The Research Process
Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis Development
The researcher's theoretical commitment to work not only influences the choice of a topic and the approach to the problem, but also affects the choice that makes the investigation procedures of the underlying theories that explain the topic of interest, and the specific form of analysis and dissemination of the results. In other words, the researcher is a variable in the research design, and particular socio-cultural backgrounds affect their adherence to the normative order of science, or interpretation of the result. So to make the study, the researcher incorporates and performs initial formulations of the research problem, which must be supported by empirical evidence that best supports the theoretical perspective present. The researcher needs to develop a research project based on a conceptual framework, related to the issue at hand, referring to the explanations given to the research question of interest the most appropriate procedures to respond to your questions as well as the strength evidence achieved in terms of methodological implementation (design, measurement and statistical analysis of the data obtained). The aim of this paper is to make a journey that allows the researcher to answer your questions based on the investigation procedure best suited to the topic of interest, to ensure the quality of their work.
If one accepts that the researcher is a variable in the design of their study, any research done manifest certain discrepancies between the rules "ideal" and "real" that give rise to a variety of problems, which may have theoretical implications, powerful in any science development. This directs the researcher to worry about developing the best possible conceptual framework, underpinning and support the research design to perform. To move forward, you have to set the research problem. The research problem suggests a relationship between two or more variables, in a clear, unambiguous, it can be empirically tested (verified or tested) by scientific procedures, in a time and place, and specific subjects. Pertaining to management, theoretical framework and hypothesis development lead to effective manner of conducting organizational study (Krishnaswamy et al, 2009).
The Research Process Elements of Research Design
The most appropriate design to test the effect of learning model is proposed, to answer the research question of concern. Research designs can be categorized in several ways, some by the nature of the relationship between the variables; exploratory, descriptive, correlational, explanatory or experimental, where carried out, laboratory experiments, field experiments and field studies, by exercised control over the variables can be non-experimental, quasi-experimental and quasi-experimental experimental. The experimental differ from the sense of not having random assignment of subjects to groups that are formed. The research paradigms are worldviews or belief systems that guide the researcher. These are of three approaches, which include positivist, empiricist, and quantitative, constructivist, phenomenological, and qualitative, and Pragmatic, that uses a mixed methodology, qualitative and quantitative. The three aim to achieve internal validity; infer whether the relationship between two variables is causal or not, external validity; generalization of experimental findings beyond the personas, scenarios and experimental study times, and ecological validity; degree to which research findings can predict the phenomenon in the real world.
The investigation process comes to observation, using models, conceived knowledge one way and comes within reason. The quantitative approach reads an analytical reality, is based on experimental observations, and uses extensive and probabilistic models, conceived realistically knowledge-empiricist, and proceeds within the deductive-universalist logic. The qualitative approach to reality read holistically, go to naturalistic observations, using intensive models, deep and comprehensive, so conceived constructivist dialogical knowledge, and proceeds in an inductive logic and particularistic (Alvarez et al, 2011).
Measurement of Variables Operational Definition
There are several ways to assess learning, and the most common is a checklist, which is used to evaluate procedures and simple tasks, is a measuring instrument rated, only have two options; the ability or no ability. This is a list of the basic aspects or whose presence or absence is evaluated in the subject or group. The researcher simply stated whether or basic behaviors occur or not, whether the subject has or not. The checklist has the advantage of allowing to quickly assessing the situation of a subject with respect to what is to be measured. In this way, one can learn what aspects should be worked and incorporated into the programming. Scales of measurement include numerical and descriptive, and they are the next level of checklists. They may include nuances regarding the degree of agreement or disagreement, whether or not a particular aspect exists. The descriptive scale is based on the numerical scale, and adds a small description, without being very specific for each of the elements that constitute it. Certification is a tool a priori, which contains the specific criteria, expected quality of a process. These criteria are expressed in a descriptive scale with different ranges of quality implementation or presentation. This facilitates assessment of the subject performance in situations that may be complex, imprecise and subjective (Jackson, 2010).
Other instruments used in the research are the scales, questionnaires, tests and surveys. These are developed according to various theoretical models of what measurement means. Data analysis is also influenced by the prospect qualitative, quantitative or mixed to take the researcher, by the type of research questions that are intended to respond, as well as the number and types of relationships between variables that are set.
Krishnaswamy, K., Iyer, A., & Mathirajan, S., (2009). Management Research Methodology: Integration of Methods and Techniques. Pearson Education India, Print.
Alvarez M., & Gowin B., (2011). Conceptual Elements of Research. R&L Education, Print. Jackson, S., (2010). Research Methods: A Modular Approach. CengageBrain, Print.
Chapter Review Assignments
1. Thunderstorms are storms that are accompanied by storms and thunders.. It is a cloud that produces thunder. A thunderstorm can either be a single cumulonimbus cloud, or several thunderstorms in a cluster.
