Comparing And Contrasting Two Poems “Ode To The Death Of A Favorite Cat” By Thomas Gray And “My Cat Joffrey” By Christopher Smart (1722-1771)
This essay is about comparing and contrasting two poems the“Ode to the death of a favorite cat” by Thomas Gray and “My Cat Joffrey” by Christopher Smart (1722-1771). These are poems that were published during the age of Enlightenment. This was a period that marked anew cultural movement among intellectuals. The main purpose for this cultural movement was to bring reform to the society through faith and traditional revelation. The period began in 1650 and lasted to 1778. The Europe Sentimentalism was an aspect that was also associated with this period. This means that scholars were influenced by sensibility in relying, on their feelings, to guide then to establish the truth and for law and reason. The poem by Grey and Smart is based on the concept of desire and love. These are human emotions, which can either cause happiness or lead to a tragedy as seen in Grey’s work.
The poem Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat is a poem also referred to as the” mock epic””. The poet in this case is impersonating a favor rite cat of his friend by making it a legendary figure. This is a form of dark humor. The poem tells a story about a cat which drowned in a large vase in the garden. During Grey’s period of the 1700’s garden vases were used to adorn the gardens in England. These vases were very large and according to this poem, the vase contained golden fish. The main message of the poem is to pass humor to the readers. It also narrates the actual events leading to the drowning of the cat into the vase. Apart from the superficial message, there is an actual underlying message in this poem. The poem employs literary style such as epic style just like in the narration of the ancient oral tradition concerning the adventures and deed of great heroes and legendary figure, which were part of the nation’s history. The style employed by Grey is the mock epic through conversations in poetry and the lofty style of an epic tale. He uses this style to describe the undignified and trivial series of events leading to the final tragedy.
The narration is characterized by mocks and satire in the way the poet has presented the inappropriate grandiose manner at great length. For I Will Consider my Cat Joeffery by Christopher Smart is an extremely spiritual poem. The poem by itself indicates its audacity and sincerity which are not the necessary aspects of artistic qualities. Anyone reading this poem for the first time will notice the heartfelt message and the bold imagination of emotional feeling. Through the two qualities of audacity and sincerity, the poem became the best work of Christopher Smart. This is especially because of the message that he passed to the readers. The poem reflects Christopher’s larger desire to speak about nature. He believed that nature is like the cat that is in constant praise of God. He believes that it is only a poet who can interpret the hidden voice of the cat. Smart’s poem represents his believe that cats do have a strong sense with nature and are close to God. This is due to the idea that it has the ability to praise and worship the Almighty. This means that the cats just like human beings, know the existence of the Supreme God.
The poets in these two poems depict the theme of desire and love. Smart’s poem shows human beings on how they are supposed to live. His message is that we should always worship the Almighty for his kindness to us at all times just like the cat. The poet referred to Jeoffry, the cat to mean mankind. Through biblical sense, Jeoffry is like mankind with the ability to cover his metaphysical and physical characteristics. The cat Joeffry has the ability to worship God, and others around him. In the first line, “for at the first glance of the glory of God in the East he worships in his way” (Smart 4). This indicates that Jeoffry is God’s servant. He associates God with the sun. This is because for at the very first sight of the sun, he gets into the routine of following the sun’s movement around the house. The cat searches for the perfect spot each time so that he can lie down. As soon as he finds the perfect spot to rest, he springs to his feet to enjoy his rest. The ultimate enjoyment for Jeoffry is to have catnip in that perfect spot where he can enjoy the sun rays on his body. This becomes the final answer to the cat’s prayers. The rays of the sun give him the energy to do his tricks, and to roll him in all angles. This means that, through paying homage to the sun, the cat will eventually, receive his reward of tending to himself.
In another line, “for this he performs in ten degrees”. The line has an underlying correlation to God just t like the Ten Commandments given to Moses. The cat too has its ten commandments that he has to obey. This indicates his love is to always do what is right, and his desire, is to be blessed by his maker. The kind of love between the cat and his maker is the Agape love. The daily routines that he does are part of the commandments. Such characteristics are an indication of virtues that man should have as expected by God. For instance, “For God has blessed him in his wide range of movements” (139), the statement reflects the religiosity character in Jeffrey. He maintains cleanliness, for cleanliness is next to Godliness. This is an indication that man is expected to be holy at all times of the day.
Gray’s message in his poem is that we should not always be greedy because all that glitters is not gold. This is a story about the curious cat that that ends up dying. The image of this act shows the ability of the poet to display humor. Gray manages to employ dialog as his style of narration. He carefully uses the right words to covey meaning. He has also made use of illusions to symbolize the relationship between cats and women. The poem unique aspect is word choice. Through word choice, the poet is able to bring out other literary devices such as assonance and alterations. The choice of the right words further presents the theme on women‘s similarity to cats. For example, in the phrase, “The hapless nymph with wonder saw"(Gray 19), the Nymphs here means semi gods, which according to the Greek culture are associated with beauty and nature. The nymphs are also referred to in the phrase "No Dolphin came, no Nereid stirr'd"(Gray 34). The Nereid means the nymph of the sea. Gray has adequately described the cat just like Smart Displays all the activities and actions that Jeoffery was able to do. In the descriptions of the flowers, Gray uses the word azure flowers (gray 3). This is different from referring to the flowers as blue flowers to indicate something more with greatness. In his description of the cat, Gray also alludes to women’s attributes. He chooses the right words to describe the movement of the cat’s tail. This is similar to the way people get attracted to a woman’s behind when she moves. Another allusion comes in the way women are attracted to gold or desire to own one. "What female's heart can gold despise? (Gray 23-24). This line indicates the desire in women to have expensive things and jewels made of gold. The poet alludes this desire to that of the cat with the desire to catch the gold fish in the vase.
The cat is said to have emerald eyes. The poet refers to the city of Tyre, which was a well known city in the ancient times for purple dye. The dye was used to make royal clothes of the kings. In the description of the golden fish, the poet indicates that it is by the richest purple, that the golden gleam is shown. This means that the aspect of gold is emphasized in this poem. The concept can well be understood in the last line of the poem. We get the poets meaning of this poem not just to be the story of the cat that drowned. His massage is that we should always take caution and to avoid being deceived by all that glisters, for all that glitters is not always gold (Gray 37-42). The poem, therefore, provides us with a warning of not putting our desire first we should always avoid shortcuts to have quick meals like the cat. For this will lead us to danger and even death.
