For this assignment, I chose to walk in the streets on a warm afternoon dressed in pajamas instead of the normal outfits. Although the local authorities have not established any dress code for the residents, most people don casual or official outfits while walking in the streets. Depending on the weather, an individual might dress heavily or lightly. In a typical warm or hot afternoon, most people don light clothes in order to avoid sweating. Consequently, it is least expected that a normal resident would walk in the streets dressed in pajamas on a warm afternoon. This norm applies to the weekdays and also during weekends. There are various reasons why I chose to violate this norm. Firstly, by dressing in pajamas, I could easily attract attention from other members of the public. This was beneficial in terms of examining the responses or reactions from different individuals.
The second reason why I violated this norm was that it did not contradict any of the legal or ethical values. For instance, local law enforcement officers do not have the mandate to arrest an individual for appearing in public dressed in pajamas. Additionally, my behavior did not contravene any human right or cause harm to other people. This gave me confidence in breaking the norm in a relaxed and calm manner.
By dressing in pajamas while walking in the streets, I did not put my life in any sort of risk. This is was essential in terms of safeguarding personal safety. From a different perspective, I wanted to break a norm in such a way that I would elicit excitement and suspense from other people in a positive way (Barron, 2010). All these aspects exemplify why I chose to walk in the streets dressed in pajamas on a warm afternoon.
Setting for Norm Violation
The setting for the norm violation was on a busy street. This street is characterized by people from all walks of life. Additionally, there are numerous activities carried out in this street such as businesses, recreational activities, and roadside vending among others. In terms of time, I chose to violate the norm on a warm afternoon. Under this kind of setting, an individual is not expected to don pajamas. At the time of violating the norm, the street was virtually packed. Some people were rushing back to their respective offices after lunch while others were busy shopping for different things. Due to the prevailing warm weather, most people were dressed in light clothing in an attempt to avoid sweating. I walked briskly across the streets in my white pajamas. I ensured that I crisscrossed the street in a way that everyone could easily notice me.
Additionally, I deliberately stopped at different stalls and outlets pretending to be window-shopping. This created an excellent opportunity for more people to have a glance at my weird dress-code. This setting was beneficial in numerous ways. Firstly, my dressing code did not create unnecessary mayhem or irrelevant disruptions. In line with this stipulation, the setting was ideal for the norm violation exercise. It took me one hour t complete the entire norm violation exercise. Consequently, I his facilitated for adequate time for making observations as pertains to the responses of people. This setting was also efficient from the perspective of costs. This is because extensive costs were not required in any of the phases for the entire exercise.
During the norm violation exercise, I had different feelings before starting and after completing it. Before commencing the exercise, I was strongly apprehensive about the potential implications of my actions. Firstly, I was greatly concerned about how other people would judge my decision to wear pajamas on a warm afternoon. For instance, I was worried that other people might be doubtful about my mental wellbeing. Prior to the norm violation exercise, I was greatly concerned that my actions would affect me from a psychological perspective. In line with this aspect, I had concerns about walking in the same street again after the norm violation. Although the norm violation activity was in line with the local legal provisions, I felt that law enforcement officers might stop me for questioning.
Additionally, I was worried that some members of the public might call health care officers from nearby health centers to assist me. These kinds of concerns created an element of anxiety in me. I was also perturbed by the possibility of meeting some of my close friends while dressed in pajamas. These feelings were considerably different from what I felt after completing the norm violation activity. I did not experience any sort of anxiety after completing the exercise. In essence, I was in a confident mood after the exercise. This is largely because the norm violation activity was not marred by hitches or glitches. Additionally, I was greatly relieved after completing the exercise because my actions did not cause acrimony among the different people who observed me.
Responses from other People
During the course of the norm violation activity, I observed different kinds of reactions and responses from different people. Firstly, I could observe that most people were extremely surprised at my dress code. In essence, no one expected a normal person to be walking briskly while dressed in pajamas on the streets. The look of most people’s faces illustrated just how much my actions had surprised them. My actions did not conform to the usual norms expected of the locals. When I walked past any shop, mall or vendor, people would immediately stare at me in surprise. Apart from the numerous stares, some people did not hesitate to ask me whether I was experiencing any kind of problem.
To many people, my strange dress code left them doubtful about my wellbeing from a mental perspective. For instance, one man was not ashamed to ask me whether I was on any medication for a psychiatric problem. In this neighborhood, people are by and large concerned about the welfare of others (Sutton, 2010). This might help in justifying why some people did not hesitate to ask me about my psychological wellbeing. Interestingly, other people stared and laughed at me in amusement. It was extremely strange for them to come across an individual wearing pajama in the middle of the street. Consequently, they could not help it but burst into hysterical laughter. Whenever I walked past a group of more than two people, I noticed that they would start murmuring while staring at me continuously. They were most likely discussing my shocking wardrobe malfunctioning. One lady even offered to buy me some clothes when she met me window-shopping at a popular boutique.
The norm violation activity served as an excellent platform for me to learn extensively about norms and social control. I learnt that different people have different perceptions towards social behaviors (Marsh & Keating, 2006). What is socially acceptable in the eyes of one individual might be different from the social standards used by another person. This was evident through the different responses from the people who observed me walking in the streets dressed in pajamas. For instance, some people saw some sense of humor in my behavior while others were deeply concerned about my wellbeing from a psychiatric perspective. On the other hand, some people had guts to ask me questions directly pertaining to my dress code.
Apart from norms and social control, I also gained valuable information about myself as a social being. I learnt that I can easily stand for what I believe in at the expense of social pressures. During the activity, I went against all odds to dress in a manner that does not conform to the social norms. Additionally, I learnt that I can easily adjust to different social perspectives depending on the prevailing situation. The norm violation activity enabled me to learn that I can interact with people who hold different philosophies.
There are various observations I made during the norm violation activity. I observed that most people are extremely used to a certain way of life within the social context. In line with this aspect, such people will always be surprised when people violate the conventional social norms (Newman, 2008). During the norm violation exercise, I also noted that some people are not willing to accommodate people who behave differently as compared to the social norms.
Barron, M. & Meier, R. F. (2010). Sociology of deviant behavior, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Dubois, N. (2003). Sociocognitive approach to social norms, New York, NY: Routledge
Marsh, I. & Keating, M. (2006). Sociology: Making sense of society, New York, NY:Pearson Education
Newman, D. M. (2008). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life, Pine Forge Press
Sutton, P. W. (2010). Sociology: Introductory readings, Polity Press
Two Wars Against Afghanistan And Iraq
In any protracted conflict, the country’s military has a massive role to play. In line with this, expertise and professionalism of the military are essential aspects which determine the country’s ability to win the conflict. From a personal perspective, professional, volunteer military has is more effective compared to a drafted military. There are various reasons why a professional, volunteer military enhances the country’s ability to win in any conflict (Welch & Comer, 2008).