3. Ordinary thunderstorms also referred to as ordinary cell thunderstorm forms in regions where limited wind shear, and usually forms as parcels of are lifted from the surface by turbulent overturning in the presence of wind. Ordinary thunders go through a definite life cycle of development that include cumulus stage, mature stage and dissipating stage. The first stage is known as cumulus stage, or growth stage. This stage involves the formation of cumulus cloud by humid raising air which condenses and dissipates at a certain height. As the cloud builds, there is transformation of water vapor into liquid, and the solid cloud droplets releases latent heat that keeps the rising air inside the cloud warmer than environment. The second stage is mature stage. As the cumulus cloud continues to rise, it reaches freezing point where cloud droplets grow larger and heavier. As the air continues to rise, it loses the ability to keep the particles together, and they start to follow. The air surrounding the cloud begins to be drawn into the cloud through the process of entrainment. The process of entrainment causes some of the raindrop to evaporate leading to cooling of the air. The colder air descends as a downdraft. The downdraft circulation is initiated by the downward drag force induced by the drops. As the cloud approaches the tropopause it beginnings to spread out horizontally, as an anvil in the dissipating stage.
The third stage is the dissipating stage. It occurs when the updrafts weakens as the gust font moves away from the storm. As precipitation develops throughout the cloud, the downdraft circulation gradually becomes more extensive until, in the dissipating stage, it occupies virtually the entire cloud.
7. National weather service define a severe thunderstorm as having large hail, at least ¾ inches in diameters, and/or damaging winds, at least 58 mph.
12. A squall line is a line of thunderstorms (multicell of thunderstorm arranged in a line) while a mesoscale connective complex is a large circular clusters of multicell thunderstorms.
16. How does the cell in an ordinary cell thunderstorm differ from the cell in a supercell thunderstorm
Cells in supercell storms are distinguished by the rotating updraft compared to the vertical raising in ordinary cell storms.
1. A tornado is a speedily rotating column of air that blows about a small area of intense low pressure with a movement that reaches the ground. The average diameter of most tornadoes is between 300 and 200ft. They have a wind speeds of less than 135 ml/hr although some violent tornadoes may have a speed of up to 25ml/hr. Tornadoes may assume a variety of shapes and forms ranging from funnel shapes to cylindrical shapes.
6. The tornado alley is susceptible to tornadoes because it often provides the suitable atmospheric conditions for the development of severe thunderstorms that spawn tornadoes. They have warm, humid surface air, which is overlain by cooler drier air loft inducing a conditionally unstable atmosphere, especially during the spring.
8. Tornadoes are most frequent in the months of April, May and June.
19. The initial Fujita scale was based mainly on damage incurred by a frame house. However, there many structures that are susceptible to tornado damage this promoted the revision of the original scale to include other structures. The modern Fujita scale depends on 28 damage indicators.
23. The rotation of a supercell updraft-the mesocyclone-originates from the upward tilt of horizontally oriented rotation. A horizontal vortex tube, generated by strong vertical wind shear, is bent into the vertical by a convective updraft. This way, a clockwise and a counterclockwise rotating flank of the updraft is created.
4. Vertically a hurricane has warm column of air from the surface upward. They weaken with height and areas of low pressure at the surface may become an area of high pressure above 12km. They have low pressure systems that lack font and are characterized by cyclonic winds.
7. Triggered by converging of light surface winds, high humidity in a deep layer and weak winds aloft.
12. A tropical depression is the first organized stage in the evolution of a hurricane: it is a system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined circulation storm. Winds within a tropical depression are at a speed less than 35mph. With continued organization and time spent over the warm tropical waters, a tropical depression develops into a tropical storm. A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined circulation pattern and a maximum sustained speed of 39 to 75 mph. When a tropical storm attain a speed above 74 mph, it becomes a hurricane.
13. A hurricane derives energy from warm water and the latent heat of condensation; where as a mid-latitude cyclone derives its energy from horizontal temperature contrast. The air in the center of a hurricane eye is sinking while that in mid-latitude cyclone is rising. Hurricanes weaken with height while cyclones strengthen with height. Hurricanes and mid-latitude cyclones have low surface pressure at the center, and they have both clockwise and counterclockwise wind flow.
14. Hurricanes are likely to peak in the Atlantic basin during the months of august, September and October.
b. October, because October provides a much more conducive humid environment necessary for the formation of a hurricane.
Most hurricane related deaths are related to storm-surge.
Chapter 7 review questions
4. on an upper-level chart, cold air aloft is associated with low pressure while warm air is associated with high pressures.
7. Initial air motion is caused by heating and cooling of air which produces a variation in atmospheric pressure. The resultant pressure gradient causes movement of air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure thereby causing horizontal movement of air.
8. The Coriolis force acts on air moving on the surface of the earth. In the northern hemispheres, the effect deflects the moving air to the right (clockwise) while in the southern hemisphere; it deflects it toward the left (anticlockwise).
10. Each contour line indicates the altitude above sea level at which a pressure reading of 500mb can be obtained. Therefore, contour lines are crowded in areas where pressure is low/surface dips rapidly due to changing air temperatures. Similarly, contours are sparsely located in areas where there is minimal air high air pressure and little change in air temperatures and as such representing weak winds
11. Geostropic wind is a wind whose velocity and direction are defined by a balanced relationship of Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. It is a hypothetical state where wind has no acceleration because the Coriolis Effect and gradient pressure effects are equal. Geostropic wind would be common in the equator because, at the equator, the coriolis is zero. Geostropic wind blow parallel to the isoheights.
