, the environment is still undergoing great damage and it is necessary for affirmative action to be taken on the legislative front as well as among the populace in resisting such wanton damage of the environment for the sake of satisfying a few investors at the expense of the natural well-being of the people.


 References

Breslow, S. (2011),. Gasland-Review and call for action, retrieved on 2nd May 2011 from http://www.examiner.com/movie-locations-travel-in-new-york/gasland-movie-review-and-call-to-action

Fox, J. (Director, Writer and Producer) (2010),. Gasland: Independent Pictures

Hyne, J. N. (1991),. Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling and production: Penn Well Books

Top Documentary Films (2011),. Gasland, retrieved on 2nd May 2011 from http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/gasland/


 

Friday, 12 July 2013 03:49

The Global Issue

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The Global Issue


Haiti: The Aid Dilemma


Introduction


In the consequences of Haiti earth quake, the post tragedy relief has created another kind of new trouble for businesses in Haiti. The huge influx of food aid have already changed the prices of the rice, causing delicate balances of food provide chain out of existence thus collapsing the market rice in the country. This is a kind of problem that has caused the disaster to last forever in many years. In this case the Haiti country has now become poor and has been categorized to the countries with poverty (Kirst A.K.K, 2008).


Global troubles are everyone’s troubles. These have been shown by ethical commitment to try solving people problems. Poverty can be defined as a condition where a country or citizens maintain their standard of living below their normal living. Poverty is where one does not have adequate resources, lack of enough income and wealth. People who live in poverty they are not able to cater for their health, shelter and diet. Most of the worldwide aid organizations have now tried to deliver relief that is hoped to reduce poverty.


The aid organizations are such as U.N international food programme. In the Haiti; the aid dilemma video, has indicated that it is always good for people to be given money to purchase rice rather to give them food (rice) when hungry. This idea will help to stop destroying local businesses. This issue of poverty in this country of Haiti is also compared as to other type of the industries where they have charitable donations from other nations. The pros on how international aid program give their aid is that; the aid provides opportunities of United States enterprise in times of recovery effort. They also strengthen the traditionally and humanitarian relations.


They also develop possible response for uprising problems in future. On the other hand there are main cons such as; united state investment concerning resources and capital might be stressful in domestic monetary. The efforts put by these organizations might be in risk especially the lives of their citizens to other country such as Haiti. When the organization attempts to assist Haiti may not succeed thus leading to reliance of the international help (Kirst A.K.K, 2008).


Reference


Kirst A.K.K. (2008). Human behavior, communities, organizations and groups in the macro social environment – Thomson Learning Academic resource center - USA


 

Thursday, 11 July 2013 20:15

Saudi Arabia Economy

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                                    Saudi Arabia Economy


Introduction


Saudi Arabia is an oil based economy. The government is the main control of the economic activities in the country. Saudi Arabia has 25% of the petroleum reserves in the world. It is considered the largest oil exporter in the world. In addition, Saudi Arabia plays an important role in OPEC. The economy of Saudi Arabia has grown greatly for the last few years. The Saudi Arabia government has used revenue from oil to expand its economy. The Saudi Arabian government has used the oil revenues to convert its traditional economy into an industrial economy. Though other countries have benefited a lot from oil reserves, they have not experienced good economic growth like Saudi Arabia. There are various factors that have led to good economic growth like the diversification programs. The government has created a wide range of development plans to help develop different sectors of the economy including education, investment etc. The commitment of the government in allocating funds and monitoring the plans has led to economic growth. Moreover, the involvement of Saudi Arabia in trade has resulted to growth. Saudi Arabia became a member of WTO in 2005. This paper analyzes economic growth in Saudi Arabia.


Discussion


Saudi Arabia Economy


 The petroleum sector in the country accounts for almost 45% of the revenues in the country. In addition, the petroleum sector in the country accounts for 90% of revenue derived from exports. Also, studies have shown that the petroleum economy in the country accounts for 55% of the gross domestic product in the country. The petroleum industry has employed more than 5 million foreign workers and other local workers. The workers play a crucial role in Saudi Arabia economy. The Saudi Arabian government has encouraged involvement of private sector in other sector so as to create jobs in the country. Also, the private sector is supposed to reduce the country’s dependence on oil so as to promote economic growth (Oxford business group, 2010).


At first, the Saudi Arabia economy was based on agriculture. Most of the people in the country relied on subsistence farming. The population in the country was nomadic before oil was discovered in 1930s.The country experienced rapid economic growth in 1973 as a result of oil crisis in the world. The 1973 oil crisis resulted after the organization of Arab petroleum exporting countries members established an oil embargo. The Oil embargo was in response to US action to supply the Israel military again with fighting materials. The United States government supported the Israel military during the yom Kippur war. The US actions led to oil embargo and high oil prices. In addition, the United States actionas affected supply of oil in the world and also led to recession. This forced NATO to develop strong measures to prevent the impact of US actions on the oil supply and avoid recession. As a result, most of the countries from Europe and Japan moved away from the US Middle East policy (Oxford business group, 2010).


Most of the Arab oil producers associated the end of embargo with peace efforts in the Middle East. They argued that the United States government attained its objectives by creating peace in the Middle East. This further complicated the situation in the country. Most of the regions like Saudi Arabia benefited a lot from the oil crisis experienced in 1973. This is because the countries were able to expand their economies. The Saudi Arabian government took advantage of the oil crisis in the country and established its economy. The oil producers in the world increased the process of oil due to the crisis. This in turn increased revenues from oil and hence encouraged economic growth (Federal research division, 2004).


The oil crisis experienced in the country in 1973 led to rapid economic growth in the country and also increased the gross domestic product per capital. The GPD per capita increased by 1,858%. The gross domestic product declined in 1980s. The GPD in the country reduced by 58% in 1980s and this resulted to slow economic growth in the country.As a result, the government developed policies to encourage diversification in Saudi Arabia. The diversification helped boost economic growth in the country. The Saudi Arabia government developed two development plans in 1970s. The development plans focused on the development of infrastructure. The number of roads paved increased by 28.The third development plan covered 1980 to 1985.  The third development plan focused on education, health and social services. Though the government spent a lot of money improving the productive sectors of the economy, it did not achieve its objective as stated. This affected the growth of the economy badly as it slowed economic development in the country (Federal research division, 2004).


The fourth development plan covered 1985 to 1990. The development plan was aimed at transforming the economy in the country by encouraging the private sector to work with the public sector. The infrastructure in the country was well developed, but education and training were not developed. This forced the government to find ways to transform the education sector and other sectors. The government encouraged the private firms to contribute to the development of basic areas of the economy like education. In addition, the government promoted foreign investment. Joint ventures between the Saudi public and private firms were promoted so as to enhance economic growth in the country. The private sector contributed a lot to the development of the economy of Saudi Arabia. The private sector contributed  70% of the  country’s  GPD  derived  from other  sectors  apart from oil  in 1987.At first, the  private sector  focused  on trade, commerce  and investment, but later  spread  to other sectors.