Through the literacy devices, the poets are able to pass the relationship between cats with women and the human race in general. Some of the literary deceives, include repetition such as “For he is the…” in Smart poems or the allusions in Gray’s poem. They managed to pass a message to the traditional societies as well as the modern day life.
Grey T (1748) Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat. Retrieved from.
On September 27, 2012.
Smart C (1752) My Cat Jeoffry. Retrieved from.
On September 27, 2012.
Impact of Recession On Banks
Consolidation has led to changes in the banking industry has changed greatly for the last few years. The biggest banks in the industry have grown four times between 2000 and 2010. The bank assets have grown four times from 2000 to 2010. The asset has increased from $0.64 trillion to $2.2 trillion which is twice the GDP of India. There are various factors that have led to the growth of the banks. First, geographical diversification has led to the growth of the biggest banks. The biggest banks have ventured into other geographical areas. Second, increased efficiency has led to the expansion of the banks as the banks merge to improve their efficiency. Third, banks have merged in order to save costs and benefit from the economies of scale. Banks have used mergers and acquisitions to expand. Small banks have been adversely affected by the growth of big banks as the banks have targeted small banks in India. Valuation is important in protecting shareholders during mergers and acquisition. Valuation ensures the shareholders wealth is not destroyed when the target company is acquired in a merger. Valuation is carried during the recession and normal period to determine whether the target or acquirer is worthy. Valuators value banks diff Valuation during recession affects shareholder wealth negatively (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
Back ground of the study
Research on mergers and acquisition in India is limited as very few researchers have examined mergers and acquisition in India. Most researchers have examined mergers and acquisitions in international context. In addition, studies on mergers and acquisition in the banking industry in India are limited. Studies on the effect of valuation in mergers and acquisition during the recession are few and hence the focus of this study. Pawaskar (1992-1995) examined 36 mergers using operating cash flow return and the findings did not show any increase in profitability. Furmindar Arora (2003) also studied reasons for mergers and noted that mergers did not add any value. Also, Kumar and Rajib (2007) determined the features of merging companies in India using 227 acquirer and 215 targets. Rajesh Chakrabarti (2008) evaluated domestic and foreign mergers and noted that they are linked with positive announcements and are worse. Lastly ,Manoj Anand and Jagandeep Sign(2008) examined the effect merger announcements had on the wealth of the shareholders and noted that both bidders and target benefited.
Valuation is an important element of any merger and acquisition activity. The valuation depends on the agreement between the seller and buyer. Valuation is crucial for the shareholders of the company involved in the merger and acquisition process. Companies are supposed to follow several steps when carrying out the valuation as failure to follow the steps can affect the merger negatively. Valuation is aimed at determining the swap ratio to enable the bidder and target to exchange their shares. Valuation is conducted differently during recession and normal periods (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
The valuation used in the merger process during the recession and normal times has implication on the shareholders. Though mergers have become the most common tools that are used by organizations to expand, they have a negative impact on the shareholders if the process of valuation is not carried out well. The swap ratios differ during the recession and normal periods and hence affect the target bank negatively. Valuators use strategic valuation during normal periods and ignore strategic factors when carrying out valuation during recession. Recession has an impact on the shareholders wealth in the target bank as it leads to undervaluation. This in turn, results to destruction of the wealth of the target firm. Only the acquirer benefit from mergers and acquisition during the recession as the company increases the wealth of its shareholders.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this analytical study is to determine the difference in valuation of bank mergers in normal period and during recession as valuators used different methods during recession. The valuators used strategic factors during valuation in normal periods and omitted strategic factors during recession. The secondary purpose of the study to determine the contribution of banks financial factors in valuation. A total of 3 bank mergers were used. One of the merger deals was carried out before the financial recession and another one during the financial recession. The third merger was carried out after recession. The three mergers were used to show the difference in valuation in normal periods and during recession (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
Significance of the study
The study has significance in public policy as it highlights the problems linked with valuation of mergers during recession and normal periods. It highlights the factors banks consider during valuation in normal period and during recession such as strategic factors and their impact on the shareholders of the target and acquirer. In addition, the study shows the effect valuation during recession has on the wealth of the shareholders of the target company. Therefore, the study findings will be important in developing valuation policies that govern valuation during recession and normal periods so as to protect the shareholders (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
Nature of the study
An analytical study was appropriate to determine the difference between valuation during recession and normal period. The analytical method was important in comparing valuation of mergers dirking recession and normal period by examining the factors that valuators considered. The nature of the research involved 3 merger deals in the banking industry. Voluntary mergers were used. The mergers were selected from different periods to show the difference. One of the merger deals was before the financial recession and another one during recession. The other merger deal was after the recession. The investigators obtained data from the reports of banks and national stock exchange of India released each year. The bidder and target banks were compared in terms of their balance sheets. Also, the swap ratios for the bidder and target were examined. Lastly, the financial factors that influenced the valuation were examined (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
Research questions and hypothesis
The research questions are shown below together with the hypothesis.
1. What is the difference in the valuation method used during normal period and recession?
2. What is the contribution of the bank’s financial factors in valuation?
Hypothesis 1: There is no significance variation in the valuation method used during normal period and during recession.
Hypothesis 2: There is a significance variation in the valuation method used during recession and normal period (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
Definition of terms
Valuation. Valuation is common in mergers and acquisition and it entails determining the highest price that the buyer is willing to pay to get the target company. The seller also determines the minimum price that he wants to sell the company.
Swap ratio. Calculated during valuation to determine the ratio at which the shares of the acquirer will be exchanged with the shares of the target company.
Target company. It is a company that is acquired in a merger or acquisition.
Acquirer. The company acquiring the target company in a merger or acquisition.