14. Isobars are lines connecting locations of equal barometric pressure. Wind crosses isobars because they do not blow exactly parallel to isobars.
15. An upward-directed pressure gradient always exist on earth because pressure (and atmospheric mass) decreases rapidly with height. The tendency for air to rise from the surface to the lower-pressure region aloft is usually balanced by a downward force of gravity. Regions of low or high pressure are associated with cyclones and anticyclones. A cyclone basically refers to an area of relatively low pressure. It is characterized by a convergence of winds into that low-pressure center, which initiate rising motion.
Anticyclones are enclosed areas of high pressure and have opposite circulation patterns from cyclones. They are characterized by surface divergence because PGF initially pulls air outward away from high-pressure core in an effort to eliminate the pressure gradient.
1. If the world did not rotate, winds would blow in parallel lines because there would be no Coriolis Effect or PFG gradient. The wind would also blow in a constant speed due to lack of pressure variation.
3. In equatorial regions, the intertropical convergence zone is a boundary where air rises in response to the convergence of the northeast trade winds and the southeast trade winds. As the two air masses converge at the equator, dry air rises condenses into huge volume of thunderstorms. The region is of low pressure and air masses converge at the point from north and south hemisphere.
5. A large portion of the US geography is within the southwesterly wind belt.
7. The position of the main features of the general circulation and their latitudinal displacement sturdily influence the rainfall of many areas. The general circulation results into three main regions i.e. subtropical highs, ITCZ equatorial low and subtropical highs. The equatorial region (0-30o) is influenced by the ITCZ and subtropical. During summer, the subtropical move toward the pole and the ITCZ invades the equatorial region resulting into heavy rain falls. During the same period, the pacific high drifts northward. The sinking air on the eastern side produces a strong subsidence inversion, which keeps the northern hemisphere dry during summer. During winter, the subtropical high moves south resulting into polar front and storms.
10. Atmospheric jet streams are swiftly flowing air currents thousands of a mile long, a few hundred miles wide, and less than a kilometer wind. They exist where strong winds become concentrated in narrow bands. Jet stream plays a crucial role in the transfer of heat.
Differences: the polar front jet stream forms along the polar front while subtropical jet stream is found on the poleward side of the Hadley cell. The polar jet has a number of loops and it directs cold air into plain states while subtropical jet sweeps subtropical moisture in the form of dense cloud.
15. Land and sea breezes are formed as a result of the contrast between land and ocean surfaces. Sea breezes are formed when land adjacent to a huge body of water is heated sufficiently to cause rising of air. Sea breezes are a day phenomenon generated because land and sea respond differently to the daily input of solar radiation. They blow from sea to the land and have moisture. They are generally known as on-shore winds. Land breezes are formed when land adjacent to a water body is cooler than the water. Land breezes blow from the land to the sea and they are a night phenomenon. Land breezes are also known as off-shore winds and are usually dry winds.
Great response, I agree with you that the CAPSIM software has been a challenging program in the current world to learn. It is true that learning CAPSIM software program is not an easy task. I have learnt that the program involves a lot of things other than starting it up and plugging in numbers. In some instances, the software program makes it difficult in developing sound decisions. The company has always been making negative decisions that affect the effectiveness and operation of the company. I also second the author that although the software when learnt in the appropriate way it helps create an environment that enables an organization solve its challenges and operational problems. Comparing this post and my posting, there is no difference on how the question has been tackled. Clear explanation and sound examples are provided by the use of relevant sources of information.
It is true work of VP of marketing in an organization is to ensure that all activities geared to the development of an organization are running effectively. Great post, I agree with you that understanding areas that require improvement helps in enabling the team grow and expand to the next level. It is true that, with the sizes and performance strategies, someone is able to adjust in all areas that help marketing. Evidence shows that support and control are vital in an organization operation and development such as in the marketing department, in this organization. This posting has no difference with mine. It has explained clearly on the core areas of concern and this helps in understanding the required concepts.
Discussion Question One:
Intellectual property is the creations of the mind, literary and artistic works, inventions, as well as symbols, names and images used in trade. Intellectual property is divided into two categories; industrial property, which patent includes inventions, trademarks, industrial designs and copyright, which includes literary works, such as novels, poems and plays theater, films, musical, artistic works, such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs.
The importance of property was first recognized intellectual in the Paris Convention for the Industrial Property Protection of 1883 and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886. Intellectual property should be protected because the progress and welfare of mankind lies in its capacity for new creations in the areas of technology and culture. Secondly, the legal protection of these new creations encourages investment additional resources, in turn, leads to further innovation. Thirdly, promotion and protection stimulate industrial property economic growth, generate new jobs and industries and improve the quality and enjoyment of life. An intellectual property system effective and equitable may contribute to that all countries develop the potential intellectual property as a powerful instrument of economic development and welfare social and cultural. System intellectual property helps establish a balance between the innovative interests and interest public, providing an environment in, which creativity and invention can flourish to the benefit of all.