For example, the private sector covered agriculture, banking and construction firms. The government funded private investment in different parts of the country. The government wanted the private sector to own more than 70% in the joint venture enterprises. Apart from the second and third development plan, the government established other plans. For example, the government established a 5 year development plans. The government decided to allocate revenues from petroleum to economic growth. The income was used to transform the oil based economy to a modern industrial economy. The government maintained the Islamic values and customs while developing the economy (Kogan page, 2004).


The fifth development plan has also contributed a lot to economic development in the country. The plan covered 1990 to 1995. The fifth plan focused on improving defense in the country. It also concentrated on improving government social services, regional development employment in the private sector. The creation of employment opportunities in the private sector helped reduce the number of foreign workers who worked in the country. This in turn helped increase the gross domestic product and led to economic growth.


Moreover, the government established a development plan in 1996 to help reduce the cost of government services. The plan lasted for 4 years. The plan reduced the cost of government services and improved education in the country. The government argued that the plan will help reduce dependence on oil by diversifying the economic activity in the country. The government helped diversity economic activities in the private sector including industry and agriculture. Like the  sixth plan, the  seventh plan  was aimed  at  diversifying the economic and also improving the  role of  private sector in  Saudi Arabia  economy. The Saudi Arabia government aimed to achieve a gross domestic growth rate of 3.16% per year from 2000 to 2004. The growth for the private sector was about 5.04% and the non oil sector was 4.00 %. In 2007, the non oil manufacturing activities in the country accounted for almost 9% of the gross domestic product in the country. The non oil manufacturing accounted for 5% of the employment in the country (Kogan page, 2004).


Though the government has not achieved the economic growth set, the country’s econmy has progressed well. The economic growth in the country has improved greatly due to the development plans established by the government. The production of oil in the country has improved the living standards of most people in Saudi Arabia. The population growth in the country has increased greatly and this has affected the government negatively. The government is not able to improve the living standards in the country due to financial difficulties and high population growth. Though Saudi Arabia depends mostly on oil, it also depends on other sectors like agriculture and industry. The industry and agriculture account for a large percentage of economic activity in the country. The diversification plans established by the government accounted for 20% of GPD in the country (Kogan page, 2004).


The gross domestic product for the last few years is as follows. The gross domestic   product in 1970 was 22,565. In addition, the gross domestic product in 1975 and 1980 was 163,670 and 546, 602 respectively. The gross domestic product in the country improved greatly between 1975 and 1980 due to the diversification program in the country. Moreover, the gross domestic product in 1985 and 1990 was 375,328 and 437, 333. The gross domestic product declined in 1985 from1980 due to poor productivity in the country. The rate of inflation in the country in 1980 was 94 and in 1985 it was 91. The rate of inflation decreased in 1990 to 90 but it increased   in 1995, 2000 and 2005. The rate of inflation in 1995, 2000 and 2005 was almost 102, 101 and 100 respectively. The gross domestic product in 1995, 2000 and 2005 was 535, 504, 707, 657 and 1,151 600 respectively. The gross domestic product in the country increased from 1995. The  country  recorded  a  high  growth  rate  on 2005  as evidenced by the  high  rate of GPD (Kogan page, 2004).


During the oil price increase in 2004 and 2008, the Saudi Arabia had enough oil reserves   to overcome the global crisis. The government managed to make large profits from the 2004 -2008 increase in oil prices.  The increase in oil prices during this time led to increase in the rate of gross domestic product in the country. This in turn led to economic growth in the country as the government was able to fund a lot of economic projects and hence stimulate economic growth. However, the reduction in oil prices in 2009 had a negative impact on economic growth in the country. This is because it resulted to slow economic growth in the country.


The reduction in oil prices affected exports of oil in the country. The Saudi Arabian companies were not able to export oil to other parts of the world due to low prices. This in turn reduced the revenue gotten from oil exports and   hence affected economic projects. The reduction in oil prices in the country forced the government to post phone some of the economic development projects. This affected economic growth in the country. Apart from cutting funding on several projects, the government took other actions. For example, the government started to direct capital to financial institutions. This was aimed at facilitating economic growth in the country. Providing capital to financial institutions could help cater for financial needs in the country and hence lead to economic growth.


The government also reduced the rates in financial institutions to stimulate investments in the country and growth. The high rates in the banking institutions affected investments. This is because most people were not willing to invest in the country due to high rates. Thus, this led to slow economic growth.Apart from reducing the rates, it also guaranteed bank deposits so as to boost investments and promote economic growth. Saudi Arabia was ranked the strongest economy in the Arab region in 2009. This is according to a report released by World Bank. The purchasing power parity in the country was 3.75 compared to US dollar.


The gross domestic product in 2009 was almost $592.885 billion. This made the country to be ranked 22nd in the world interns of purchasing power parity. The country was ranked 23 rd in the world in terms of nominal having a domestic gross product of almost $469.425 billion. The gross domestic product growth in the country was -0.6%The  gross domestic  product  was  affected  by the reduction in oil  prices  and  this  led  to reduction. The GPD  per capital in the country in 2009  was  almost $23, 814  and  the  country  was  categorized 38 in the world  in terms  of purchasing power parity. Different sectors in the country contributed to economic growth in 2009.


The agricultural sector accounted for 3.2% of the gross domestic product in 2009. In addition, the industrial sector contributed 60.4% of the gross domestic sector while the service industry contributed 36.4%.The inflation rate in the country in 2009 was 5%.  The World Bank report showed that Saudi Arabia offered good investment opportunities in the world. Most of the industries in the country encouraged foreign investment.  The country was ranked 11th in the world as people found it easy to do business in different industries in the country (Cordesman 2003).


The strong economic growth in the country is as a result of trading with other countries. Saudi Arabia joined the world trade organization so as to boost economic growth in the country and trade. The country increased access to foreign goods and services after joining the world trade organizations. The government created the “Saudi Arabian general investment authority” in 2000 to promote foreign direct investment. The country has been able to trade with other countries in the world including United States, UK. Saudi Arabia has exported petroleum and petroleum products to different countries. It has also imported goods and labor from different parts of the world. Though the country opened some sectors after joining WTO in 2005, the country prevents foreign investment in other sectors. For  example, Saudi  Arabia  has  prevented  forewing  direct  investment  in  telecommunication  industries and  insurance  industry. In addition, the government has prevented foreign investment in power transmission industries (Cordesman 2003).