Consolidation. It is the process of merging two firms or more to form a new firm in mergers (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
Assumptions, limitations and weaknesses of the research
The researcher assumes that there is a great difference between valuation methods used during the recession and normal period. This is because valuators consider strategic factors in normal periods and ignore them during recession (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
The researchers limited the study only to 3 bank merger deals that had been conducted before in the banking industry. They ensured the three deals were conducted during recession, before recession and after recession. This enabled the researchers to compare the valuation methods used during recession and normal period (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
The study has limitations as the researchers used a small sample size of only 3 merger deals. The small sample size affected the generalization of the research findings to other firms in the industry.The methodology is also flawed. The methodology section was not well developed as the researchers did not give a detailed description of the analytical nature of the study. Instead the researchers stated that the study was analytical. Also, the researchers did not provide sufficient information about mergers and acquisitions in India and this made it difficult for the reader to understand mergers and acquisitions in India. Another limitation is the lack of clarity. The study is not clear as the content is not coherent. It is hard for the reader to determine the study aim because the investigator discusses mergers and acquisition in India and then valuation (Kumar, Paul & Kuriakose, 2011).
Kumar, G.S. Paul, J., & Kuriakose, S. (2011). Impact of recession on bank merger valuation. Indian commerce bulletin, vol 11, and issue no 2, vol12, issue no 1&2
Challenges That Leaders Face Globally
The content of the article has changed how I view the challenges leaders in the world face. The challenges leaders face globally is due to their weaknesses as they are unable to speak the truth. The leaders are unable to admit that they do not know. Leaders are supposed to show confidence, omniscience and competence, and this makes it hard for the leaders to acknowledge that they do not as this will affect their career. The leaders pretend they are right as admitting they do not have enough knowledge will affect their jobs. They argue that they know much than other people. Leaders today do not have moral humility and do not determine the impact their actions have on people. The leaders focus on fulfilling their own needs, but not societal needs.
The article addresses the causes of poor leadership in many organizations. The cause of poor leadership in organizations is the lack of moral humility. As stated above leaders do not confess that they have no sufficient knowledge regarding businesses. Also, lack of good education curriculum has affected leadership in the organization. The current education curriculum does not encourage moral humility instead it focuses on helping leaders attain economic and finance knowledge. The curriculum should be changed to teach leaders how to reflect and critique so as to enable them admits their weaknesses. I gained a lot from reading the articles. I was able to understand why leaders never admit their mistakes and how this has affected leadership in organizations. I have also learned the shortcomings of the current MBA programs and how they affect leadership as they do not encourage moral humility (The economist, 2012).
The economist. (2012). Academic view: A new philosophy of leadership. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/whichmba/academic-view-new-philosophy-leadership on 21/09/2012
Assignment: West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus is one of the diseases spread by mosquito. The disease was first discovered in parts of eastern Africa along river Nile hence the disease is called west Nile virus. In the year 1937, a female mosquito in Uganda was discovered to have the virus which caused the disease. The disease was later discovered in New York in the summer of 1999. The virus has developed in most parts of United States since its first discovery. West Nile Virus is one of arboviruses virus that is transmitted from arthropods to vertebrates. Mosquitoes feed on humans blood hence transmit the disease which causes infection in humans body. One of the main symptoms of West Nile Virus is flu-like conditions that make individual feel dizziness and some sort of discomfort, (A.D.A.M Pub Med Health, 2010).
The first case of West Nile Virus was detected in West Nile District in Uganda. A woman was found to be suffering from West Nile Virus. Since then, there have been cases of West Nile Virus in parts of Middle East, West and Central Asia, North Africa, Europe, and United States. Before West Nile Virus was discovered in US, in the year 1998 it was reported on Democratic Republic of Congo cases of the disease. West Nile Virus Israel Epidemics were reported in 1951 - 1954 and also came in 1957. In South Africa, West Nile Virus was reported in 1974 while in Rhone Delta France it was discovered in 1962. In Algeria West Nile Virus was reported in 1994 while Romania it came twice 1996 and in 1997. Czech Republic West Nile Virus was reported in 1997 and that of Russia came in 1999 among other countries, (Petric et al, 2012).
Thousands of people have reported dead due to West Nile Virus simply because it affects humans in a manner that they do not know. Some signs of the disease are same with those of other arboviruses diseases. Most countries that have reported cases of West Nile Virus conditions do not know the exact cause of the disease. International travel has been the major factor of disease transmission. Conditions of the disease range from mild to severe hence cases of death among those affected, (CDC, 2012).
Research shows that the disease spread highly when the climate is warm and decreases when the climate becomes colder. Mosquito transmission is the key aspect under which West Nile Virus is transmitted although there are other transmissions such as blood transfusion and transplants of organs among others. Although research shows that some animals carry virus that causes West Nile Virus, no evidence has been developed on transmission of the disease from animal to human beings, (A.D.A.M Pub Med Health, 2010).
Most of West Nile Virus infections are said to be mild and that is the main reason why they are not remarkable. Humans suffer from the disease but since they do not realize those symptoms early, they end up ignoring. The incubation period of West Nile Virus is from 3 to 14 days where serious infections developed. Mild infections include headache, fever, decreased appetite, and vomiting among others. Research shows that 1 out of 150 West Nile Virus infections results to severe infections, (CDC, 2012).
A.D.A.M Pub Med Health (2010). West Nile Virus. Retrieved from, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004457/, on September 11, 2012
CDC. West Nile Virus: Epidemiologic Information for Clinicians. Retrieved from, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/clinicians/epi.htm, on September 11, 2012
Petric, Dusan; Cvjetkovic, Ivana Hrnjakovic; Radovanov, Jelena; Cvjetkovic, Dejan; Patic, Vera Ma Paz.(2012) HealthMed., Vol. 6 Issue 2, p462-468. 7p
Difference Between “Describe” And “Model”
The words “describe” and “model” differ and used in different situations. The words have different meanings. Describe involves giving an account of something in words. When describing something, one should state the qualities and characteristics that are relevant to the object. Describe also means to represent something in words. Model is a representation of things on a small scale, and used to represent objects. The topic “describe and model” is essential in teaching as it helps in delivering instructions to the students and when delivering. Teachers should evaluate the students understanding after delivering instructions. They should evaluate students understanding during and after teaching a certain topic. This enables teachers to determine whether the learners have comprehended the content taught or not.
Evaluating students understanding is not easy for many teachers as they are unable to utilize the right terms to evaluate students. Teachers should develop the evaluation tests well to incorporate the learning objectives and goals. This can only be done by use of various terms and words like “describe”. The words should be included in the evaluation questions. Educators should use words such as describe to develop examination and tests when evaluating learners. In this case, students should be asked to describe a certain concept learned in class or describe a topic. Describing the topic enables students to include all the details learned about the topic or concept. They include all the necessary qualities and characteristics. This enables the instructor to measure student understanding.