Patents provide incentives for people as it offers recognition for their creativity and material reward for their marketable inventions. These incentives encourage innovation, which ensures constant improvement quality of life.
Discussion Question Two:
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and ICCPR, which the U.S. is a party, state that people have the right to freedom of expression including the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information or ideas of all kinds.
United States protects this right by the First Amendment of the Constitution, which stipulates that "Congress will not enact any law respecting an establishment of religion, or banning the free exercise, or abridging the freedom of press, speech, or the right of the people peaceably assemble, and petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”
The U.S. Constitution protects even the most offensive and controversial demonstrations against government repression and allows the regulation of freedom of expression only in specific limited circumstances. The U.S. system is based on the idea that the free exchange of ideas fosters understanding and search for truth and refute the falsehoods allows. The United States believes that the best way to counter offensive expression-and experience has shown, not by regulation, but with other expressions.
Discussion Question Three:
All patent owners are obliged, exchange for protection patent, and publish information about their invention in order to enrich the total body of technical knowledge the world. Thus, the patent provides not only protection for the owner, but information to the user.
Discussion Question Four
Application for patent contains, usually, the title of the invention, as well as an indication of its technical field; must include the background and description of the invention in a clear language and details sufficient for a person with average knowledge of the area in could use or reproduce the invention. These descriptions are usually accompanied by visual materials such as drawings, drawings or diagrams to better describe the invention.
Adams, S., (2012). Information Sources in Patents. Walter de Gruyter, Print.
Chapter 5: Relations
In chapter 5, Kerlinger and Lee (2000), discuss relations and its importance in understanding science. The chapter has five subsections, in which the authors describe relations as sets of ordered pairs, determining relations in research, some ways to study relations, and multivariate relations and regression, in that order. In science, according to the chapter, relations are between classes or sets of objects. A relation, therefore, is a set of ordered pairs. For example, scores of intelligence and achievement are sets that can be considered as one set of pairs, which becomes a relation. The relation becomes easily visible if the sets of scores are plotted against each other in the form of graph, with each set of score on its axis. Objects, people, points, symbols, or numbers are examples of items that can be members of sets. Determining relations in research involves comparing items in paired sets, and establishing how many or how much of the scores in one set corresponds to a certain amount of the item in the other set. For example, the relation between intelligence and achievement can be identified by plotting the respective scores on the graph and drawing a regression line.
The book also discusses the determination of accurate relations between items, which requires establishing rules of correspondence and mapping. This involves setting the domain and ranges. The domain defines the set whose objects being related while range defines the first and the second elements of the scores or items. Basically, numbers are assigned to other numbers, objects, numbers, symbols, points, or people, according to rules. Listing and pairing members of sets, drawing graphs, or creating tables are some of the ways of studying relations. The chapter concludes by discussing examples of research that demonstrates the identification or relations and correlation between items, for example, the correlation between religious type and productivity rate.
Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H.B. (2000), “Foundations of Behavioral Research”, Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers
Nonsense World As A Reflection Of Reality In ‘Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland’
This paper explores the nonsense world of ‘Alice in Wonderland’ written by Lewis Carroll and shows, however illogical this might seem, that it reflected the reality its author lived in and the society he belonged to. The research was conducted by analyzing the different characters of the story (such as animal characters, Alice’s character etc.) as well as the language used in it.
“Alice in Wonderland” is a very popular book. People choose to read it all over the world (Zongxin Feng, 2009), and it was translated so far into most of the languages. By many, it is considered to be just an entertaining story for children due to all the funny and ridiculous characters and nonsense. It is interesting then, how simple children’s book became so popular. Probably it gained its popularity because it is not a particularly children’s book, but rather a book written for a philosopher and by a philosopher (Feng, 2009). This becomes obvious to a reader when while reading he encounters so many phrases reflecting life wisdom and philosophical questions, reflected for instance in Alice’s dialogs with the rest of the characters. In general, “While nonsense normally makes no sense, the nonsense in Alice makes more sense than in other books of jokes or other pieces of literature” (Reng, 2009, p. 239).
Therefore, for this seminar paper I chose to focus of Lewis’ “Alice in Wonderland” and to investigate, how the nonsense in this immortal piece of literature reflects reality.
Alice in Wonderland developed by Lewis Carroll is a fictional tale that talks about a young girl by the name Alice. She spots a white rabbit that seemed interesting to her, and by muttering about being late, she decided to follow down a rabbit hole that leads her to a magical world. After entering into the new unknown world, Alice finds a bottle of potion, a small door, and a table with a tiny gold key. The bottle had a note that was attached that read “drink me.” She noticed that she was too large to enter into the door, and that is when she decided to drink the potion in the bottle something that made her shrink into a size that she was able to fit through the door without any struggle, (Kelly, 2009). After Alice has shrunk, she noticed that she had made a mistake of leaving the tiny gold key to the door on the high table. Concurrently, Alice spotted a box underneath the table with the gold key that had a piece of cake. The box was labeled “Eat me” and this made her confused. She immediately decided to take the cake and ate. She soon began to grow tall hence enabled her to reach the key. After taking the key, she realized that she was too big to fit through the door, and that made her cry, (Flescher, 2007).