The country was ranked 13th in the world as economists and researchers considered it to be one of the most economically competitive nations in the world. This is according to world bank report on doing business released in 2010.The report showed the  rapid  economic growth in the middle east countries. For example, the report highlighted the tremendous economic growth in Saudi Arabia. The reporters associated the rapid economic growth in the country with the reforms in the economic sector. The country has improved its ability to do business since 2004. The improvement is linked with numerous policies and reforms in the country. The Saudi Arabian government has developed various policy reforms that are aimed at facilitating entrepreneurship. Most of the companies in the country have been doing well and have been ranked among the top 100 companies in the world (Cordesman 2003).


The government has given diversification of the economy top priority. This is to ensure the government does not only rely on oil. The diversification program will help enhance foreign direct investment in the country. This will in turn help boost economic development in the country. The oil income accounts for 80% of the government income. The oil revenue and contribution to gross domestic product reduced in 2009 by 48%. The   efforts to reduce reliance on oil have proved effective for the last few years as the government has managed to establish other sectors. The efforts are expected to bear more fruits in future after the diversification of the economy. Saudi Arabia has led Arab peninsula in promoting foreign direct investment in the country. The country continues to be the strongest economy in the gulf region. The foreign direct investment will help strengthen the economy. The income from foreign directed investment in 2009 dropped. The nominal gross domestic product rose from 8.0% to 9.4% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The foreign direct investment flows are expected to improve in 2011 and hence lead to good economic growth (Cordesman 2003).


Further, the rapid economic growth in the country is as a result of government commitment in enhancing economic growth. The government has been committed to promote economic growth in the country by providing counter measures when crisis arise. This has shown expansion of the Saudi Arabia economy. The Saudi  Arabian government  remained  committed  to  achieving  economic growth  even during  the  time of  global crisis. The government established different development plans as stated above to facilitate growth in the country. The government improved its spending for the next five years in 2010-2014 development plans. The spending increased by 67.2%. The   government argued that the increase in government spending by 16.0% was aimed at enhancing development. The government projected the spending to increase in 2011 by 2011. The commitment in spending has made it easy for the country to develop economic development projects. The country has been able to fund different types of economic development projects in different sectors. This has helped diversify the economic activities in the country (Wilson 2004).


The development plans have been effective in promoting economic growth unlike plans in other countries. Most of the countries have established plans to help them improve their economies, but they have not been effective. This is because of lack of funds and commitment. The  governments  in such countries  do not  allocate  enough  funds  for the development  plans  and  this   has made it  hard to carry out the projects. On the other hand, the Saudi Arabian government has allocated adequate funds for the economic projects in the country. Additionally, the development plans in the countries do not succeed because of lack of commitment. Most of the governments are not committed to funding the projects and implementing the plans established. This has in turn led to slow development in the countries. The Saudi Arabian government has been committed to fund the plans and implement them as stated earlier. This has led to good economic growth in the country (Wilson 2004).


The ninth development plan covers 2010 to 2014 and it is one of five year plans in a series of strategies aimed at attaining socioeconomic vision by 2024. The country is committed to changing its economy and social settings by 2024. Development plans created in the country for the last few decades have been effective. This is because the plans have helped attain development in different sectors of the economy. This has helped strengthen the economic structures in the country. The economic growth in the country has improved greatly from 1970 to 2010(Wilson 2004).


Though the economy experienced a slow down in 2008 and 2009 during the economic recession in the world, it will continue to grow. The economic recession in the world affected different economies in different countries. The economic crisis in the world affected major sectors of the economy like agriculture, housing etc. This led to slow economic growth in the world.Like other countries; Saudi Arabian was also affected by the global crisis. The main sectors in the country like oil were affected and this lowered the GPD. The Ninth development plan will help attain a gross domestic product of 5.2%. This will increase economic output in the country. The economic output in the country in 2009 was 293.6 billion USD. The economic output in 2014 will be 293.6 billion USD (Wilson 2004).


The government has allocated enough money to human resource development in the country. The human resource development in the country is made up of education development. The government has allocated enough funds to help boost education in the country and science and technology. The development plan has encouraged the private sector to develop more schools in the country. This will help boost the number of schools in the country to 15% by 2014. This move is aimed at developing knowledge economy. In addition, the development plan is also aimed at improving technology in the country so as to enhance development. The government has established 25 technological research institutes and facilities. The institutes and facilities will help produce works having the right knowledge in technology and hence be able to apply technology in the economy. This will help  boost  employment  in the  country  as most of the  graduates will be able  to  get jobs . The improvement in education system is important as it will help the country not rely on foreign workers. The country will be able to produce qualified workers by 2014.Hence; this will ensure good economic growth by 2014 (Ramady 2010).


Though the country has experienced good economic growth, the growth in the country is hindered by various factors. First, the economic growth in the country is hindered by the work force. The total number of employees in Saudi Arabia is 6.922 million. 80% of the employees in the country are immigrants. The country relies mostly on workers from other countries. This is because it is not able to produce qualified and experienced workers like other country. The education system in the country has not been effective as this has led to poor performance of employees. Most of the graduates in the country are not able to work in the private sector. This is because they do not have adequate skills. The kind of skills that the graduates have is not inline with the demands of the private sector. 


Lack of qualified graduates to work in the private sector has affected economic growth in the country. This is because it has affected diversification of the economy and development. The private sector has employed more than 4.6 million employees from other countries. The government established the diversification programs to help improve the sector by diversifying it and creating employment opportunities. However, the government has not been able to create jobs in the private sector as the graduates in the country do not get employment. The rate of unemployment in the country has increased greatly for the last few years. This is mainly due to lack of employment opportunities. The rate of unemployment in 2009 was 11.6%.The rate of unemployment in the country in 2009 was higher than the previous years (Ramady 2010).


Countries that have qualified and experienced workforce have performed well. The countries have recorded good economic growth. This is because the workers contribute to the development of the economy positively. In addition, the government does not rely on foreign workers to work in various sectors in the country. This has increased productivity in the country and gross domestic product. It has also helped improve the rate of  unemployment in the country. This is because most people in the country are able to get employment. The Saudi Arabian government should improve its education system so as to be able to perform well.The government should ensure the graduates in the country are able to work in different sectors in the country. This will help increase productivity and performance of various sectors of the economy and thus improve economic growth. It will also improve the gross domestic product and reduce dependency on foreign workers. This will ensure enough income flow in the country (Ramady 2010).


Conclusion


Saudi Arabia is considered one of the largest economies in the world and in Arab region. The country has experienced rapid economic growth for the last few years. The growth is as a result of various factors. First, the rapid economic growth in the country is as a result of the diversification program established by the government. The Saudi Arabian government created a diversifaction program that is made up of various development plans. The government established development plans in 1970 to help improve economic growth in the country.