Additionally, the word “model” is used when teaching students. Instructors ask students to represent a certain concept learned in class inform a diagram. The students are expected to incorporate the relevant details when modeling the concepts. This ensures learners understand the concepts taught in class. It enables students to connect different concepts and comprehend them. Therefore, I believe the topic is vital as it enables teachers understand the importance of the words in teaching. As a teacher, the terms “describe” and “model” have an impact on me. The terms impact how I develop my evaluation tests and examinations. As a teacher the tests and examinations, I develop should incorporate the learning objectives and goals. Teachers are supposed ensure students are tested well to see if the learning objectives were achieved or not. They also influence how I deliver instructions to students as I am supposed to ensure the instructions enable learners to attain the learning objectives. Thus, I will use the terms describe and model when developing tests and examinations for my students.
The terms mean a lot to me as a future teacher as they will determine my capability and competence as an educator in the future. I will be judged according to how I develop examinations and tests aimed at testing student understanding. I will be considered capable and competent if I am able to develop tests, examinations and learning objectives that incorporate the terms above. Additionally, I will be considered effective if I am able to deliver instructions using the terms well. Thus, the terms play a paramount in teaching and learning and teachers should be aware of them. They should also understand them well and their implications when used in evaluation tests. This will improve student learning and performance in schools as they will achieve their learning objectives.
Humans have different personalities. In order to understand and value the personality differences of others in the workplace or other places, one needs to learn of the different personality styles. To both leaders and employees, personality types are understood through Myers-Briggs Type Indicator or MBTI. Leaders and employees need to relate and work more naturally with people different from them. Organizations need to do a better job matching of people with projects or jobs fit to their personality. Understanding employees’ personalities is essential in establishing project teams and other organizational groups among others. It is necessary that organizations recommend regular MBTI and other personality tests to their employees to understand them better and to guarantee their fitness in their roles bestowed to them in the organization.
From the Jung Topology Test (humanmetrics, 2012), my type is ESFJ or Extravert (22%), Sensing (1%), Feeling (12%), and Judging (44%). This implies that I have a slight preference of introversion over introversion; marginal or no preference of sensing over intuition; slight preference of feeling over thinking; and moderate preference of Judging over perceiving.
Extraversion and introversion
When talking of extroversion, this means I love talking to other people, paying attention when they speak, or working on a car among other (personalitypage, 2012). This implies that I prefer the world outside myself to the world is outside me unlike the world within or inside my mind. Although the world inside of me is important, I prefer dealing with my external world. I prefer defining my life externally. I am preferred by my fellow colleagues for advice and clarifications on matters because I love listening to them to understand their situations and provide them with relevant solutions.
Sensing and intuition
When it comes to gathering information, I have no preference for sensing over intuition. When in the world, we are called to make decisions. Data is collected using the five human senses. There are two ways of perceiving data that has been gathered. Through sensing, I absorb data in literal concrete fashion. Through intuition, I prefer gathering abstract possibilities from gathered information. My sensing and intuition perception of collected data are almost equal only that under some situations, I have a preference for using my sense over intuition (personalitypage, 2012). Through my perception of sensing, I can comfortably live in the world just as it is. However, this is not effective without the use of intuition to come up with better ways of doing things, or perceiving underlying meanings people’s doings or sayings. As a person, it is clear that I don’t prefer sensing over intuition in most situations in my life.
Thinking and feeling
According to Jung, human’s capacity to make decisions is based on two sets of criteria which are thinking and feeling (personalitypage, 2012). In most cases, I avoid making my decisions based on logic and reason. On the contrary, my preference is to formulate a resolution on the foundation of the value system. In addition, the preference of making decisions based on value systems means that I prefer acting in ways that I believe to be right. In this case I am operating in a feeling mode. This implies that I put more trust into feelings by about 12%. This makes me a feeler whose decisions are made on the basis of individual case subjectively and under the influence of what I believe to be right in my own value system. As a feeler, prefer my emotions to guide me on what to buy other than establishing guidelines to use in doing things or performing tasks. For instance, I have a phone which I bought because I liked it and not because it was the best my money could buy.
Judgment and perception
As for my attitude towards the external world, and the way my life is lived on a daily basis, I am slightly inclined to use my judgment over my perception. As a person with a preference in judgment, I want things to be neat, established and orderly (personalitypage, 2012). On little occasions, I do not perceive things to be flexible and spontaneous. I want things settled once and for all. I do not have chances to be open-ended. Prior to doing things, I like making a list of things to do prior to doing them. I want to schedule things in advance such that nothing is left out when I am accomplishing them. In my formation of judgment, I want to have everything I need in place to ensure everything is time-honored prior to commencement of a project. Before purchasing any organizational resources, I always prefer writing everything I want down, make a budget for them, and have a rough idea of what to prioritize.
Sensation and judgment or SJ
As a person who has a preference to sensing over feelings, and judgment over intuition, I fall in the SJ group of people whose key objective is to seek security. These people are known as “The Guardians”. Under the guardians, as ESFJ four temperaments, I am among the group of “the providers”. As a person who prefers to absorb data literary, judgment issuing easy since I have concrete information necessary to make sensible decisions and settle any matters.
Step two: Type talk at work
In organizations, it is not only a person’s presence that matters but also their personality. The personality of an individual is extremely crucial in shaping and defining an organization. To the organization, the degree of personality of individual employees matter in agreement or disagreement with organizational objectives. Since human beings exhibit almost an unlimited personality’s variety, it means that there are similarly different varieties of employees’ personalities and leadership styles. Based on Kiersey, four combined temperaments take four dimensions which are based on communication, and use of tools. During communication, a person can be abstract or concrete. In the use of tools, a person can be cooperative or utilitarian. For any organization, different leaders have different leadership styles. As a result, it is necessary that employees understand the leadership styles of their leaders and for leaders to understand their employees (Kroeger, Thuesen, and Rutledge, 2002). To an employee, a decision may be in their beliefs of what is known to be right. However, this may be practically unacceptable to others. Understanding my leaders and other employees, I believe that I can sensibly reason what is expected of me in terms of my responsibility to the organization.