The white rabbit that Alice was following into the magical world appeared once more, and it was still concerned on the issue of being late. She decided to seek help from the elegantly dressed rabbit. The rabbit made fan, dropped his groves and ran away. When Alice picked up the rabbits groves and fan, she started shrinking. Alice dropped the fan after she realized that they made her shrink once again. She swam through her puddles of tears where she came across many interesting although strange animals. The animals grant Alice some wisdom that revealed what had been happening in her entire life. She is later invited in a tea party by Mad Hatter one of the characters. Alice is also being ordered to engage in a croquet play with The Queen of Hearts. On one occasion of the Queen’s trials demand, Alice does something that upsets the queen who orders for the Alice death. She started running for her safety, and it’s at this point she wakes up and discovers that it was not a reality but just a dream, (Clark, 2008).
Nonsense in Wonderland
Throughout his book, Lewis Carroll develops the notion of nonsense which becomes a crutch for critics and readers alike. It becomes a question to lose its answer, an excuse for a word to lose its relation in all aspects, and a moral to lose its concept of morality. In his writing, the author tends to put some meaning in something that seem meaningless, and that is where people tend to perceive his writing as something useless. He uses the concept of nonsense in creating some realities in the human environment. The absence of meaning or rationality in Alice’s adventures, in the Wonderland, creates some sound thoughts on the reality that reflects our everyday activities. According to ‘the oxford English dictionary,’ nonsense system is a means for the nonsense or sense dialectic to exist. The author has used this system by resolving the issue of dialectic by providing the nonsense concept in its own sense. The writings of Lewis Carroll in the Alice book begin and the end is such a way that the nonsense crafted ignores the dialectic and creates an environment that pose some reality in life, (Carpenter & Mary, 2011).
In his collection of essays, Donald Rackin gives an excellent example of how the nonsense system has been used by Lewis in his writing to create sense or reality in his writing. Despite many skillful attempts to disregard the Alice book, a fully satisfying explanation of the writing perennial hold and meaning has been provided by the author. The adult imaginations tend to develop despite the critics and shrewdest scholars. The success of the book depends upon a lack of applicable meaning which gives a hint on the reality that poses or revolves around the human world setting. According to Donald Rackin arguments, the nonsense in the wonderland is in a form of delicious indeterminacy and liberating which is immunity from the usual human demands that are upon classics to make good sense about real life. Rackin expounds on the issue of inconsequentiality by the use of ‘delicious’ which triteness the entire concept. This absurdly misrepresents the nonsense in the wonderland by lack of applicable meaning and creating absence of rationality in the context. For critics and the shrewdest scholars and even the adult imaginations, the way things should always appear or steeped in rational thought, nonsense is nothing than less terrifying. Dictionary again provides a guide towards the interpretation of the underlying concept, (Ostry, 2003).
Realization, appreciation, and mental apprehension of (state of things, fact, and some truth) base the suitable entry that suits our instance of sense in the wonderland. Comprehension also contributes to the perception of the meaning of sense. Rackin argues that anyone has the potential of judging the book and make good sense. Readers can also obtain a good perception of the author’s meaning in his writing despite its classification as nonsense. He claims that although Carroll has put a lot of emphasis in the concept of nonsense in developing his writing, we can use the concept to make good sense about real life, (Rackin, 14). By this, Rackin develops a closed system that equates the positive, nonsense, sense, and negative sense within that system. In other words, Rackin views nonsense as the core aspect that Lewis Carroll had put in place when developing his writings. For both the interpretation and narrative, Rackin frees the reader from the inherent discomfort nonsense and reduces its consequences just like the way he uses ‘delicious, (Carpenter & Mary, 2011).
Jacqueline Flescher also examines on the concept of nonsense in wonderland as developed by Lewis Carroll. In her essay, Flescher delineates the boundaries of the nonsense by examining the language used in the development of the book. Just like Rackin, Flescher also begins her review by defining the concept nonsense. She declares “nonsense bears the stamp of paradox. The word paradox is the concept of disorder and order,” (Flescher 128). She claims the backbone of nonsense in all situations must be a consciously regulated in a given pattern. The pattern should be developed in such a way that the reader has the potential to distinguish the concept of sense from nonsense. Flescher continues in examining this concept where she offers two approaches in which nonsense can be systematized and ordered, by way of ‘metrical framework’ and language. Based on her arguments, Flescher says that language provides endless possibilities of upsetting the order of behavior for it can offer a coherent system in a variety of ways.
She claims that the backbone of any given system should have a clear stand in order to act as a regulator for the most disorderly manners and behaviors. It is with no doubt that in one, sense, readers view nonsense as the systematic upheaval of the expected situation, (Clark, 2008). For instance, in the mad tea party, there were some consistent misrepresentations of Alice’s expectations for manner. March Hare offered Alice some wine in an encouraging tone only for Alice to look around the table and get tea only. Alice was not happy after realizing that there was no tea to a point where she angrily told Hare that there was no point of offering something that was not there. This kind of nonsense portrayed in this book gives some reality in life simply because there was no need of Hare to offer something that was not there. Although the instance gives us some nonsense imagination, we get a lesson that is vital and important in our life, (Rackin, 1998).