Firstly, it is considerably difficult for the personnel in the military to concentrate fully on his duties if he has been coerced into it. During the two wars against Afghanistan and Iraq, there were numerous complaints from personnel in the military because of they were simply drafted into the mission. Such elements of dissatisfaction influence the capacity of the country to emerge victorious in the conflicts. When a drafted military is used in such conflicts, the standards of professionalism are minimal. However, the situation is different with regard to the volunteer, professional military.
The standards of cooperation within a volunteer military are considerably high (McKenna & Feingold, 2011). Such cooperation is essential towards the attainment of victory in the conflict. The second benefit of a professional, volunteer military pertains to the levels of dedication. The standards of dedication in this type of military are exceptional in contrast to the drafted military. In any kind of military or war, chances of victory might be hampered if the personnel do not have the relevant standards of dedication. All these attributes highlight why the professional, volunteer military would enhance the nation’s ability to withstand and emerge victorious in another conflict.
The fight in Afghanistan is not only based on American interests but also on other interests from the perspective of the international scene. Inevitably, the war in Afghanistan was primarily based on American interests. However, greater stakes were at hand especially as pertains to global security. This perspective can be demonstrated in various ways. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, it was evident that terrorists posed a massive threat to the United States (Grayling, 2008). Consequently, the Bush Administration had to act accordingly in order to protect the country’s interests.
Insecurity undermines economic growth, distorts peace, and also degrades development. In order to avert these kinds of ramifications, the Bush Administration had to take action. The invasion of Afghanistan constituted such actions. The Taliban had been in power in Afghanistan for many years. This formed excellent hideouts for Islamist Militants. In view of such security dynamics, the action by President Bush was justified (Bakalian, 2009). In addition to the national interests, the war also sought to tackle numerous international interests. For Instance, various members of the NATO participated in the war in Afghanistan. Countries such as Britain and France sent forces to Afghansitan for the war against Taliban. The continued activities of the Taliban in Afghansitan were significantly challenging to global security. For instance, the global economy can easily disintegrate as a result of terrorist activities (Kowalski, 2008). As a global power, it was pertinent for America to take a role in the matters on international security. The security of the Middle East region is immensely essential towards international economy. This is because of the extensive oil and gas resources present in this region.
It was thus essential for the United States to intervene (McKenna & Feingold, 2011). All these attributes highlight why Americans were pursuing national and international interests in Afghansitan.
Bakalian, A. P. (2009). Backlash 9/11, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Press
C-SPAN (2013). “Warrantless domestic surveillance”. Accessed on 9th April 2013 fromhttp://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/200107-3
Grayling, A. (2008). Towards the light, Bloomsbury Publishing
Grayling, A. (2011). Liberty in the age of terror, Bloomsbury Publishing
Kowalski, K. M. (2008). A pro/con look at homeland, Enslow Publishers
McKenna, G. & Feingold, S. (2011). Taking sides: Clashing views on political issues, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education
Miller, R. A. (2008). United States national security: Intelligence and democracy, NY: Routledge
Welch, S. & Comer, J. (2008). Understanding American government,Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Norms refers to expectation and rules of behavior that determine how people in the society behave. Norms state what behaviors are considered acceptable in a group and society. In addition, norms refer to rules that people use for acceptable and unacceptable behaviors, attitude, values etc. Moreover, norms have been described as customary rules that coordinate interaction with other people. People are supposed to behave differently in different situations. Nevertheless, many people violate the norms by not doping what they are expected to do. Also, they engage in behaviors considered unacceptable in the society.
I have violated the societal norms like other people by not behaving accordingly. The norm I violated is not following the appropriate procedure when buying snacks in a theater. People are expected to conduct themselves based on the rules set and social norms when they visit the theater. People should buy their ticket before entering the theater. The tickets can be bought online or at the entrance to the theaters. After buying the ticket, they visit the concession stand and purchase food stuff and other things. Then they turn half of the ticket to the Ticket Taker before getting in to see the movie. This is considered the norm, and people have to adhere to procedure so as to promote normalcy and avoid causing problems. Some people might not buy goods from the concession stand because of different reasons. However, I did not adhere to the guidelines as I had to violate some of the rules. People buy different products when they visit the concession stand including popcorns and juice. The products are packaged differently depending on the type. Popcorns are put in bags, and juices are packaged in cups. When I went to the concession stand, I ordered pop corn and juice and the attendant brought them to me, but I told him that I wanted the items packaged differently. I asked him to package the juice in the bag and popcorns in the cup. This is in contrast to other people who did not tell the attendant to change the packaging. Normally, soda is either packaged in a bottle or small cup and pop corns in small bags. Thus, my behavior was considered abnormal and contrary to the norms that governing eating behaviors.
People around including the attendants and customers reacted differently when I asked the attendant to put the juice in a bag and popcorns in the cup. They expressed verbal and non verbal reactions. The attendant was rude as he answered me rudely and he called the manager. Some of the customers were shocked after I had requested the attendant to repackage the products again. Some customers nodded their head and went inside. Other customers looked at me worried what were wrong with me. They stood outside the entrance of the theaters staring at me in disappointment. Customers shouted at me urging me to avoid causing problems by asking the attendant to put the juice and pop corn in the bag and cup respectively. They shouted that I was mentally ill as they considered it hard for a normal individual to do that. The customers behind me started getting upset as I was wasting time arguing with the attendant. Some attendants and customers ignored me and did not care as they went ahead to order juices and popcorns. The manager reacted negatively and asked the attendant not to package the juice in the bag as this would cause problems. The manager believed that the bag would break and spill the juice. The manager got upset and asked me why I wanted the soda in a bag and pop corns, in the cup instead of being packaged normally., I told the manager that I liked it like that, but he did not listen to me and instead ordered the attendant to stop serving me. The attendant claimed that he could dos nothing to help me. Some customers laughed at me as they believed I was joking.
I had different feelings while violating the norm. At first, I felt scared and anxious as I had not done something like that. I had not put juice in a bag and pop corns, in a cup, while in the theater and hence I felt nervous as I did not know how everyone would react. I almost changed my mind in order to avoid disappointments. However, I was able to violate the norm though people reacted differently. The negative reactions affected me as I believed that people had a negative perception about me. I felt happy after violating the norm as I had attained my goals. I was happy and thought that people needed to try doing funny things in their lives.