As a person in the guardians or SJ temperament, I believe I can become a better manager, educator, and administrator. Organizations need leaders who can lead by example. As a leader, I have the capability to communicate concretely such that employees understand organizational expectations from them. I can also be good at facilitating change through step by step attention to ensure no missed step (Kroeger, Thuesen, and Rutledge, 2002). In terms of resources usage, I am effective as I like planning and scheduling all activities that I am to get engaged. This way, I make sure that the necessary resources and tools needed to see a project to completion are available and ready for use when needed. Being a person who strictly observes rules and regulations, I can guide coworkers to engaging in what is right at all time. My use of concrete language may be a disadvantage as it may prevent me from clearly interacting with coworkers like the NT or rational temperament personnel who use abstract language in their communication (Kroeger, Thuesen, and Rutledge, 2002). As far as my services are essential, the services of persons from other temperaments are essential for the sake of the organization.
Humanmetrics, (2012). Humanmetrics Jung Typology Test. Retrieved from http://www.humanmetrics.com/hr/JTypesResult.aspx
Kroeger, O., Thuesen, J., and Rutledge, H., (2002). Type talk at work.
Personalitypage, (2012). Information about personality types. BSM Consulting, Inc. http://www.personalitypage.com/html/info.html
1. Masuo Basho was a Japanese poet essayist. The authors work is known for exploring the themes of beauty, death, suffering and loneliness. Masuo worked as a teacher to make a living, and he did not like the social and urban life of the literary circles. Instead, Masuo moved from one part of the country to another to gain inspiration for his work. He traveled to the west, east and northern wilderness to get inspiration for his work. Masuo’s poems are based on his immediate experience of the environment around him. The mood of the writer improved as he travelled throughout the country and he became more comfortable on the road. Masuo met a wide range of friends and started to enjoy the changing scenery and seasons. Also, his poems changed as he met friends on the way. The tone of the poem changed and became less introspective and striking. This is because the writer was happy with the world around him (Barnhill & Matsou, 2005).
2. The students planted a banana tree in the compound to ensure Masuo was not lonely. Masuo had moved from the public eye and lived an isolated life in his compound. Masuo never interacted with other people and he was always lonely. As a result, his students constructed a rural hut for him and planted a banana tree in the compound. The students gave Masuo a new haigō and a new permanent house. The banana plant changed Masuo life as he valued the plant and never wanted the miscanthus growing near it (Barnhill & Matsou, 2005).
3. The week’s reading is excellent as Masuo write his poems and work well to enable the reader understand it. The reader is able to know the challenges Masuo faced and what motivated him to write his work. His poetic devotion to beauty, nature and truth forced him to travel regularly (Barnhill & Matsou, 2005).
1. Faust had a positive attitude towards knowledge. He was an intellectual who constantly craved more knowledge. His craving for knowledge forced him to pursue various degrees. Faust was a scholar, and he had degrees in different disciplines. Most of the people were familiar with Faust and shared his knowledge with many scholars. Faust wants to gain more knowledge and does everything to get the knowledge and truth. Faust wanted more, and this was his down fall. Mephistopheles sees Faust’s craving for knowledge as the biggest vulnerability and uses this to win his soul. He focused more on self improvement and was not satisfied with knowledge has after studying medicine, law, theology, science among other fields (Bomarito & Whitaker, 2005).
2. Faust attempts to commit suicide because of desperation. God knows that Faust will be able to know the righteous path even when in desperation. As a result, God gives Mephistopheles authority to tempt him. However, Faust knows nothing regarding the significant secrets of the universe and this forces him to turn to magic. This does not help, and he becomes desperate and tries to commit suicide (Bomarito & Whitaker, 2005).
3. Margaret is used to show the characteristics of Faust as she is used by the devil to tempt Faust. The devil brings her to Faust arms, and Faust seduces her. The devil uses Margate to get near Faust and determine whether he has enough knowledge about the secrets of the universe (Bomarito & Whitaker, 2005).
4. I do not like Mephistopheles as he uses Faust weaknesses to win his soul. He pretends to help Faust by teaching him how to fly and helping him become handsome. However, Mephistopheles tempts Faust to work with him. He claims that Faust will be his servant in hell and Faust servant on earth. The two sign the pact using blood. My attitude towards the Mephistopheles remains the same throughout the story (Bomarito & Whitaker, 2005).
Bomarito, J., & Whitaker, R. (2005). Faust. Vol, 154. Detroit: Gale
Barnhill, D.L., & Matsou, B. (2005). Bashō's Journey . SUN Press
Citizen Confidence And Participation In Government
The government has been affected by the declining citizen confidence and participation in government. Many people are not aware of the services provided by the government unless things go wrong. The negative perception citizens have about government has affected local officers by causing burn out, turnover etc. Polls have shown that citizens do not have sufficient knowledge about the political process and do not engage in community organizations. Also, they do not trust the government. Others criticize the government because they do not know their role in government. They do not understand that the government was founded by the citizens for their own benefit.
Therefore, citizens have a responsibility for how the government functions and they should change how they approach the government so as to adapt to the current changes. Governments are created for various reasons. Governments are created to bring equality and protect the freedom of citizens. They are also created in order to accomplish goals that cannot be accomplished individually. Examples of the goals are constructing roads, promoting public safety and sewer. Hence, citizens should accept their weaknesses and support the government. The local government and political process offer a means that can be used to resolve competing interests and different needs found in the society (Putnam, 2001).
Local leaders should concentrate on drawing citizens into caring about the society. They should help the citizens understand the link between self interest and what is important for the community. This will enable citizens become involved in the government as they know their long interests will be met. This will help in developing policies and programs that benefit all shareholders as they will all be involved in the preparation of the policies (Putnam, 2001).
There are various ways that citizens can be involved in government by encouraging personal responsibility. Neighborhood based meditating organizations should promote values that are related to the values articulated via the democratic process. Religious organizations should teach values that are in line with values communicated through the democratic process. Citizens are supposed to participate in decision making in the country. In most countries including United States, decisions are made by the government leaders and this has a detrimental effect on the citizens. Most citizens have to live with solutions that they would never have chosen if they were given an opportunity. The policies made by leaders make the citizens depend on the government. The policies do not enable them become independent and enjoy their freedom. Hence, participating in decision making helps eliminate such issues and gives citizens an important share in their communities.