The government also established economic development plans from 1970 to 2005 to help enhance the economic growth in the country. The plans helped improve infrastructure in the country. The plans have also helped develop various sectors in the country. For example, it helped improve the education sector, agricultural sector and other sectors. The development plans proved effective as the country registered good economic growth. In addition, the 2010-2014 development plans will help improve the economy by encouraging foreign direct investment and enhancing education in the country.


The 2010-2014 development plan has given priority to education so as to equip graduates with the right knowledge and reduce dependencies on foreign workers. The economic development in the country is due to government commitment. The government has been committed to enhance economic growth by allocating enough funds and supporting the plans. The economic growth also resulted from the oil crisis experienced in 1973. The Arabian government took advantage of the increase in oil prices to boost its economy. The Economy is expected to grow in future.


 Reference


 Cordesman,A.H.Saudi Arabia Enters the Twenty-first Century. The political, foreign policy, economic, and energy dimensions. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003

Federal research division. Saudi Arabia A Country Study. Kessinger Publishing, 2004

Kogan page. Middle East Review. Kogan Page Publishers, 2004

Ramady, M.A.The Saudi Arabian Economy: Policies, Achievements, and Challenges. Springer, 2010

Oxford business group. The Report. Saudi Arabia 2010. Oxford Business Group,2010

Wilson, R. Economic development in Saudi Arabia. Routledge, 2004


 

 

 

 

Offshore Drilling: An Analysis and the Risks and Rewards of Offshore Drilling


Introduction

Offshore drilling refers to the discovery of oil and gas resources that are found in the ocean bed. The term is mainly used to refer to extraction of oil off the coastal regions of various countries. It can also be used to refer to extraction of oil in the lakes and in land seas. Most countries have established offshore drilling along coastal areas. This is because the countries want to utilize oil and gas resources found in the regions. Off shore drilling has become a common practice in many countries that produce oil and gas like America. Off shore drilling has adverse effects on the environment and human beings.   It causes environmental degradation, death and diseases to human beings. Many countries like America have experienced the effects of offshore drilling. This is as a result of oil spills in the country. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of offshore drilling.


 Advantages and disadvantages of offshore drilling

Most countries have established offshore drilling in the coastal regions. Offshore drilling is used to extract oil and gas from oceans, lakes or seas. Most oil and gas resources are found under waters and countries rely on offshore to extract the resources. Offshore drilling has become major issue in many countries. This is because of the negative effects caused by offshore drilling. Most countries have experienced oil spills that result from offshore drilling. Though offshore drilling has negative effects on the environment and human beings, most countries still support the practice. For example, countries producing oil and gas encourage offshore drilling as oil and gas contribute a lot to the countries economy. Most people think offshore drilling has more harm to the environment and human beings than benefits. This is because of the oil spill and the effects caused by oil spills. Others think that offshore drilling has more advantages than harm (International debate education association &Trapp 2009).


 Though of shore drilling has several disadvantages, it has some advantages. Offshore drilling is important in any country as it helps create employment opportunity. Most people are employed in oil companies. Most oil companies have employed a large percentage of the population. The workers carry out various tasks in the organization. The increase in employment rate in the countries has reduced other problems in the society (International debate education association &Trapp 2009).


 For example, it has reduced the unemployment rate in the society as most youths are able to work in the oil company. In addition, offshore drilling has helped eliminate crimes in the society. This is because most youth and adults have found employment opportunities in the country. Obama plans to lift the ban on offshore drilling so as to create employment opportunities for the youth. The president believes that creating employment opportunities for the youth will help eliminate social problems in the country. Countries that have created employment opportunities for the citizens have had low rates of crime (Mignone 2008).


 Apart from creating employment opportunities, off shore drilling contributes a lot to the countries Gross domestic product. Oil producing countries have experienced high GDP as a result of oil and gas production (Gulf news 2010). The oils and gas contribute 20% of the GDP in the country. The United States president plans to lift the ban on offshore drilling so as to encourage economic growth. Most people argue that offshore drilling allows countries to have good economic growth as it acts as a source of revenue. Offshore drilling sustains various industries in the country. For example, offshore drilling relies on other industries like motor industry for supply of automotive. It also relies on insurance industry for supply of insurance covers. Energy industry helps supply products made from crude oil and gas. The industries in turn contribute to the countries GDP. Thus, the offshore drilling helps stimulate economic growth in the country (Gulf news 2010).


 Although offshore drilling has some advantages, off drilling has negative impact on the environment and human beings. People argue that offshore drilling should not be encouraged as it has a lot of disadvantages. Offshore drilling has led to increase the rate of oil spills. Oil spills occur when tankers or pipes used to transport oil from the ocean bed to the offshore burst. America has experienced a large number of oil spills like the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and Gulf Mexico oil spill (Mignone 2008). Encouraging offshore drilling will increase the rate of oil spills and the impact. The oil spills have caused a lot of harm to the environment. For example, the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused a lot of damage to the environment.


First, the oil spill led to death of wildlife. A large number of wildlife died immediately after the oil spill. This is because the animals were unable to cope with the environment. For example, the sea ducks, mammals and fish died as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The animals fed on contaminated food and water. This led to death and decrease in the population. Environmentalists in Alaska claimed that the number of wildlife in region reduced drastically as they experienced high death rates. Other animals moved from the region to other areas. Legalizing offshore drilling will led to increase in destruction of wildlife and their habitats (Broder 2010).


 Additionally, the oil spill destroyed the habitats for sea animals and wildlife. Sea animals died as the oil spill deprived them basic needs like food, air and water. This in turn led to death of the sea animals and birds. The oil clogged birds’ feathers and made it difficulty for the birds to insulate themselves (Broder 2010).


 Others argue that offshore drilling causes diseases to people living near mining areas. It causes reparatory diseases as oil and gases contain harmful chemicals. People living near drilling areas have complained of increase in the rate of disease in the region. This has led to high deaths in the region. Also, offshore drilling leads to air pollution and water pollution. Oil producing companies do not take safety precautions when drilling oil and gas and transporting them. The companies do not dispose waste products well. This leads increase in the rate of water pollution and air pollution. Offshore drilling is the major cause of water pollution through oil spills. The recent oil spill in Gulf Mexico and Exxon Valdez caused water pollution and death of water animals. The oil spills killed a large number of people. Hence, offshore drilling has negative effects to human beings and animals (Broder 2010).