I learned a lot about social norms and social control. I learned about the informal pressure to comply with the norms set. The society puts pressure on its members to follow the norms set and people try to behave and act according to the norms when in public areas, at home and other places. I was also able to understand social control. The social values found in individuals are as a result of social control. The values are exercised by the society via certain norms, mores and customs. People internalize the values of the society consciously or unconsciously. Traditional societies depend on informal social control found in their customary culture to socialize the members. People face sanctions when they infringe the societal norms. The sanctions are ridicule, criticism, disapproval and shame. Informal social control has more impact on people as the social values are internalized and become part of a person’s personality. Informal controls reward and punish behaviors considered healthy and unhealthy respectively.
Moreover, I have learned many things about myself as a social being. I am supposed to behave based on the norms identified by the society to avoid confusion. I should abide by the norms and to ensure the society functions normally. Violating the norms affects interaction between me and other people. This is because I face different sanctions. People get punished and rewarded for their behaviors. I can be ridiculed and ashamed because of my behavior and interaction. I can also get criticized for behaving in an unacceptable manner. For instance, I was criticized for asking the attendant to put the soda in a bag and pop corn, in the cup., Therefore, the assignment is important as it enables people understand the importance of norms and how people react when an individual breaks the norms. Hence, the assignment shows the significance of not violating norms.
Taylor, H.F., & Andersen, M.L. (2007). Sociology With Infotrac. Cengage Learning,p43
Rhetorical Analysis: Fashion Boutique Description
I observed a fashion boutique located in my town. The boutique offered a wide range of products to customers including accessories, clothing and skin products, and I was able to see some of the products. Customers need a place where they feel comfortable shopping, and they can ask questions and acquire answers. In addition, customers need a place where they feel understood and value. As a customer, I felt comfortable shopping at the boutique and also I was able to ask questions and get answers. Moreover, I felt valued while shopping at the boutique. My experience while shopping at the boutique was outstanding as I was able to get excellent customer services. The boutique is popular for exemplary customer services, and it is committed to providing quality products and services to customers. I decided to shop my clothing, accessories and skin products from there because of the wonderful experience. I believed the boutique management and workers would meet my needs as they had the latest products and customized services. The fashion boutique advertises its products on electronic and print media so as to attract customers. The fashion boutique promises customers excellent customer experience, quality products and timely services.
Nevertheless, I did not enjoy shopping at the fashion boutique for long as the arrangement of products and the odour inside the boutique distracted me. The fashion boutique was disorganized as the products were not well arranged. The management and workers did not arrange the products according to product types and sex and this compelled customers to spend a lot of time shopping. Also, the workers took time before getting the products requested by customers leading to delayed services. This was in contrast to what the fashion boutique had indicated in their advertisements. The management had promised customers timely services however; customers had to leave the boutique before buying what they wanted. Further, the boutique had a bad smell as it was stuffy and full. The boutique had twice its capacity, and this made it difficult for the staff to clean and maintain high cleanliness standards. Apart from that, the fashion boutique offered low quality products to customers despite promises, to provide quality products. I could not get superior products that I needed including skin products and clothing. I regretted having visited the fashion boutique as I did not accomplish my goals. I also remembered that not all that glitters is gold as the fashion boutique looked smart and capable of offering quality products from outside. However, I was disappointed after getting inside and requesting for the products I needed because they could not get the products.
I chose a fashion boutique because it provides positive and negative experiences and enjoyed describing the boutique. All the 5 rhetorical tools were used to describe the fashion boutique. The tools included a direct statement of meaning, selection and omission of details, show and tell. Other tools include choice of words and figurative speech. The tools had a different impact on the description of the fashion boutique.
I used a direct statement of meaning to show my attitude about the fashion boutique to the audience. I used different words when describing the fashion boutique negatively and positively to show my attitude. For instance, I decided to shop my clothing, accessories and skin products from the fashion boutique as I believed it would meet my needs. This sentence shows my positive attitude about the fashion boutique. However, my attitude changed after getting low quality products and also due to disorganization. The fashion boutique was disorganized as the staff did not arrange products based on type and sex. This made it hard for the staff to get products requested by customers on time and clean the boutique.
Further, selection and omission of details played a crucial role in the description of the fashion boutique. Negative details were omitted while describing the fashion store positively to give the reader a positive image of the store. Words like excellent, outstanding and valued give a positive image of the fashion boutique as the reader is assured of getting excellent and outstanding services. Also, the reader is certain of felling valued while shopping at the boutique. Negative details were included and positive details while describing the fashion boutique negatively to give a negative impression about the fashion boutique. Negative details about the boutique included stuff and poor arrangement of products. Other negative details included delayed services offered to customers. The negative and positive details leave a permanent impression on the reader’s mind of the fashion boutique and influence the decision to shop from the boutique or not.
Moreover, the show versus tell tool was used when describing the boutique positively and negatively. I showed the reader the positive and negative aspects of the boutique by describing it. The show tool enables the reader to create a sensory picture of the boutique. In the positive description, I begin by telling the reader what customers visiting the boutique want. Customers require a comfortable environment to shop. They also require time to ask questions and find answers. Also, customers need to be valued when shopping. After stating what customers want when shopping, I have provided a description of my experience while shopping at the boutique. As a customer, I felt valued and had the opportunity to ask questions and obtain answers. I shopped from the boutique comfortably. In the negative description, I show the reader the shortcomings of the boutique including delayed services, disorganization and poor hygiene.
I used word choice to give a positive and negative description of the boutique. Positive words were used to give a positive description. The words described my experience as a customer while shopping from the boutique. The words included excellent, outstanding, valued and exemplary. Negative words were used to give a negative impression of the boutique, and they included stuff, bad smell, disorganized among others.
Lastly, figurative language was vital in creating an image of the boutique in the mind of the audience. The figurative language was used to show the negative side of the fashion boutique my examining my experience. The delayed services, bad smell and disorganization of the products affect my attitude and shopping experience. I was disappointed as I could not get the products I needed after deciding to shop from the boutique. The simile used is “not all that glitters is gold”. The simile shows that though the boutique seems to offer quality products from outside it does not offer superior products. Also, the store is poorly arranged and has a bad odour that affects customer experience. One cannot notice the negative details of the boutique from outside and gets undesirable experience after getting in.