The citizens know what is good for them. In order to make the democracy successful citizens should stop using the government to solve problem. This is because the government has failed before to solve problems and will continue to fail. Citizens should be involved in policy making to curb the problem. Leaders should request citizens to make promises in return for the promises they make to prevent overpromising. This will ensure citizens and public official work as a team to make and implement public policies and programs. Citizens should be with the public leaders before and after preparing proposals. For instance, citizens can work with public leaders to make safety policies as they know it their responsibility (Putnam, 2001).
Further, reaching the mediating organizations such as churches can help in promoting citizenships. Leaders should reach the organizations they act as the mediator between the government and citizens. This will ensure citizens participate in government activities. Many people in united sates do not engage in government activities as the leaders are not informed them of their duties in the government. The leaders have not reached the churches and other organization to promote citizenship (Smith, 1998).
Citizens can become municipal citizens if they participate in their communities, work with other stakeholders and serve public purposes. There are three kinds of engagement that lead to development of municipal citizens. That is pragmatic, value enhancing and social capitalist. Citizens participate in their communities to develop solutions to problems. Some citizens are motivated by everyday activities to participate in the community. In value enhancing method, citizens participate in their communities to strengthen values in individuals and institutions like respect, productivity etc. In social capitalist approach, citizens are involved in their communities to develop networkers with other people and develop mutual relationships where every member is stronger.
Thus, leaders should include all the three types of engagement when developing civic initiative activities. This will ensure all citizens get an opportunity to participate. The three engagements have been used in Indianapolis and they have proved effective. The local leaders in Indianapolis claimed that there were issues that required solutions from the citizens. There were also organizations that required relationships and networks. Lastly, there were values that needed to be reinforced so as to bring stability and hope in the society. Including the three kinds of engagement enabled the citizens become citizens (Smith, 1998).
Putnam, R.D. (2001). Bowling Alone. Simon and Schuster
Smith, S. (1998). Strategies for reconnecting government and citizens. Report no 42
Diversity And Inclusion
Diversity and inclusion is a concern in many schools as educators have views about diversity and inclusion. Many educators support inclusion in schools as it eliminates discrimination, prejudice and stereotyping. Inclusion promotes diversity as students from different cultural backgrounds get an opportunity to learn. Teachers should support inclusion of diverse students in order to promote diversity. Not all teachers are able to include diverse students in the classroom due to lack of competencies. The teachers do not have cultural competence and this hinders them from understanding other cultures. Teachers should understand other cultures including their values, norms and mores and acknowledge their differences. Therefore, graduate students should be culturally competent before graduating to be effective in their careers. They should understand various cultures in the community, country and state so as to be culturally competent. As a student, I should enhance my cultural competence by understanding two minority groups in my state, West Virginia. I should understand the values, norms and mores of the cultures by carrying out research and hence the purpose the research project (United States Census Bureau, 2012).
The composition of population in West Virginia has changed for the past years due to migration of various ethnic groups. Whites have occupied West Virginia for many years, but the population of minorities has increased. The state has various minority groups including African Americans and Asian Americans. The African Americans account for 3.4% and Asian Americans 0.7% of the total state population. The two minority groups have different cultures. They have different cultural values, norms and lifestyles. Cultural values consist of various concepts such as spirituality, respect and collectivism. Norms consists of concepts like communication and language. Life style consists of education and income. Thus, the paper will examine the differences between the cultural themes and concepts (United States Census Bureau, 2012).
African Americans culture consists of cultures from sub Saharan Africa and Sahelean. The African Americans cultural traditions, values and beliefs survive slavery. African Americans have a wide range of values that govern their day to day lives. African Americans stress on spirituality and sharing. Religion is vital among African Americans, and they always seek help from the clergy in order to overcome life challenges. African Americans practice various religions including Christianity and Islam. Christianity is the most common religion among African Americans (United States Census Bureau, 2012). Many slaves were not allowed to practice their religions, and this affected them negatively. The slave owners stripped them their African belief systems. However, the saves managed to continue practicing some of the practices by incorporating them into Christian worship. Some of the practices included dance, enthusiastic singing and African rhythms. The practices remain a central part of worship in churches. Additionally, African Americans value respect. Elderly people should be respected according to the African American culture. Also, senior people in the society should be respected. African Americans believe that senior and elderly people are wise. They relate ageing with wisdom. In addition, the African Americans respect the family hierarchy. The husband is the head of the house, and he should be respected. The mother takes care of the family in African American families while the children assist their parents in their daily duties. African Americans encourage collectivism and members should focus on achieving the collective goals instead of individual goals. Lastly, they value families. They believe that families an integral part of the society and members should respect families. They promote strong family ties (Nichols, 2006).
African Americans have a set of cultural norms that govern the behaviors of the members. The norms govern communication and interaction with other people. African Americans do not encourage their members to maintain eye contact for long. A prolonged eye contact means differently in African American culture. The African Americans see a prolonged eye contact as a way of staring at a person. They also considered it as confrontation and aggressiveness. Hence, its members should not maintain an eye contact for long. African Americans do not encourage the use of “street slang” as they interpret it as ridicule. African Americans use appropriate language when communicating to avoid misinterpretation. The generation challenges African Americans have faced have led to the creation of different language patterns. Slave owners mixed slaves from different parts so as to prevent them from communicating using any other language other than English. This resulted to the development of pidgins. Thus, African Americans communicate either in English or any other African languages. African Americans do not address people by their first names when communicating unless they are requested to do. Addressing a person using the first name is termed as lack of respect. Moreover, the body language among African Americans differs from other tribes. The African Americans value body language, touch and motion when communicating and hence they affect communication between parties. African Americans maintain appropriate body language, touch and motion when communicating to avoid sending the wrong message. Thus, people from other ethnic groups should be aware of the African American cultural norms to avoid misunderstanding and encourage diversity (Adell, 1996).