 Moreover, most people claim that offshore drilling has caused global warming. Offshore drilling involves extraction of oil and gas and they contain harmful gases. Crude oil contains harmful gases like methane and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide and methane are the major cause of green house effect. The amount of green house gases in the atmosphere has increased as a result of offshore drilling. Environmentalist and scientist argue that carbon dioxide and methane are responsible for 80% of green house effect and America is responsible for 90% of global warming. This is because of the offshore drilling in the country. There are various sources of oil and gases in America. Examples of the oil centers are Alaska and Gulf of Mexico. Scientists claim that the amount of carbon dioxide and methane are likely to increase if the government allows offshore drilling (Broder 2010).


 Because of the problems caused by offshore drilling, the government should not encourage offshore drilling. This will make it easy for the government to overcome some of the environmental problems. The government will be able to overcome problems caused by oil spill and global warming. Hence, offshore drilling has many disadvantages than the advantages as it causes economic loses to the government. Most governments like United States government have spent a lot of money cleaning oil spills. For example, the Exxon Valdez oil spill is still been cleaned today and the effects are still being felt. The government has also spent a lot of money rehabilitating and recovering wildlife on the regions affected. For instance, the government has spent a lot of money rehabilitating wildlife in Alaska (Political Buzz examiner 2009).


 Lastly, people claim that offshore drilling will force the government to spend a lot of money. Offshore drilling requires a lot of funds to extract oil and gas from the ocean bed. This will make it difficulty for the government to allocate funds to other sectors. Also, the government will not be able to find alternative sources of energy. This will lead to more problems in the country than benefits. It will lead to slow economic growth in the country. Working environment will not be fit for workers as the products are risk and the working environment. It will increase the rate of deaths in the country (Political Buzz examiner 2009).


 Conclusion

Offshore drilling is an important activity in the country as it helps countries extract oil and gas. Most countries have established offshore drilling so as to utilize oil and gas resources. The United States president wants to lift the ban on offshore drilling so as to help the country recover from the current economic crisis and create employment. Though, offshore drilling has effects on the environment and human beings, some countries still support the practice as it has some advantages. Offshore drilling helps create employment opportunities and improve the economy. Most oil companies have employed a large percentage of youths and adults in the industries.


This has helped eliminate social problems in the society. It has reduced crime in the society. Also, offshore drilling contributed to economic growth. Energy industry relies on other industry to extract oil and gas. It depends on equipment supply and finances from other industries like automobile and insurance industry. Offshore drilling should not be encouraged as it has effects on the environment and human beings. Offshore drilling has led to increase in oil spills. The oil spills have affected wildlife and human beings. They have caused death and decrease in number of wildlife in the country. Also, offshore drilling is the major cause of global warming and air and water pollution.


 Reference

Broder, J.M., Krauss, C.Risk Is Clear in Drilling; Payoff Isn’t. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/01/business/energy-environment/01drill.html?_r=1 on 29/07/2010

Gulf news. Americans debate pros and cons of offshore drilling.2010.Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/business/opinion/americans-debate-pros-and-cons-of-offshore-drilling-1.118235

On 29/07/2010.

International debate education association., &Trapp,R.The debatabase book: a must-have guide for successful debate. IDEA, 2009

Mignone, B.K. Drilling Our Way to the Future.2008.Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2008/0924_offshore_drilling_mignone.aspx?p=1

On 29/07/2010.

Political Buzz examiner. An analysis and the risks and rewards of offshore drilling.2009.Retrivied from http://www.examiner.com/x-5738-Political-Buzz-Examiner~y2010m5d2-An-analysis-and-the-risks-and-rewards-of-offshore-drilling

On 29/07/2010.


 

Thursday, 07 June 2012 06:13

Religious Methods in Healthcare Ethics

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Religious Methods in Healthcare Ethics


Introduction

The value of theology as far as human dignity is concerned is extremely immense and it largely hinges on God’s creation. Religion plays an important role in healthcare in that most patients attach enormous connection between physical illness and spirituality. Various religions such as Jews and Catholics have principles that they have established with regard to healthcare; this implies that religions have expectations that they have in so far as how they should be treated, what techniques should be used and the extent to which various types of medications should be used. For instance, the Roman Catholics have very stringent healthcare principles that guide or regulate the use of family planning methods.                                                                                      


Healthcare ethics is a practice that heavily borrows from other disciplines and theology is not an exception. This therefore implies that healthcare practitioners must always carefully consider religious and spiritual aspects as they go about their day to day duties of administering treatment and healthcare to human beings.                                            
The attachment put on religious methods and principles in healthcare ethics by most people is an issue that cannot be underestimated; this research paper seeks to evaluate and provide an analysis of religious approaches as distinct methods in healthcare ethics. The main goal is to describe how religious factors influence the practice of healthcare ethics and focus will mainly be shifted towards the Jewish and Roman Catholic religions.

Thesis

Religious principles form a crucial part of the practice of healthcare ethics


Chapter 1

The Natural Law

According to the definition provided by Aquinas, natural law entails the approach in which intelligent creatures of God share in the eternal law. Eternity among the Christian circles is a terminology that is used to refer to the firm belief that believers will live forever once they pass on from earthly life [2] Page 27. The theological principle of natural law is widely used by Roman Catholics and typical theologians from this religion subscribe to the principles outlined by natural law. Natural law stipulates that individuals determine what is appropriate or inappropriate by way of reasoning rationally and evaluating the lessons derived from real life situations [1] Page 89.                                                         


According to the natural law, judgments that are made in an ethical manner have real meaning and in order to verify them, one must closely evaluate actual ethical reality. According to the Roman Catholics, any action that is done in a manner that beats natural purpose is deemed as being unnatural and thus theologically not acceptable. Natural law as far as ethics is concerned can be viewed from two main perspectives; from a reasoning approach and natural law as prescribed by the values of nature [2] Page 26.                                                                                       
All of God’s creations have different purposes and His intention is to have these creations fulfilling these specific purposes. For human beings, God’s most intelligent creation, their purpose is to procreate and participate in active and regular communion with God. Furthermore, God’s purpose for human beings is for them to ensure self-preservation. As God’s most intelligent creation, man also has the mandate to differentiate between good and evil by using simple reasoning.

The theological principles of natural law further stipulate that God’s intention for human being is for him to fulfill his purpose without interfering with his very well-being [1] page 93. Most Roman Catholics agree that a moral norm should at the very least hold for all and sundry; this in essence means that any given moral norm should be considered as being legitimate only if it is acceptable among people from all parts of the world. The Roman Catholics further argue that moral norms are subject to change since they are evolutionary in nature [1] Page 88. The ethical connection or linkage that exists between human being and the very environment in which he exists in is considered as being of greater magnitude as compared to the ethical correlations between humans themselves.                                                                                                                               


This then points to the physical and biological aspects of natural law; man should not act in a manner that violates nature which is God’s own creation. Failure to adhere to this accordingly is tantamount to sinful conduct in the eyes of God [2] Page 30. Application of natural law in healthcare ethics is widespread in the entire world; to begin with, a healthcare practitioner cannot act in a manner that jeopardizes the firm spiritual beliefs of a patient.                                                       
This is because such an approach would be tantamount to sin and thus a gross violation of God’s intentions for human beings. According to the theological principles stipulated in the natural law, God’s has a purpose for each and every individual and as such, a healthcare practitioner should no act in a manner that puts the very existence of individuals at risk.