Glenn, C. (2011). The Harbrace Guide to Writing. Cengage Learning
Hoogeveen, J.L., & Blakesley, D. (2008). The Thomson Handbook. Cengage Learning
Hoogeveen, J.L., & Blakesley, D. (2011). Writing. Cengage Learning
Prior, P., Bazerman, C. (2004). What Writing Does and How It Does It. Routledge
Raymond, R. (2007). Questioning Literacy and Rhetorical Analysis for Writers. Fountainhead press
Stephen, J., & Rosenwasser, D. (2011). Writing Analytically. Cengage Learning
Walker, J., Longaker, M.G. (2010). Rhetorical Analysis. Longman publishing Group
Letter:A Rise Of School-Shooting Incidences In America
The New York Times
A Rise of School-shooting Incidences in America
In the recent years, incidences school-shootings have risen to unprecedented high level. The issue of school-shooting is a highly emotional subject among American citizens. School-shootings involve gun violence where there are causalities’ in the form of injuries or death’s the rising number of school-shooting incidences is a concern to the entire society. Schools are no longer safe havens as trigger-happy individual’s access theses learning institutions and kill and injure innocent students. The issue of school-shooting affects everyone in society. Children no longer feel safe in school; parents are worried about the safety of their children and teachers are no longer only concerned about performing, but also their security and that of their students. In any society, a person is a parent, a sister, a brother, an aunt/uncle or a grandparent to a school going child. The recent case of school-shootings of 20 students and 6 staff from Sandy Hook elementary school in Connecticut bring to light the dire need for an effective solution to this problem.
Determining the ideal solution is not an easy task. Prior to shooting incidences, such as Sandy hook elementary school, there have been efforts to initiate stringent rules on gun control. There have also been rising concerns over the need ban weapons such as semiautomatic rifles. Unfortunately, these strategies have proven futile in curtailing the problem of school-shooting. I believe communities now need a hands-on approach in preventive further school-shooting incidences. An ideal solution to ensure that schools remain safe and secure is through the implementation of security measures in all schools. Ideal security measures involve hiring security personnel to man all school entry points. School can rely on veteran officers who can then work as security officers in the schools. All persons, students included, must be scanned and searched to verify that they are not carrying any weapons. Schools must install automatic scanners at each entrance of schools to ascertain that no weapons find their way in schools. Such a strategy may appear costly, but it is worthy. Innocent lives are lost in learning institutions due to the ease of access of learning institutions with weapons. Making schools no-weapons zones and ensuring this happens by hiring security officers ascertains safety to students and their teachers. The security officers will verify that all persons, students, teacher and visitors, who visit a school are not armed with any weapon. Guns, knives and any other form of artillery that could be used as a weapon are confiscated before the persons are allowed to access the school.
Ensuring that schools are schools are safe fosters effective learning. Teachers will also work efficiently and will be productive in executing their lessons if their security is guaranteed. Establishing an elaborating security program in all schools will see that all forms of violence in high school are also curtailed. Students with grudges against their colleagues may carry knives, and pen-knives to schools. However, with an effective search team none of these small weapons will make their way into schools. The initiation of these security programs will be coupled with education and awareness strategy where students will be informed on the importance of the scanners and random checks by security officers. The American society at the moment requires fast and effective strategies to eradicate the vice of school-shootings and establishment of a security program as indicated above is certain to bear fruits.
To: The New York Times
Almost not a week or a month passes without reading about rape in campuses. Campus rape has become a major concern in learning institutions including universities and colleges as the rate of rape has increased. Although colleges and universities give students freedom, it makes them vulnerable to danger. Students are exposed to different types of crimes including sexual assault. Sexual assaults are common in learning institutions and go unreported. Studies have shown that male students and female students are victims of sexual assault including rape. Rape cases are not reported to law enforcement officers, and this has made it hard to prevent rape crime in campuses. Alcohol plays a key role in different types of rapes. Alcohol plays an essential function in date rape, gang rape, party rape and acquaintance rape. Most of the rate victims know the perpetrator. The victims of rape are aged between 10 and 29 years and the offender 15 and 29 years. All American women are prone to rape regardless of their race and ethnicity.
Statistics on rape cases collected in 2006 showed that 11.5% of almost 6 million attending colleges in America were raped. 12% of the rapes were reported to the police. 13.7% of undergraduate females in 2 big public universities, in the country, were victims of rape. 4.7% were victims of forced sexual assault, and 7.8% were sexually assaulted after taking drugs and alcohol.0.6% were sexually assaulted after being drug without any knowledge.16% of the victims of sexual assault sought help from health centers and victim centers. 8% of incapacitated victims who were assaulted sexually sought help from a health center and victim center.13% of the victims of forced sexual assault reported the crime to law enforcement agencies and 2% of the incapacitated victims reported the crime to the law enforcement agency. Date rape is committed by a person who is familiar with the victim. The crime occurs between two persons who are familiar with each other in social situations. It can also happen between two individuals who are dating and have had consensual sex before. In addition, it can happen between two people who are starting to date and friends. Date rape is popular and high in colleges and universities because of interest in romantic relationships. Gang rape is committed by many offenders at once. Gang rapes are committed within fraternities due to different reasons. Alcohol use, peer acceptance, highly masculinized areas and considering women as sexual objects have led to gang rape.
Campus rape is affecting student health especially the health of female students as they are prone to rape. Campus rape increases the likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies. This in turn, affects the academic performance of female students. The attitude that learning institutions have towards campus rape has affect the prevention of rape crime and creation of a conducive environment for female students to study and live. The management does not condone rape and punish rape perpetrators, and this has led to increase in rape cases. Moreover, the management keeps the rape issue low key while dealing with it, and this creates an environment for rape crime. In many situations, the victim is blamed for the rape crime instead of blaming the perpetrator, and this creates fears among the victims and hence do not report the crime to the police and the management. The management reacts leniently to the rape crime to protect the public image of the institution.
Campus rape in colleges and universities can be prevented through rape awareness. Colleges and universities should advocate for rape awareness campaigns. The rape awareness campaigns should focus on educating college and university students about rape. Students should be educated on the risk factors for rape in campuses. Drug use and alcohol are the main causes of rape in campuses. Underage drinking in campuses exposes female students to rape as they do not know how to behave responsibly while drunk. Students should be educated on the relationship between alcohol use and rape. Moreover, using drugs exposes students to rape as students are either drugged or incapacitated by the drugs. Additionally, students should be educated on the consequences of rape and campus safety to prevent rape. A poor environment leads to increase in rape cases especially a masculinized environment. Students should be educated on various types of rapes and how they are perpetrated. They should know rape can occur between acquaintances in a social gathering. Also, they should know rape can occur between two individuals in a relationship and friends. Equipping students with knowledge about the rape epidemic will improve the health of female and male students in campuses by preventing diseases. Many people may think that drug and alcohol use in campuses are not the main cause of increase in rape cases, but I think they are. I believe with proper rape awareness campaigns, colleges and universities can prevent rape and reduce rape cases. The statistics and information presented here can be found on the national center for victims of crime website. Check the statistics and information and you will see campus rape is a concern in universities and colleges.