African Americans do not have an excellent life style or better living standards because of the generational challenges they have experienced. Slavery had a negative impact on African Americans as it imposed several kinds of behaviors on African Americans. Slavery imposed survival instincts and mechanisms on African Americans. African Americans do not have high education attainment and income compared to other groups. This is attributed to social, political and economic factors (Faye & Leon, 2011). African Americans have been neglected for the past years and have adopted survival mechanisms. Most of the African Americans do not have college or university education as they have not had the opportunity to get a quality education. Most of the African American children access poor schools located in their neighborhoods. The poverty rates among African Americans are high and this has hindered them from meeting their basic needs such as education. Many children attend high poverty schools. The dropout rate is high among African Americans, and this has affected college completion. African Americans had the lowest college graduation rates in 2007 after native Indians. The college graduation rate for African Americans was 42% and for Asian Americans was 60% (Faye & Leon, 2011). The low education attainment has hindered African Americans from competing with members of ethnic groups for jobs in the job market. Hence, African Americans have relied on low income jobs. African Americans do not emphasize on education, and this has also contributed to low education attainment. This has affected their living standards as African Americans have low living standards compared to other ethnic groups. It has also affected their basic needs as parents are unable to meet basic needs for their children (United States Census Bureau, 2012).
Asian Americans Values
Asian Americans refer to people who originated from Far East, Southeast Asia and Indian continent. Asian Americans have different values that govern their behaviors. First, Asian Americans value hard work. The members are supposed to work hard so as to achieve their goals. Second, Asian Americans value family cohesion. Asian Americans have strong family ties members in nuclear and extended families live together. They encourage members to visit each other in cases where the members do not live together. Third, discipline is vital in Asian American culture. The members should be disciplined. Asian Americans do not encourage confrontation as this affects their relationships with other people. They encourage positive behaviors that promote unity and agreeable situations.
Moreover, the value education and hence most of the Asian Americans have a college or university qualification. Asian Americans do not promote individualistic culture but instead encourage collectivism. The members in the society are supposed to work together so as to achieve shared goals and benefit the society. Asian Americans are family oriented. They focus on the family as a whole even the extended family. They believe that the behavior or achievement of a single individual reflects on the whole family. Thus, they encourage the family members to help each other. Fourth, Asian Americans respect authority and family. They respect the elderly in the society and also higher generations within the extended family. They also respect social class. The family hierarchy states the roles of the family members and authority. The husband is the source, and the wife takes care of the family. The children focus on performing well in all aspects of life and being competitive. Asian Americans value spirituality. The most common religions among Asian Americans are Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and Hindu (Shen Wu, 2000).
Asian Americans have different norms that govern their behaviors and can be understood by examining communication and language. Asian Americans employ indirect communication when communicating with people. Asian Americans like indirect communication as it a sign of politeness (United States Census Bureau, 2012). They equate direct communication with rudeness. They do not speak out to people about their feelings, but take time to think and verbalize it indirectly. In addition, Asian Americans do not encourage direct eye contact as this is considered disrespectful. When speaking to elderly people, Asian Americans are not supposed to maintain a direct eye contact as this shows disrespect. Asian Americans interpret a handshake different from other ethnic groups.
Asian Americans consider a limp handshake as a sign of humility and respect, but other groups might consider it as disrespect. Physical contact like a hug between a male and female is considered as a sexual advance. Body language, facial expressions and motions do not play a vital role in communication among Asian Americans. Members from some of the Asian American groups might not show facial expressions or use body language to communicate. Lack of facial expression or verbal communication among Asian Americans does not show disrespect. Asian Americans do not address people using names as it shows lack of respect. They use titles to address each other. Asian Americans use different languages to communicate as they originate from different countries. Therefore, understanding the language differences between various Asian American groups eliminates conflicts. The members are able to communicate effective (Shen Wu, 2000).
The lifestyle of Asian Americans can be understood by looking an education attainment and income. Asian Americans have the highest education attainment and income in the country. However, the education attainment and income differs from one ethnic group to another. Most of the Asian Americans have college and university education.42% of the Asian Americans adults have a college degree. 48% of the Asian Americans have a bachelor’s degree compared to 27% of citizens in United States. Asian Americans parents stress on education and hence the high number of people with college and education degree. The high education attainment has contributed to high income among Asian Americans (Carmel & Davis, 2012). The median household income for Asian Americans is $65,000 (United States Census Bureau, 2012).
The purchasing power for Asian Americans is $509 billion. The median household and purchasing power will increase in the future by almost 47% by the year 2013. This has improved the living standards of Asian Americans. The Asian Americans have high living standards compared to other minority groups in the country and West Virginia. This is because they are able to afford their basic needs. Asian Americans have not been affected by social, political and economic inequality like African Americans. Hence, this has led to high education attainment among the Asian Americans and income. Asian Americans get a quality education and attend better schools than other ethnic minority groups. The drop our rate is low among Asian Americans as most of the children compete high school, college and university. The cultural values have also influenced the living standards of Asian Americans. Asian Americans ensure each family member is successful in life as this reflects in the family. Thus, parents invest significantly in children education in order to ensure the family is successful (Lee, 2004).
Discussion and conclusion
The African American culture and Asian American culture are similar as they have similar values and norms. Both cultures encourage respect for the elders and authority. African Americans and Asian Americans respect the elderly in the society and family as they are wise. The members also respect authority in the society and family hierarchy. They also value spirituality as religion to guide them in their daily activities. African Americans and Asian Americans do not encourage direct eye contact as it shows disrespect. African Americans associate direct eye contact with string while Asian Americans associate direct eye contact with disrespect. Some of the cultural values and norms differ including communication. African Americans value body language and motion, but Asian Americans do not. Asian Americans encourage indirect communication as the members do not express their feelings and thoughts openly with people. They first think and verbalize them indirectly. Asian Americans emphasize on education, but African Americans do not. The two cultures differ in terms of life style. The life style of African Americans depends on their experiences and current experiences. Social, economic and political factors influence their life style including education and income. African Americans have adopted survival mechanisms because of the hardships and slavery. On the other hand, Asian Americans have a better life style compared to African Americans. They have high education attainment and income (Carmel & Davis, 2012).
The cultural information above can be applied in the classroom in different ways. First, the information gathered can be used to develop culturally sensitive learning styles. The learning styles used to teach students from these two cultures should acknowledge the cultural differences and similarities. When designing the learning styles, one should consider the differences between cultures concerning eye contact. In addition, one should consider the difference between gestures, body language and physical distance in the two cultures. Second, the information can be used to develop instructions for the students. The educator should consider the differences between the two cultures and similarities when designing instructions. This will ensure students get appropriate instructions that meet their education and cultural needs. Third, the information can be used to develop teaching strategies. The teaching strategies should satisfy the requirements of different learners. The educator should bear in mind the cultural differences and similarities as they affect teaching and student understanding. They should consider things like eye contact, gestures, body language, communication etc. The ethnic groups have different a perception regarding eye contact, gestures, communication and body language. The educator should consider the lifestyle of each ethnic group as they impact student education differently. The lifestyle information can help prevent education inequality by ensuring all students access quality education (Lee, 2004).