Metrical framework is the second form of nonsense that Flescher has described in her essay. This form of nonsense although different tends to achieve the same effect towards the writings of Lewis Carroll. It is a condition where the author tends to develop a verse carries some sense of nonsense when presenting the information. The author makes a given verse suitable to act like a vehicle that drives some sort of nonsense towards the parties targeted. The metrical framework nonsense system is where the author exploits a given letter in his work. In this instance, Flescher’s review of the Lewis Carroll’s work exploits the letter M. Flescher provides a free association of things that are totally incompatible or comparable such as much, memory, moon, and mouse traps. The above two classifications of nonsense as examined by Flescher gives a clear generalization of Rackin’s thought about nonsense and its use in the Alice book. By virtual of systematizing nonsense and giving it framework, it is clear that Lewis Carroll enabled the concept of nonsense to have a sense towards the reader. Flescher, Sewell, and Rackin acknowledged that Carroll developed some sort of nonsense in his writing. Their concern was in examining the level of sense that can be withdrawn from the nonsense concept that is being discussed by the author, (Carroll, 2000).
The Argument of Reality
Throughout the entire writing, Carroll uses technical words and language that was meant to befuddle and bemuse expressions and manipulation of words in different ways. It is clear that the author of Alice in Wonderland uses this technique for the purpose of proving the powerfulness of concepts, words, and individuals in different situations. The existence of Wonderland itself is something that begs in development of argument of reality from every angle in the book. It is true that this concept mimics the issue of reality so perfectly although some of its absurdities could be considered logically to some point. In the world we are, it is true that we have bodies that develop in a steady pace throughout our lives. The world of wonderland makes Alice question her own identity simply because of its sudden bursts. With a disappearing body and a wide grin body, the Cheshire cat tends to explain to the Alice on the happenings of the wonderland. The cat claims that the happenings are contrary to occurrences in what Alice thinks about the concept of perception, (Carpenter & Mary, 2011).
Reality is something that exists independently of mind, ideas, and knowledge. It has been defined in many ways by different people in the world of literature. Einstein has quoted reality to be an illusion that exists in what people think in their life. In this way, Einstein considers reality to be a subjective concept that consist different variables that are created within the mind of a human. Neil Turnbull came up with another definition of reality where he combined two ideas and established a concept of dualism. This is the belief that reality has the potential to exist in both the matter and the mind. In this way, if reality is something that can be internally created or processed, then there should be no argument against the existence of something like wonderland and its elements, (Clark, 2008).
Simon Blackburn uses the nonsense in the Alice in Wonderland in developing the concept of reality. Blackburn argues that one can claim the existence of something by using an analogy. Just like Lewis Carroll uses things that exist in explaining his writing, you must base your comparison in a forum that has similarity with what you are talking about. In the case of Lewis Carroll, the protagonist developed is endlessly comparing England against Wonderland something that results to frequent falling disappointed difference between the two elements. Like England, the world of wonderland has a lot of wealth that makes Alice confused, (Sewell, 1976). She was unable to realize that she was not in her real motherland thus making her feel comfortable and relaxed for all situations that surrounded her. According to Blackburn, Alice had assumed that all things were moving in the right direction, and she had all the freedom to feel as if wonderland had the potential to act the same way as her reality. When this concept is argued based on analogy, one should infer his explanations from experience, especially based on direct observations. If Alice had used Blackburn’s logic, she would have assumed that her moves and actions in wonderland could have provided similar or parallel outcomes as those in her own reality, (Carroll, 2000).
Observing wonderland in a more strict approach would result to nothing more than an offshoot of the reality that has already been established. This would comprise same materials although they will be lacking certain continuity concepts that relate to laws of physics and nature in general. In this single world, there are small worlds that are different depending on the people living there, culture, life, environment, and nature. Based on the personified animal and elements that changed shapes in the wonderland, Alice discovered that nonsense has realities when they are applied in the human life, (Ostry, 2003). The conundrum of Alice gives an example of design theory or the age old Teleological argument. Through such theories, it is clear that reality and wonderland shared similarities that made them identical. The world and wonderland as presented in the writings can be assumed that they were intelligently designed something that proves that they were both real. In order to come up with something exhibiting, something or someone must have designed it and that where the concept of reality in the nonsense portrayed in the Alice in Wonderland develops. Having this in mind, if the real world of Alice exists, then the wonderland would have the same notion with a similar design, (Flescher, 2007).
Relativism is the only concept that has the potential in explaining reasons that made Alice become troubled by the structures of Wonderland. In our world, we tend to become stubborn when encountering things that are new, technical, and challenging. Similarly, Alice is developed in a stubborn manner for she in most cases is forced to adapt to a different mindset and culture. She had the belief that creatures in the wonderland were conspiring against her thus she approached the situation with a set of preconceived notions and won paradigm as well as self expectations. This is something that is common in our life, and that is why the nonsense that Alice tends to encounter becomes reality in our everyday activities. By the time Alice met Caterpillar, she had in mind that everything was against her. She was so filled with ire on the conversation that they were going to have. Since she had the belief that everything and everyone was wrong or mad, Alice did not acknowledge that what constitutes absurdity and normalcy, (Kelly, 2009).