The Human Person as God’s Image

All Christians have a very firm belief that human beings have been created in God’s own image; this consequently makes man to be the most important creation of God. The Holy Bible, particularly the Book of Genesis, has hugely emphasized on the significance of God’s creation and its divine stature. However, Roman Catholics have asserted the fact that even though we have been created in God’s own likeness and image; this doesn’t imply that we are His photocopies [1] Page 12.                                                                                                                  


Theologians continue to emphasize this stance by elaborating how perfect, righteous and unchanging God is as compared to the earthly man who is characterized by a sinful nature. What has made man so similar to God is that he dominates the rest of creation; this implies that he exercises authority over the rest of the world. The significance of this doctrine to healthcare ethics is quite immense; firstly, man to some extent is depicted as a co-creator of some sorts even though not in the magnitude of God. This in turn means that man must always act in a manner that will fulfill God’s intention for his creation [2] Page 44.                                                                                   
The Jews are very categorical as far as man’s domination over the rest of the world’s creation; they have clearly outlined that man should act in such a way that he becomes demeaning to nature. Were man to act in an unlimited manner towards nature, this would culminate into hazardous impacts to even man himself [1] Page 20. As such, man’s role is stewardship and thus we are mere caretakers of God’s creation. When administering treatment to patients, healthcare practitioners must always observe this glorious role entrusted to man by God; to fulfill His intentions for all His creation [1] Page 15.

Rules and General values

In Catholicism and Judaism, the interaction of human well-being, ethical principles and general moral values is an underlying issue. Many theologians consider basic norms as forming the main pillar in ethical considerations. Among other thinkers, it is accepted that authority in decision making should be employed when it comes to determination of various moral values while also applying the principles of natural law. The utilization of general values in making ethical judgments or decisions is quite evident throughout the practice of healthcare. For instance, when determining whether aborting is appropriate or not, some general values have to be considered [2] Page 54.


Chapter 2

The Principle Of Double Effect

Purportedly, the main goal of the principle of double effect is to provide the relevant direction in instances when an action has the capacity of producing two distinct end-results; one negative result and a positive effect [1] Page 108. In essence therefore, the principle of double effect is primarily intended to guide the process of decision making in instances where an action is neither completely right nor completely wrong.                                      


 In issues or actions that have outright beneficial effects, chances of disputes arising are basically non-existent; equally, actions that are likely to generate total adverse effects seldom create any kind of controversy. In both of these circumstances, the principle of double effects cannot hold; there must be an element of both right and wrong [2] Page 30.      
Abortion is an exemplary example of a practice in healthcare ethics that perfectly applies to the principle of double effects. This is because two contradicting consequences result from this kind of action; it causes death of the unborn child (negative or undesirable effect) and also can save the pregnant mother from death (positive or desirable effect) [1] Page 112. Another good example that applies to the principle of double effects as far as the practice of homecare ethics is concerned is whereby a pregnant woman is diagnosed with uterine cancer. In order to treat this kind of health complication effectively, the woman must be subjected to hysterectomy. This will consequently generate two end-results; the unborn infant will succumb to death while the woman’s life will end up being saved [2] page 32.

Conditions under which an action with positive and negative effects is done

According to the principle of double effects, an action that has both adverse and beneficial effects should be considered as being permissible only if it meets certain conditions that have bee highlighted below.


  1. a) The act mustn’t be morally wrong

This is the first condition that must be fulfilled in order to ascertain that an action is permissible. It stipulates that a given action should not be totally wrong beginning from the very onset. If the action is fundamentally wrong, all the consequences and circumstances not withstanding, the action is considered as being impermissible.                                                                                      


This condition heavily borrows from the principles of deontology which are primarily based on rules and obligations. A good practical example that describes this condition with regard to healthcare ethics is an instance in which a childless couple visits the physician in an attempt to get help in getting a child. The requirements of clinical practice provide that the man must produce a sperm so as the physician can ascertain who’s infertile [1] Page 117. However, in order for the man to produce sperm for analysis, he needs to masturbate. This is an act that is forbidden by the catholic medical ethics and is therefore impermissible. Even if the action has an element of benefits in that the physician will manage to make a comprehensive analysis, the act in itself is morally inappropriate [1] Page 108.
  1. b) The beneficial effect must not result from the negative effect

This is the second condition that guides the principle of double effect; it relates the causal chain and requires that a beneficial effect must not be derived from an effect that is deemed as undesirable. There are three main approaches to this particular condition of the principle of double effects; first and foremost, the action can result to a wrong effect which in turn produces the beneficial effect. This approach is considered as being unacceptable due to the fact that it doesn’t meet the requirements of this condition. Secondly, an action can result to two types of effects both of which are either desirable or negative effects but are not interconnected; this approach is acceptable based on the second condition of the principle of double effect. Finally, an action can initially cause a desirable effect which in turn causes bad effect; this is also acceptable since it meets the requirements of the second condition of the principle of double effect.


  1. c) The negative effect must not be intentionally intended by the agent.

This condition of the principle of double effect is strongly accepted by moralists from the Roman Catholic Religion and even philosophers from the discipline of deontology. This condition hinges on the concept of intentionality in that an action should not be carried out with the purpose of causing an undesirable effect [1] Page 110.


  1. d) The beneficial result must be greater than the bad impact

This condition is an excellent basis for forming conclusions with regard to the permissibility or impermissibility of actions. Roman Catholic ethicists agree that in order for an action to be permissible, the overall benefits must outweigh the expected adverse effects; however, some opponents suggest that it is practically impossible to provide a measure between the gains and harmful effects of an action.


Direct and Indirect

The two terms i.e. direct and indirect are applied to actions when they are approached from the perspective of the principle of double effect. An action can be regarded as direct if it fails to meet the conditions for the principle of double effect as stipulated above; direct actions are thus impermissible [1] Page 115. On the other hand, indirect actions are those that meet the conditions stipulated by the principle of double effect; an indirect action is therefore permissible.


The directness or indirectness of actions is largely based on the first two conditions of the principle of double effect or even in some cases, all of them. A good example with regard to directness or indirectness of actions as far as the practice of healthcare ethics is concerned is the process of abortion. An abortion can be direct or indirect; it is regarded as direct when the woman commits the action with the sole intention of getting rid of the unborn foetus. In this instance, the action is direct and thus it fails to meet the conditions of the principle of double effect. On the other hand, abortion can be indirect and thus right when it is intended to save a woman’s life. The death of the unborn infant will be foreseen but in this case it won’t qualify as being intentional [1] Page 113.