The national center for victims of crime. (2013).Campus crime. Retrieved from http://www.victimsofcrime.org/library/crime-information-and-statistics/campus-crime on 16/4/2012
Future Public Health Leadership Theory
The following matrix seeks to highlight an effective theory which will help in addressing different literature gaps as pertains to ethics in public health. Among the most notable gaps in this field involves the low levels of awareness among leaders in public health on the necessity of ethics (Crosby, 2009). In order to address this gap, health care organizations must establish sufficient training programs for equipping public health leaders with the relevant information on the significance of ethics. In addition to training, change management can also be immensely beneficial in boosting the standards of awareness among public health leaders (Lloyd, 2007). The second identified gap involves the identification of actual effects of unethical leadership in public health. For the purposes of addressing this gap, the theory will emphasize on evidence-based practice (Gillam, 2012). Through this approach, the actual ramifications of unethical leadership will be established. Another approach pertains to frequent reviews of the prevalent frameworks for ethical leadership in public health.
Integration of Systems Thinking
Systems thinking encompass the use of a systematic platform to address a given problem. Among the most notable elements of systems thinking is dynamism. This element has been incorporated into the matrix for addressing the different gaps in literature. Apart from dynamism, a holistic approach must be employed in systems thinking (Holland, 2007). This attribute has also been incorporated in the matrix. Based on this theoretical framework, the various gaps will be addressed and hence boost the application of ethics in all realms of public health leadership.
Crosby, R. A. (2009). Emerging theories in health promotion practice, Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley & Sons
Gillam, S. (2012). Essential public health: Theory and practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holland, S. (2007). Public health ethics, Polity Press
Lloyd, C. E. (2007). Theory and research in promoting public health, Thousand Oaks,CA: SAGE Publications
Good And Evil
The conflict that does exist between the forces of good and evil is a theme that tends to exist in the literature. This essay will focus on analyzing the theme of good and evil in the story by Nathaniel Hawthorne Young Goodman Brown and The fall of the house of usher by Edgar Allan Poe. According to Nathaniel, he tells the story of a man name Goodman who deals with a similar struggle on one night. According to the story by Allan Poe, the author is using the characters in exploring the philosophical mystery in the relationship between the body and mind. The author tends to image want will happen if the connection between the body and mind are detached and assigned to different people.
Good and evil
According to the story by Nathaniel, he suggests that man usually face an inner battle between evil and good. It is also easy to stray away from good things than stay in it. The theme of Good and evil can be seen in the character of Faith who is the wife to Goodman. Faith is a word which is symbolic as she also represents the religious belief of Goodman. When he arrives in the forest, the man waiting for him remarks that, he is late. Goodman then says that “Faith kept me back a while” (Nathaniel, 2007). This is a statement that is considered to means that his wife held him back, and he is also having an inner struggle with his belief. The connection between Faith and Goodman tend to represent the struggle of the human soul in maintaining a relationship with a person’s religious belief in the face of evil. Good and evil can also be considered to be love and hate whereby in the story by Poe, love and hate is considered to be a universal condition. Poe indicates that Good and evil cannot be separated, and they are two forms of the most intense form of the human nature.
Evil is seen in the story by Nathaniel when Goodman is getting deeper into the forest as the forest in the story symbolizes danger and evil. When Goodman is in the forest, it also start getting darker which is an indication of the way Goodman is involving himself with evil and also gets separated with the light in his religion (Nathaniel, 2007). In the story by Poe, the narrator is portrayed to being a good person, but when he gets the feeling of hatred in projects and image of evil of himself. Poe in his story tends to create an atmosphere of evil through the narrators description of the home of Ushers family and Roderick (Poe, 2011).
Goodman tends to have a difficult life because he feels that the people surrounding him are evil. He also believes that he has resisted the devil when all he has done is just to what the devil wants by falling from his faith through not being able to listen in the church because he has the feeling that the people preaching are evil. Evil is seen in the House of Usher as this is a haunted house where Roderick gets to hear voices and claims that Madeline is alive, and they had buried her while alive (Levine, & Baym, 2012). Despite being good to here and burying her in the house, Roderick cannot have piece and gets disturbed by the voices.
According to the stories, the narrators have been able to portray how evil and good transpires among the characters. It is easy to conclude that there is conflict of good and evil in all human beings. This is a problem that all people have to deal with as we all tend to struggle with evil and good.
Levine, R & Baym, N (2012). The Norton anthology of American literature WW Norton & Company Incorporated
Nathaniel, H (2007). Young Goodman Brown McGraw Hill, Inc
Poe, E (2011). The fall of the house of usher The Floating Press
Education And Crime
Crime is a key problem in the society as the rate of crime has increased. The increase in crime has been attributed to various things including lack of education, socioeconomic factors and peer pressure from criminal gangs. Several theories have been developed to explain the causes of crime in the society and prevent crime by eliminating the causes of crime. Some of the theories include labeling and social learning theory. Different policies have been developed to prevent crime based on the criminal theories. The policies have not been effective as the rate of crime has continued to increase. However, implementing education policies can lower rate of crime in the society as education access improves job opportunities and also socioeconomic status of youngsters in the society.
Statement of the problem
Crime is a harmful externality that has huge social costs. The rate of crime in most countries including the united state has increased. The rate of violent crimes and non violent crimes in the society is high, and this has affected the social wellbeing of the members. Crime has caused harm to the victims and led to destruction of property. Also, crime has led to loss of property and finances. Different policies have been developed to prevent the rate of crime, but they have not been effective. Law enforcement officers have concentrated on preventing crime through deterrence. However, law enforcement officers and the government have not determined the correlation between education and crime. Education has social benefits as it reduces crime, but the social benefits have not been considered when developing crime prevention policies. The social returns to schooling surpass the private returns. Reducing crime linked with education has economic benefits given the huge social costs associated with crime. Education reduces crime by increasing returns to a legitimate job and the opportunity cost of illegal behaviors. In addition, education directly impacts the financial rewards and psych rewards gotten from criminal activities. Moreover, education changes preferences in indirect methods. For example, education increases an individual patience and ability to avert risks. Therefore, implementing education policies is an effective method of reducing and preventing crime and social costs linked with the crime (Lance & Enrico, 2004).
A series of scholars have examined the relationship between education and crime. Lance and Enrico (2004) studied the connection between crime and education. The researchers used personal- level data on incarceration from the census and cohort level data on arrests by sates from the FBI uniform crime reports to examine the relation between education and crime. The researchers also used self report data on criminal activities from the NLSY to verify the estimates effects measure changes in criminal activities.