When one is in a foreign country or world, one tends to perceive things in a different way and approach. This is clearly portrayed in Lewis Carroll writings in the Alice in Wonderland. If Alice was in England, she may have perceived those creatures in a different way as she perceives them when in wonderland. In wonderland, she perceives those creatures in a rude and offensive manner for she believed that they were all against her. In reality, when you are mistreated in a given way, you take things in much different way as you could have taken them when you are at home. Having in mind that she was not in England; Alice had all the freedom and the rights to take things as she wanted. This is a clear indication that one way of life mindset is not better than the other in our life. The concept of nonsense in the Alice, in the wonderland, shows that humans lack vital aspects that may help them in their life development. Provided both sets of mindset are well adapted and functions properly to the world in which man lives, there can’t be a wrong and a right. Things would move in a state that gives parties no forum to examine the wrong or a right, (Carpenter & Mary, 2011).
It is with no doubt that every facet of life and the way we know the world, either factual or fictional, it has some sort of subjectiveness in it. No doubts that perception is viewed in one way or feeling among many others, which is capable of being distorted or being manipulated. The author of Alice in wonderland was in a position to show how easily the senses can be manipulated in its setting. Although sense in this case is fooled in an easy manner, it doesn’t imply that Alice’s experiences were not realized or left behind some impression within her, (Kelly, 2009). Irrespective of the nature of wonderland, either a product of man’s imagination or real, author of the book proved that there exists no single linear way of interpreting the concept of reality. Based on different explanations about reality, reality is something more that what is perceived or seen. Evidence shows that reality consists of a smattering of perspective and concepts that offer character and depth to the lives we live. In the Alice in wonderland, readers get to see that reality is far too intricate and diverse thus it is not possible to confine it to only one denotation. Without the complexities found in the nonsense situations, there would be no mystery in our life or some curiosity that drive people to engage in activities of wanting to know more and discover, (Sewell, 1976).
The adventures of the Alice in Wonderland occur as they are explained at the end of the story. Inexorably, the adventures are full of fabulous and strange events all along. It is with no doubt that there is more reality presented by the nonsense concept than one would expect from such a writing which has become a synonym for imagination and dream. To some level, it is clear that Lewis Carroll managed to focus on the realistic concept although he presented it in a nonsense approach. Alice, just like any other child is involved in childish activities by the author. Some of the familiar child activities that Alice is involved include meeting new people, having a tea party, dancing, playing games, making new friends, expressing judgments about people she meets, listening to tales and poems, running, swimming, and recite poems, (Clark, 2008). She also revises some pieces of school knowledge, discusses lessons and school, she observes cooking and making funny behaviors all along. Apart from the numerous sudden size changes of Alice, all other things remain the same just like those of a kid. She experiences a child’s life similar to the one should would have experienced when she was at England. Everything that appears at the wonderland world is similar to those that live in England, and that is the reason that makes Alice’s adventures in wonderland has some realities in it, (Ostry, 2003).
In most cases, Alice is left accusing the new world simply because it does not provide her with what she expects. Her expectations are too high, and that is the reason why she thinks that the world at wonderland and all its elements are against her. In reality, when someone goes to another world, it becomes difficult for the person to cope with the situation of the environment. Lewis Carroll wants to put across some concepts of how most people tend to behave when things change in their life. Although the life that Alice encounters when at wonderland is similar to the one at England, there are some instances when she eventually feels weak and believes that the world around her was unfair. It is true that Alice’ adventures in the wonderland has numerous concepts of realities that are presented by illustrations developed by the author. Carroll tells his story in a different manner in order to please Alice. In the real world, most people tend to behave in different ways that are unique in order to achieve what they want. The same case applies to Carroll simply because he manages to develop some sense in nonsense concept but only for those who understands the aspect of reality in the life setting, (Flescher, 2007).
Some of the aspects used to develop the story apply to the real world. It is true that some names that have been used in Wonderland world coincide with names that Alice would have encountered in England. The concept of allusion has been used by the author in order to make some connections towards the story development. In our life, there are times when we encounter difficulties in our activities. In Alice’s adventures, in wonderland, the author tends to create some sort of difficultness in language use. Carroll mocks the dry language in the story which makes it difficult for the kids to capture or understand anything, (Carroll, 2000). The sense in such a nonsense is that, in the process of making our life complete, there are areas in life where we find things to be difficult more that we could have expected. When things become difficult in our life, and we want to explain they are difficult, we tend to do them in order to prove they are indeed difficult. In the Alice’s adventure, in wonderland, the author has managed to develop this concept thus creating reality of the nonsense that most people would never have thought, (Rackin, 1998).