Chapter 3

Euthanasia

Euthanasia refers to a medical procedure that is performed on an individual so as to save him or her from pain, suffering and complicated health conditions by aiding his or her death [1] Page 134. Even though Jewish and Roman Catholic ethicists tend to generally agree on numerous aspects with regard to God’s intention and purpose for human being, the two religions tend to differ in the approaches that they employ while handling the issue of euthanasia and/or assisted suicide [2] Page 64.                                                                                                                                                 


 Whereas the Roman Catholics tend to borrow a lot from natural law, the Jewish religion tends to base its reasoning and rationale upon traditional beliefs on moral ethics. The Jews also borrow a lot from textual sources as evident among a host of Jewish literature. The issue of euthanasia can broadly be evaluated from two main perspectives; opponents and proponents [2] Page 65. This is due to the fact that there has been widespread debate on this issue over the years; for instance, on whether to legalize assisted suicide or not. Debate has also predominantly revolved around the morality aspects of the practice of euthanasia in healthcare ethics.

Opposition towards Euthanasia

Among some Jewish and Roman Catholics, opposition towards euthanasia is fundamentally based on the reasoning that it is a gross violation of both human and divinity laws. Throughout the Biblical Books of Exodus and even Genesis, God’s stance regarding the unacceptability of killing under any given circumstances has been described [2] Page 65. Among the Catholic and Jewish opponents, there exists a category that opposes euthanasia and assisted suicide based on the traditional principles that prohibit these kinds of actions.                                                              


The rationale used by most Jewish opponents to euthanasia and/or assisted suicide is based on conventional legal guidelines that prohibit killing; other Catholics base their opposition on God’s Commandments [2] Page 66. In a conference held in the United States of America, leading bishops from the Roman Catholic religion issued a strong directive to healthcare practitioners; this directive clearly outlined the fact that only God has the right to cause death to any given individual since He is the only giver of life. They went on to state that everyone has a role to safeguard life regardless of the prevailing circumstances.                                                                      
On the other hand, Jews opponents to euthanasia have a very strong stance towards euthanasia in that they prohibit injury or harm to individuals even in instances where consent has been given [2] Page 68. Despite the various differences between the Roman Catholics and Jews in their approach towards opposing euthanasia, both sets of religions employ core values that are mainly drawn from the Holy Bible and to some extent, tradition and reason [2] Page 73.

Proponents for Euthanasia

The proponents for euthanasia are mostly liberal thinkers and huge support is largely drawn from theological texts that have been produced by academicians or scholars. To begin with, most supporters from all religions for euthanasia and assisted suicide approach the issue from the reasoning that even though life is hugely important, it is not necessarily the most prestigious value for human beings [1] Page 116.                                                   


 Numerous traditions have provisions that permit killing especially in cases where a person’s well-being is at risk. To add on to this, some traditions have principles that facilitate for individuals to voluntary choose life or death. According to Alvin Reines, a liberal Jewish believer can terminate his own life or give consent to another person to kill him and this is morally permissible. However, proponents of euthanasia from both religious sides are ardent opponents of active killing and consider it as morally impermissible. Another important aspect of the proponents’ approach is that they are very cautious with regard to when, how and why euthanasia should be utilized be healthcare practitioners [2] Page 75.

Actions in Euthanasia and assisted suicide

There exist various types of actions that are considered in the issue of euthanasia and assisted suicide. The first action relates to withholding of life-sustaining treatment; this is an action that is classified as not killing rather it is tantamount to allowing an individual to die. Even though this kind of action is not totally regarded as permissible, there exists little dispute challenging its morality. The second type of action that is utilized in euthanasia is withdrawal of life sustaining treatment. Majority of Roman Catholics believe that this action has more harmful impacts than benefits and thus regard it as immoral. Withdrawal and withholding of life sustaining treatment may be different terms technically but from ethical and legal perspectives, they are one and the same. The third kind of action in euthanasia is pain relieving procedures that quicken termination of an individual’s life. This kind of action is not primarily intended to cause death and is thus indirect. However, there are instances in which this is not the case; for instance, when a doctor gives a patient high morphine dosage in order to prevent breathing [1] Page 137. The other actions include assisted suicide and active euthanasia while are more direct forms of actions according to the principle of double effect.


Conclusion

As outlined in the thesis of this research paper, religious principles form a very crucial part of the practice of healthcare ethics. This statement has clearly been justified throughout the entire paper in the various chapters. The first chapter focused on the issue of natural law and how it impacts the practice of healthcare ethics. It was illustrated that natural law basically entails utilization of reasoning and rationale in making decisions. Religious principles borrow heavily from natural law; for instance, both Jews and Roman Catholics believe that man should not jeopardize the life of others since we are all God’s creation. The second chapter tackled the issue of principle of double effect; an approach that is used in cases where an action can result to beneficial and bad impacts. The conditions that are used in assessing whether actions are permissible or impermissible were also described in detailed. The final section focused on euthanasia and assisted suicide and arguments from both sides, i.e. proponents and opponents, have been given. In a nutshell, all these sections have immensely illuminated the fact that religious principles form a very crucial part of the practice of healthcare ethics.


Endnotes

Mackler, page 27

Kelly, page 89

Mackler, page 26

Kelly, page 93

Kelly, page 88

Mackler, page 30

Kelly, page 12

Mackler, page 44

Kelly, page 20

Kelly, page 15

Mackler, page 54

Kelly, page 108

Mackler, page 30

Kelly, page 112

Mackler, page 32

Kelly, page 117

Kelly, page 108

Kelly, page 110

Kelly, page 115

Kelly, page 113

Kelly, page 134

Mackler, page 64

Mackler, page 65

Mackler, page 65

Mackler, page 66

Mackler, page 73

Kelly, page 116

Mackler, page 75

Kelly, page 137


  References

  1. Kelly, D. F. (2004). Contemporary Catholic Health Care Ethics. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.
  2. Mackler, A. L. (2003). Introduction to Jewish and Catholic Bioethics: A Comparative Analysis. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.
Monday, 04 June 2012 11:47

Superfund Site

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Superfund Site


 

Avtex Fibers may easily be blamed for the contamination of the ground water around Warren County Virginia. However, the blame can also be placed squarely on the Environmental Protection Agency for taking too long to act to safe guard the ground water of the region. The agency who sole purpose is to ensure that the environment is protected and conserved failed to minimize and curb the problem in time.  The clean up efforts began in 1989 meaning that since the early 1980 the state agency of EPA had not paid much attention to the waste disposal methods of the company. State officials had inspected the water around Warren in 1982 and found that the water smelled like sulfur and was not pure (Environmental Background Information Centre, 2001).