The connection between education, criminal activity, incarceration and arrest
Lance and Enrico (2004) argue that education accomplishment can impact criminal decisions in different ways. First, schooling increases the personal wage rates and hence increases the opportunity cost of criminal activities. Second, punishment is costly for people who are educated. This is because incarceration affects their work as they have to spend time out of the labor market which is costly for individuals earning high wages. In addition, other studies have shown that stigma resulting from crime conviction is bigger for white collar employees than blue collar employees. This is according to Kling (2002). Thus, white collar employees are less likely to commit crimes than blue collar workers to avoid conviction.
Third, getting education changes a person’s rate of time preference and aversion of risks. Getting education increases patience shown by individuals according to Becker and Mulligan (1997). More patience and risk adverse people give more weight on the likelihood of future punishments. Fourth, Kenneth (1997) argues that getting education affects a person’s tastes for criminal activities by directly impacting the psychic costs of infringing the law. Finally, criminal behavior is characterized by state dependence, and this affects the rate of crimes committed. The likelihood of committing a crime depends on the amount of criminal activities committed before. Thus, keeping youngsters occupied during daytime and attending school reduces the likelihood of participating in criminal activities. Therefore, the increase in a person’s schooling accomplishment reduces the likelihood of engaging in criminal activities (Kenneth, 1997).
The effect of education on incarceration rates
Lance and Enrico (2004) studied the effect of education on the likelihood of incarceration for men utilizing the U.S census data for 1960, 1970 and 1980. They used males aged between 20 and 60 years. The investigators analyzed incarceration rate by education accomplishment and incarceration rates. The findings showed that the likelihood of imprisonment was high for African Americans than whites. The incarceration rate for white males who had studied for less than 12 years was almost 0.8%. On the other hand, the incarceration rate for blacks who spend less than 12 years in school was 3.6%. However, Lance and Enrico (2004) noted that the rate of incarceration was reducing with education accomplishment for both African Americans and whites. Higher schooling among the blacks reduces the imprisonment rate compared to whites. The difference between school dropouts and college graduates for whites and blacks in 1980 was 0.9% and 3.4% respectively (Lance & Enrico, 2004).
The researchers noted a reduction in incarceration rate among individuals who completed the eighth grade, and high school. There are also individual characteristics that affect the possibility of engaging in criminal activities and dropping out of school. People with a high discount rate and taste for criminal behaviors from poor backgrounds and do not attend school will commit crimes. Youngsters arrested and convicted to youth facilities while in high school get limited education (King, 2002).
In conclusion, the topic education and crime is essential and significant in getting rid of crime in the society. The topic helps stakeholders in crime prevention including the government, law enforcement agencies, policy makers and society to understand the impact crime has on society. In addition, the topic enables stakeholders understand the significance of education in prevention of crime. Investing in education can effectively reduce the crime rate and social costs attributed to crime. The government should ensure individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds access education so as to prevent crime. Accessing education limits the ability of youngsters and adults to get involved in criminal activities. High education accomplishment among minorities and whites enables them to avert risks like participating in crime because of the costs of crime. High education increases the wage rates and gives people a chance to get well paying jobs. Thus, individuals avoid committing crimes because of the time spend out of the labor market. The government should make sure youngsters arrested due to crime get quality, and sufficient education to prevent the risk of committing crimes after release.
Becker, G.S., & Mulligan, C.B. (1997). The endogenous determination of time preference. Journal of economics, 112(3):729-758
Kenneth, A. (1997). The benefits of education and the formation of preferences. University of Michigan Press, p11-16
King, J. (2002). The effect of prison sentence length. Working paper, Princeton University
Lance, L., Enrico, M. (2004). Effect Education Crime American Economic Review, 94(1): 155-189
Comparative Study:Juvenile Delinquency In United Sates, Asia, Africa, South America And Western EuropeWRITTEN_BY Administrator
Comparative Study:Juvenile Delinquency In United Sates, Asia, Africa, South America And Western Europe
Criminal behavior and delinquency among young people has become a rampant issue in most parts of the world. This is a time when these young people are negotiating their transitions from their childhood stage to adulthood in this increasingly confusing and complex world. There are various assumptions held on factors contributing or underlying this phenomenon. Studies have also highlighted the regional variations of criminal and delinquent behavior among young people that this paper will show. The paper will also present effective measures and approaches that can prevent juvenile delinquency such as placing emphasis on professional and educational development, and community programmes. Some strategies of prevention also include improving parenting skills, family relations, and restorative justice value to both the victims and perpetrators.
Many people have challenges the traditional pattern that guides the transitions and relationships between work, school and family. Social relations that were meant to ensure a smooth socialization process are collapsing, and there have been varied and less predictable lifestyle trajectories. Furthermore, the Labor market restructuring and extension of maturity gap have offered limited opportunities for young people to grow as independent adults. These factors have resulted to along of changes that impact on relationships among friends and families, minimal opportunities of employment and educational choices, participation in the labor market, changes in lifestyles and leisure activities. This situation is not only felt in developed nations, but also the developing countries as young people are faced with new pressured as they go through the transition to become independent adults. The rapid growth of population , unavailability of support and housing services, unemployment, poverty urban areas overcrowding, poor leadership authorities in communities, ineffective systems of education, and family disintegration are among the challenges that young people faced on a daily basis (Hearn, 1998).
The youth regardless of social origin, nation of residence and gender face the same risk, but at the same time have different individual opportunities, some being harmful while others beneficial. Statistics from all parts of the world virtually indicate that rate of crimes have been on the rise since the 1990s, apart from the United States. In western Europe, arrests of under-age offenders ad juvenile delinquents has risen by an average of about 50% since mid 1980s to the late 1990s.
The developing nations have also witnessed a dramatic increase in the rate of delinquency. Juvenile crime levels since 1995 in many countries belonging to the Commonwealth of independent states and Eastern Europe have risen by more than 30%. Most criminal offense among young people is related to excessive use of alcohol and drug abuse. The challenge of juvenile delinquency is now universal and more complicated and the crime prevention programs face new challenges of equipping new way of dealing with the existing realities. This calls for a systematic action and implementation of effective social and task-oriented work to deal with victims and offenders alike (Calhoun, & Chapple, 2003).
Assumptions on delinquent behaviors
Understanding the actual reason for the causes of juvenile criminal activities is the first step towards implementing of effective prevention programmes. Criminologist defines juvenile delinquency as comprises of all the societal wrongs committed by young people aged between 12 and 20. Sociologists provide a much broader view on this phenomenon as an activity that covers a wide range of serious offences committed by young people. Sociologists in their effort to define the theoretical aspects of delinquency link the specific of youth behavior with neighborhood, family m home and peers among other variables that separately or together impact on the way the young people interact with the environment
Sociologists argue that some children can be brought up in an environment where anti-social behavior is part of their upbringing. This forms the root of a long-term criminal pattern. However, this is but an assumption because there are cases where youthful conduct or behavior does not abide by the overall social values and norm. Some of this behavior disappears spontaneously as the youth become independent adults. At adolescent stage, some young people commit petty offences, but this does not turn them to long term criminals (United Nations Guidelines, 2012).