Method used to get sources
The sources used included primary sources and secondary sources. The secondary sources consisted of books. The primary source consisted of articles and documents from authoritative organizations. The sources were searched using keywords such as West Virginia minority groups, African Americans, Asian Americans, African American cultural traditions and Asian American cultural traditions. Other words included African American culture and Asian American culture. The sources identified were reviewed to get the relevant information to complete the project. The report is vital to me as it will help me understand the differences between the cultures and factors that have affected education in the cultures. This will in turn eliminate education disparities in the community. The report will contribute a lot to teaching professionals it will enable educators modify the classroom to encourage diversity. The cultural information gathered will enable me become an effective teacher by being culturally competent.
Adell, S. (1996). African American culture. Gale
Carmel, S. S., & Davis, D. (2012). The relationship between education and ethnic minority factors in income among Asian Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology, Vol 3(2), Jun, 2012.
Faye, M.A., & Leon, R. (2011). Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community. Multicultural Education, vol18, issue no 4 p2-9.
Lee, J. (2004). Asian American Youth. Routledge
Nichols, C. (2006). African American culture. Rourke
Shen Wu, J. (2000). Asian American studies. Rutgers University press
United States Census Bureau. (2012). African American Data links. https://www.census.gov/cic/data_links/african_american_data_links.html
United States Census Bureau. (2012). Asian American Data links. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/cic/data_links/asian_american_data_links.html on 2012
United States Census Bureau. (2012). Black history. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/cb12-ff01.html on 25/09/2012
United States Census Bureau.(2012). Asian Americans. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/cb11-ff06.html on 25/09/2012
United States Census Bureau.(2012). West Virginia. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/54000.html on 25/09/2012
Gender Stratification and Society
The issue of gender stratification has been in the society for decades. Males and females have different ideologies and cultures that created the feeling of stratification. Gender stratification is part of the large issue of social stratification where societies divide themselves through aspects such as gender, race, religion etc. This topic is thus significant as gender gratification is evident in the modern society’s to-date. The degree of stratification from one society to another may vary.
Cotter & Vanneman (2004) discusses gender inequality from the perspective of the workplace. In the article Gender Inequality at Work, the author looks at how far the women have come in terms of getting employment opportunities. In the past, only a few women worked beyond their domestic roles. Most women engaged in domestic role of tendering for homes and rearing children. The few women who had opportunities to work earner meager wage. Luckily, in the 21st century, women have better work opportunities and earn better salaries than before. However, gender inequality still exists in the 21st century (Cotter, & Vanneman, 2004). The article points out that out of ten men nine are in the labor force. This is in contrast to three out of four women.
Careers have also been divided in such a manner that there are some careers that are feminine while others are masculine. Few women easily get opportunities to compete on the same platform as the men in the work force. Overall, the article points out that there is an improvement in female to male job opportunities in the labor market today. However, there still is a considerable gender disparity of employment opportunities between the genders.
Blackburn & Jarman (2005) in the article Stratification and Gender discuss the differentiation of occupations of the men and women. The article points out that occupational gender segregation should not be termed as gender inequality. Occupational gender segregation occurs due to a vertical and horizontal dimension of gender inequality. According to Blackburn & Jarman (2005), vertical dimension looks to the magnitude of advantages and disadvantages that men have compared to the women in a social structure. Horizontal dimension looks at segregation across gender without looking at aspects of inequality. The greater the horizontal and overall segregation, the less the competition between men and women for senior and managerial position in the labor force.
Anderen & Taylor state that every society has some degree of gender stratification. The author prefers to look at gender stratification as the distribution of social and economic resources across gender. Societies that give their women an opportunity for economic growth and advancement have minimal gender stratification issues. Societies with ideological and religious beliefs that support gender also have reduced stratification. Nations such as Sweden have a high level of gender equality (Andersen, & Taylor, 2007). This is because of government policies that encourage men and women to take active roles in the labor force and domestic responsibilities.
Other nations such as Afghanistan have severe laws that encourage gender segregation. Under the Taliban rule, the women did not have permission to depart their homes; they also wore clothes that covered their whole body. (Andersen, & Taylor, 2007). Expulsion was compulsory for girls enrolled in school and universities. The woman’s’ position in Afghanistan was strictly restricted to home care. Gender apartheid is the term for these extreme forms of gender stratification.
Gender is a social construct that determines the social and cultural responsibilities that men and women abide by within a social setting. In society, gender differences do not simply refer to the biological and physical differences but male and female societal expectations. Since time immemorial, men have always had a lower status in the society than the men. This has mainly been attributed to the role that they take in the society. However, scholars argue that this gender disparity varies from one culture to another. The issue of gender stratification is crucial as it affects the society as a whole.
Gender affects the opportunities and constraints that people face in their lives. It shapes individuals’ feelings, thoughts and cooperation with the society. Society has standards for both male and female, and from birth, the man or woman should abide by the genders standards of that society. It is crucial for society to promote gender equity. This will ensure men and women access fair and equal opportunities and operate on the same playing field.
The issue of gender stratification still lingers in the society. Whereas some societies have laid out strategies and procedure to minimize male/female inequality, others have held on to policies and regulations that foster gender stratification. In the past, the position of the woman was at home. The main responsibilities included child bearing and home management. Over decades, the women have become empowered and can now work. Males are also taking more responsibilities in home and child care. However, the gender disparity is still evident and thus more efforts to encourage gender equity should be adopted.
Andersen, M. & Taylor, H. (2007). Sociology: understanding a diverse society. Cengage learning.
Blackburn, R. & Jarman, J. (2005). Stratification and Gender. Retrieved from http://www.genet.ac.uk/workpapers/GeNet2005p4.pdf.
Cotter, D. & Vanneman, R. (2004). Gender Inequality at Work. Russell Sage Foundation and population reference bureau. Retrieved from http://www.bsos.umd.edu/socy/vanneman/papers/Cotter_etal.pdf.