 

The company was closed but reopened later after minor adjustments to the disposal methods. The establishment of super fund to look into ground water contamination across the states was a failure because to begin with it creates more environmental contamination in the name of clean up exercises, for example the decided to demolish the buildings of the Avtex company and consolidated demolished rubble and waste material into waste piles (EPA, 2011). These waste piles are an environmental eye sore.


It would have been economical and cost effective if the agency focused on treating and decontaminating the buildings for future re-use. Superfund has also adopted the one clean up method fits all approach. Considering that the levels of contamination may vary from one company to another superfund should set out policies and clean up strategies for each company in question.  In the case of Avtex fibers for instance the agency would have focused on determining ways in which the ground water around warren can be decontaminated and establish ways in which the Avtex Company would have reduced the contaminants in ground water and the soil.

 

Reference

EPA (2011). Avtex Fibers, Inc. Retrieved on 9th Nov from http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/npl/VAD070358684.htm

Environmental Background Information Centre (2001). Avtex Fibers, Front Royal Retrieved on 9th Nov from http://www.movementech.org/gis/pdf/avtexreport.pdf


 

 

Thursday, 17 May 2012 00:13

Article review

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Article review


Balduzzi, Elton and Green (2001) analyze the impact of programmed macroeconomic announcement on prices, trading volume and bid ask spreads. The results from the study have shown that 17 public news releases affect the prices of various instruments in the market. For instance, they affect the prices of 3 month bill, 2 year note and 10 year note. They also affect the prices of 30 year bond. The effect differs from one instrument to another depending on the maturity of the instruments. Balduzzi, Elton and Green (2001) note an increase in price volatility and also an increase in trading volume. In addition, the news release lead to widening of the bid ask spread. The changes occurring after the new release have an implication on the microstructure of the bond market according to the authors (Balduzzi, Elton &Green, 2001).


The article has various strengths unlike other articles. First, Balduzzi, Elton and Green (2001) have overcome weaknesses of other studies. The researchers have used a wider set of macroeconomic announcements in order to make the studies valid. They have used a total of 26 macroeconomic announcements instead of 3 announcements. In addition, Balduzzi, Elton and Green (2001) have used a longer period to carry out their study unlike other authors. The researchers have used a 5 year period instead of 1 year period used by researchers like Fleming and Remolona. Additionally, they have used different treasury instruments. The instruments used in the research are four, but not one.


Second, the researchers have differentiated between different kinds of announcement and their components. Some of the researchers like Fleming and Remolona have used three announcements including PPI, CPI and employment. Third, the researchers have organized the research well to ensure the reader understands it. The research has several sections. That is section II that identifies the data set and section III that analyzes the impact of announcements on the prices. Section IV examines the impact of the announcements on trading activity like trading volume, bid ask spreads and volatility of prices. Section V is a summary of the study. Lastly, Balduzzi, Elton and Green (2001) have explained the concepts in the article well and this made it easy for readers to comprehend the article (Balduzzi, Elton &Green, 2001).

Reference

Balduzzi, P.,Elton,E.J.,&Green,C.T.(2001).Economic news and bond  prices. Evidence from the US treasury market. Journal of financial and quantitative analysis, vol36, issue no 4, p523-543


Wednesday, 16 May 2012 19:51

Gore-Tex Graft

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Gore-Tex Graft


The origin of Gore-Tex can be traced back in 1958 after Wilbert Gore discovered a market opportunity for polytetrafluoethylene which he used for electronic wire insulation (Purinton & Filter, 1992). Gore’s son, Bob discovered PTFE use in the formation of strong porous material under fast stretching in high temperatures. This discovery was later patented to Gore-Tex and was chemically inert, smooth to touch, good aging qualities, permeable, strong, hydrophobic, biocompatible and durable under any weather conditions.


PTFE or polytetrafluoroethylene is a per fluorocarbon resin polymer and is PTFE processed into new physical forms. Clinically, Gore-Tex is used to replace human tissue like the case of human arteries which can be replaced using this polymer (Purinton & Filter, 1992). This is because PTFE strong enough to contain without leaking the pressure of blood in the arteries. Additionally, patients in all age brackets have continually received vascular grafts Gore-Tex made for basically any body part.


The expanded Gore-Tex has also received uses as an implant material in replacement of soft tissues in the heart as well as in the stomach tissues. This is because the implant material provides the necessary thickness and strength required in most repairs for soft tissues. Additionally, the material guarantees patient’s comfort and easy to sew in place processes due to the unflaying structure. Expanded Gore-Tex used in soft tissue implants is biocompatible and allows cells to penetrate since it is incorporated and not encapsulated in surrounding material.


In Knee surgery, products made of Gore are used to ligaments replacements due to the fact that it provides majority of the strength longitudinally where necessary (Purinton & Filter, 1992). Surgically, Gore-Tex is also used for tissue attachment in medical sutures due to its strength and silk like nature which makes it used to produce threads of different sizes.


Reference

Purinton, N., & Filter, S., (1992). Gore-Tex. Paper conservator. Retrieved on 3 Oct 2011 http://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v11/bp11-33.html.


Wednesday, 16 May 2012 01:51

Human Geography Assignment

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Human Geography Assignment


Provision of infrastructure for economic development in Africa to both the academia and the policy circles make use of the relationship between infrastructure and economic growth. Some challenges experienced especially in Africa in providing infrastructure include funding which if borrowed overseas means significant interest and foreign currency capital repayments (Marston, & Knox, 2009). Again if funding is domestic, the result is expensive borrowing of capital for firms funding other project.


The type of infrastructure is also important as different infrastructure types exert different impacts to growth hence care must be taken to improve one at the expense of the other. Infrastructure provision in Africa is also bound by expansion vs. maintenance. The quality of infrastructure is not measurable and hence establishing the cost of maintenance or expansion is hard (Marston, & Knox, 2009). Although the location of new projects in infrastructure is quit essential, there is no criterion on how infrastructure decisions should be made.

These challenges are not fixed though and it is believed that they can be done away with. For instance, the funding can be made as collaboration efforts between the local firms and the organizations located overseas at fixed interest rates that do not oppress the receiving nation. Again, the type of infrastructure can be provided based on the current need which when addressed results to the nation’s economic growth being better placed.


However, I do not agree to the fact that infrastructure funding in Africa can be overcome by just funding from overseas as some countries lender such funds with oppressive aims to the receiving nations (Marston, & Knox, 2009). I believe however that, countries in need of funding should look for sources with better intentions especially based on previous interactions especially across national borders.


References

Marston, A, & Knox, P., (2009). Human geography. Prentice Hall PTR. USA


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