Another assumption is that juvenile delinquency is an issue of group phenomena. Statists from the Russian Federation group crimes are only prevalent to among 14 years old but not among the 17 year old. Another assumption is related to sub cultural context of juvenile group behavior as being an aspect that is in every cultural and class context. The fact is that juvenile group activities adopt some amount of a heterogeneous mix from predominant class values that can be found in intergenerational value, and the entertainment industry. These are aspects have defined a specific lifestyle system that have developed in structured subordinate positions and in groups due to pressure impacted by the dominant system. Another assumption is that delinquent behavior is a generally unacceptable among all culture. However, in other cultures, violence is used as a form of solving conflicts among people. Delinquent activities are not only on activities committed by street gangs, but comprise of school violence, street extortion and fighting.
Conditions and causes of delinquent trajectories
The severity and intensity of juvenile offences is determined by the social, cultural and economic conditions of a country. The economic decline in most countries has impacted to an increase in juvenile crime especially in poor regions of large cities. Most children living in the treats have become young offenders, as a result of the violence they often witness in their immediate environment, or they being victims and or witnesses of violet activities. Also, such children have low educational attainment and the social experience from their families is insufficient. Their social and economic environment is defined by unemployment or under employment and poverty (World Programme of Action for Youth, 2000).
The social and economic factors do have a negative impact to a child development. Such factors are political instability, economic crises and weakening of social institutions such as public education system, state, family and public assistance. Another serious cause of delinquent behaviors includes cultural factors. Social settings do have well set norms that define acceptable behavior. However, with modernization such culturally acceptable norms have broken down in that rules that would deter people from being involved in unacceptable behaviors become irrelevant. This means that most traditional societies have changed due to modernization. Such a shift impacts on living and lifestyle arrangements, social characteristics, and labor activity. These changes subsequently affect the forms of obedience, authority structures and political participation that influence the way young people perceive reality
Both developed and developing nations have been influenced, by the way, media sets consumer standards, which to a large extend is beyond the capacity of many families achieving them. The youth’s reality is based on this type of consumer standards and will go to a large extend to meet up with the lifestyle that is not affordable to their parents. The limited education opportunities, poor or no income will make young adults want to attain their goal through illegal means. Therefore, the unavailability of legal means of attaining their goal makes them illegal means that they have also been influenced by the adult criminals. The failure of the youth to attain the set social standards makes them look for other channels of emotional and psychological escape by use of illegal drugs and alcohol.
nother factor that contributes to juvenile delinquency is urbanization. Cities around the worlds with urbanized population have high rates of criminal activities compared to rural communities and lifestyles. This is as a result of lack of social cohesion and social control. Families and communities in the rural area have strong structures to deal with antisocial behaviors, thus resulting to lower crime rates. Societies in urban areas depend on judicial and formal legal measure, which is a personal approach that does not guarantee recidivism. The inadequate family support is because of the need of parents to work away from home, as well as, weak internal linkages, low parental control, and premature autonomy lead to juvenile delinquency. Children from low income homes have a high risk of exclusion from the society and minimal opportunities in gaining legitimate employment. Others are children of migrants and ethnic majorities, refugees and displaced person who are b faced with a lot of challenges including insecurity.
The media also significantly impact on juvenile delinquency. This is especially through movies and television programs that have popularized the concept of heroes as being through who use their physical strength to eliminate enemies. Studies prove that young people who watch violence are likely to react violently or aggressively even when slightly provoked. Movies do make the impression that violence is intended to excite observers. The films also show that violence is simply part of everyday life yet; the violence in these movies is not real. Other causes are exclusion, peer influence and delinquent identities (Bursik, & Grasmick, 2000).
Regional issues on delinquency
Some issues on juvenile delinquency and others do differ from one region to another. Examining the cultural is a crucial aspect that helps in understanding the different causes of this problem and developing measures that are culturally appropriate. Delinquency in Africa is mainly caused by the social and economic challenges such as, malnutrition, poverty, hunger and unemployment. These aspects contribute to the marginalization of juveniles in these societies as a result of their severe disadvantages. There is also the issue of rapid population growth with over 790, 0000 people joining the labor market. All these people need a share of the 60, 000 jobs created by the economy.
There is also the high rate of Africans living in poverty in squatter settlements and slums. They lack basic services and live in unhealthy and crowded houses. Most children are born from homes living in such conditions. There are also the modern changes such as the breakdown of social structures and break of old traditions, and the advent of HIV/ AIDS. Children’s involvement in criminal activities is due to these economic, social and political changes. Some of the common offences committed include smuggling, robbery, theft, drug trafficking, narcotic substances and prostitution (Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, 2008).
For the countries in Asia, delinquency and juvenile crimes is mainly in urban regions. The clear trend for this region is the rising number of violence committed by young people especially on offences relating to drug abuse. There is also the rising female juvenile delinquency rate (16). The financial challenges in the late 1990s that hit South-East Asia and East Asia lead to economic contraction and stagnation that left many youths with minimal employment opportunities. This situation too many youth was a lost opportunity to realize their self-actualization and identity loss. Other countries in Asia that is located within or near the Golden Triangle or Golden crescent narcotic producing regions face considerable challenge of dealing with child delinquency. The drug traffickers target the youth and adolescents for their vulnerability to work in their industry. Some are exploited as sex workers and become addicted to these illegal drugs (Department of Public Information, 2012).
In Latin America, the young have mainly been hit by economic challenges that are caused by the debt crisis as evidenced by a remarkably high number of youth who are unemployed. Homelessness among adolescents and children contributes significantly to juvenile delinquency.
In the Arab world, there are varying reports from one nation to another on juvenile delinquency other countries are prosperous while others face social-economic challenges. For the prosperous nations, juvenile delinquency can be high due to the high number of migrants in search of employment or due to raid economic changes, sudden affluence or continued urbanization. Juvenile delinquency can be as a result of the conflict between new and traditional Arab-Islamic values that have been posed a challenge in whole of the Arab world region.
The developed/ industrialized nations have a wide range of consumer goods and increased prosperity that increases juvenile crime opportunities such as vandalism property destructions and theft. Other social changes contributing to this problem are the social changes, such as replace of an extended family with a nuclear one. The traditional family setup of the extended family provided adults with traditional control towards the young people. However, this has declined, and there are no substitutes to replace the traditional systems. One of the strongest predictor of delinquency is insufficient parental supervision. The modern western family structures leads to one of the most vital factors that contributed to an increasing rate of juvenile delinquency since the past 50 years (United Nation 2012).
The substantial increased rate of juvenile violence in many countries in Western Europe took place during the mid 1980s and early 1990s. England and Wales statistics of 1984 show that 360 in 100, 000 youth aged 14-16 were cautioned and convicted by the police. This figure by 1994 had increased to about 580 in 100, 000. In 194, statistics for western Germany revealed that young people aged 14 to 18 years were suspected for violent crimes were about 3000 per 100, 000. In 1995, this figure had more than doubled to 760 per 100,000. The East Germany rates were much higher than that of West Germany by 60 to 80%.
Studies have shown that the victims of juvenile crimes are other youths and adolescents in the same age of the offenders. For instance, the 1995 records of Netherlands indicate that young people at the age of 15 to 17 years are four times at a higher risk than adults to be assault victims. The report notes that the crime rate among adults in most countries have over the years remained stable or increased moderately over the years. It goes on to show that the crime rate of adults cannot be parallel to that of adults. Therefore, the juvenile violent crimes do derive from the general crime trends partially (Pfeiffer, 1998)
Among the developed nations, there exist needy people and impoverished groups suffering from relative deprivation. Most of these developed nations have reduced their social support services, leading to people in the population mainly at the weakest strata to be at an exceptionally vulnerable position. They face problems that have reached alarming dimensions, such as homelessness, increased poverty and unemployment (United Nations, 2012). The rise n juvenile crimes in most EU countries correspond to the increasing rate of unemployment and poverty. The overall crisis faced by the Independent States of the commonwealth and Eastern Europe within the transition to become market based economies have resulted to an increased tendency towards criminal behavior. This is due to the weakening of the primary socialization institutions such as public education system, work collectives, family breakdowns, informal peer environment and lack recreation services. In such region, juvenile delinquency is attributed to the lack of employment from both parents, pressure of parents on their kids to be successful and lack of leisure alternatives. Most nations have developed youth associations to keep them preoccupied during their free time. A country like Slovakia has only 8% youth being members of an association. This shows that the young people are reluctant to be part of these associations. This depicts a change from the past regime that being part of these associations was mandatory.
Other nations like the former Soviet Union and other Eastern Europe countries; there has been a decline of fathers and mothers reduction of their parental rights. This is because of the increasing number of alcoholics, and drug addicts who have shown anti-social behavior. Low family income, unemployment and lack of parental responsibility are the main contributing factors of juvenile delinquency to most children and adolescents in this region. This is because when children are humiliated and exposed to the suffering, they take into other offences such as theft. The adolescents and young adults lack motivation and incentives to become social service employees because of the low wages they earn. The social alienation towards the young people has enabled them be part of delinquent groups.
Prevention of juvenile delinquency
The prevention of violence towards children is a way of protecting their fundamental rights as human beings. It is vital for institutions and individuals to commit resources, expertise and money to address this world wide problem (Centre for the Protection of Women and Children, 2007). The best approach that is suggested by the United Nations is the social and not judicial means of controlling crimes committed by young people. One of the social approaches is intervention at an early -phase. This strategy calls for organizational, groups and individual effort that help prevent the youth from committing criminal behaviors. Prevention strategies are meant to inform young people that they are severe punishments for crimes and actually punished so that they do not repeat the same mistake.
The economic sector has to be improved by setting up development programs to provide legal means of generating income. These increase the chances for young people and adolescents to benefit from economic opportunities, education and professional training. Educational programs have to be established that will teach young people on ways of controlling aggression, deal with conflict and be part of positive appraisal. Such programs educate the young people on cognitive and social skills necessary to avoid aggression and conflict.
The youth development and recreation activities are of immense interest to many youths. Being part of a recreational facility helps reduce idleness and subsequently help reduce crimes (United Nations Guidelines, 2012). The urban environment changes especially on its physical features through a landscape, and architectural planning is a crucial aspect in the prevention of crimes among the youth. This is through constructing parks, youth recreation facilities, show rooms where they can discover their talents and other facilities that make the youth be involved in positive activities. The local communities do also have a role in controlling juvenile crimes. These communities can design programmes to train young people in constructive activates (California & Department of Justice, 2000) meant to improve the overall condition with the communities.
This makes them be in close contact and interaction with adults as they contribute their ideas on how the community can be improved. Cooperation among multispectral agents is crucial especially in designing and implementing prevention initiatives. Other institutional programs that aim at psychological; and social support for groups and individuals will help adolescents and youth in dealing smoothly with the challenges they face in this complex world. It is essential to establish the cause of streetism for street children and adolescents as well as providing for their basic needs (Tolman & Pittman, 2001).
The current overall situation that makes youth and young people to be exposed to harmful behaviors such as use of violence to dominate their peers and alcohol and drug abuse. The Risk of becoming delinquent for children are those coming from homes where parents suffer from alcoholism, broken down families, abusive home environments, death of parents from armed conflicts and homes living without basic necessities such as food and housing. Addressing issues on juvenile delinquency has become problematic. This can be, as a result of prevention programs failure of being in touch with the current realities. There is also lack of systematic action and lack of effective and task-oriented social work for victims and offenders.
Knowing the assumption will help in the development of effective programs that understand the main reasons for young people engaging in crime. Comparison of data from countries in west Europe and United States on the rate of juvenile delinquency, most Data indicates that delinquency group behavior. There will also be similarities on the characteristics of criminal behavior as per the cultural and class context. Members of groups comprise of territorial gangs. Most cultures show dominance of masculinity towards control, dominance and confrontation.
8 State of California (2000) a call to action by the Attorney General’s report on criminal street gangs on crime and prevention.
Tolman J & K. Pittman, (2001), Youth Acts, Community Impacts and youth Engagement with Real Impacts, vol. 7 Takoma Park, Maryland,
Pfeiffer, C (1998) Trends in juvenile violence in European countries. National Institute of Justice Research.
Protection of Children and Women center (2007) Violence against women and children in Kosovo. Kosovo, Pristina, 30 June to 2 July 2007
United Nations (2012) Humanitarian Affairs and Social Development. Trends and prospects.
Department of Public Information, (2012) News Coverage Service on an inter-sectoral approach to fighting illegal drugs and crimes stressed (UNIS/GA/SHC/301. 2012)
United Nations, (2000) Action for Youth, adopted by General Assembly resolution.
United Nations, (2008) Centre for Humanitarian Affairs, Social Development, and The global situation of youth.
United Nations Guidelines (2012) for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, available at
On March 31, 2013
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Bursik, R. J., & Grasmick, H (2000) the effect of neighborhood dynamics on gang behavior.
Calhoun, T & Chapple, C. (2003) Readings in juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice (p. 236, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.