In the world of wonderland, children used to play with things in an imagination concept and would even replace real things that no one would ever think. This is something common and real in the real world. Alice would recall how original kids playing instruments look like. Lewis Carroll has managed to create a different world for Alice although in a manner that Alice feels comfortable. For young readers, it might be less shocking to read the book as compared to an adult. Although most of the concepts presented by the author are seen childish, when evaluated or examined in a critical approach, it is with no doubt that Carroll’s writings provide some concepts of reality. When reading the story of Alice’s adventures in wonderland, it would seem nonsense for those who don’t put some form of concern, but in the real sense, there exist numerous elements of reality. There is a lot to be extracted from the story other than the concept of nonsense that the other highly presents to the readers, (Flescher, 2007).
Sense of Nonsense
Alice’s adventure in wonderland is a book of fiction enjoyed by children for its nonsense. For the adults, reading such a text is wastage of time although when critically examined, it makes some sense out of the nonsense concept. The success of the author’s writing is that he managed to capture the mind of the child by creating masterful imagination and presenting it in words that kids are able to get. It is true that the sums of all elements that seem nonsensical in wonderland make sense to the target audience, and this is where the concept of reality comes in. The author paints the road through wonderland to have loneliness and frustrations, but at the end there emerged the concept of understanding. In real life, we encounter tough roads that when we struggle, we end up getting what we want in life. The same case applies to the story of Alice when she encounters adventures in the wonderland world. Before she managed to understand what was going around, she would get things difficult and challenging to a point she thought that all things were against her, (Carroll, 2000).
There are numerous logical inversions presented in the Alice’s adventure in wonderland that creates a sense out of the nonsense that the author presents. Lewis Carroll writes that Alice grows small and big due to the mushroom that she takes. Indeed mushroom has the nutrients that make someone grow big. Although, in his writing, he pointed the concept of mushroom in order to develop some jokes, it is true that mushroom can make someone grow big. The game of chess that Alice plays against the queen and the Red king as well as the looking glass world provided some sense out of the nonsense that Alice encountered. The author of the book makes minimal attempt represent Alice’s adventures as anything apart from fantasy. This is due to the fact that everything presented occurs entirely within the dreams that Alice comes across. Even if Carroll would ever think of leading the reader to something else, the story seems highly implausible in that all her adventures were within her dreams. With a series of narrative structure, self contained vignettes, and fantastic, Alice becomes somewhat weak in the wonderland world. In a normal environment, when someone encounters different elements of life and activities, one becomes weak. This is the sense that can be derived from the nonsense presented by the author, (Kelly, 2009).
The elements in wonderland take more of dreamlike situation for the actions streams in consciousness. The author narrates to the reader on how Alice spots a white rabbit and then runs down through the rabbit hole. As in a dream situation, emotions and thoughts dictate reality, and by such concepts Alice wonders on ways that she would use in getting through the doors. Conveniently, a portion labeled ‘drink me’ appears, and that is what makes her manage to go through the doors after she shrinks. It is something that makes Alice confused for she doesn’t understand how things in the wonderland world appear and responds to the nature. When she realizes that she did not pick the gold key she becomes angrily again but on looking down the table, conveniently she gets a cake labeled ‘eat me’ where she grows big. Such kind of events keeps on occurring and made Alice feel depressed. The nonsense presented by the author in such scenes is enough to develop some sense in them. It would make no logic for Alice to grow then become small, and later get carried away by her own tears. In real life situation, there are some things that are difficult to explain such as those faced by Alice when encountering her adventures, (Sewell, 1976).
As long as one explores the adventure, the more things become technical, amazing, and wonderful. The nonsense that the author presents in Alice’s adventures, in wonderland clear, explains the concept of some sense in it. Although most adult readers may not conceptualize the sense presented, a critical examination of the book gives a clear picture on what people expect or experience when they move or go to places they are not aware. The imagination of a young girl is an indication of sense in the nonsense presented by the author simply because we clearly see on the reality of Alice’s mind. The way the author has presented nonsense in his book, it is clear that everything in wonderland revolves around Alice. Alice is the object observer in a mad, inside out world, upside down world that in itself takes on a kind of self duality that seek to develop a sense of the nonsense, (Ostry, 2003).
Most of the nonsense situations that the writer presents in his book when examined critically have some sense on them. The end of any given dream has been discovered to be the greatest moment of clarity. This is so when you wake up abrupt without expectations like the Alice does in her dreams. In such a situation, when you realize that you are alone, you become frustrated and fear. Alice most incisive moment is when she realizes that she was alone and that what she was going through were just mere dreams and nothing close to reality. Most of the child games are developed in a way that resembles the world of wonderland. It is with no doubt in a normal setting, when someone finds that there are some difficulties in life a person feels as if he or she is dreaming. This is clearly demonstrated by the author when Alice finds she is too big for the world of nonsense she gets expelled and this occurs as a point of waking up, (Flescher, 2007).
In the tea party that Alice attends, there are no defined rules and regulations that direct actions and behaviors of those invited. Alice is once offered wine but after looking around she does not find any win. She becomes furious and talks in harsh words to March Hare. The nonsense of offering someone something, which is not there develops a sense of how Alice reacted and behaved. The dreams of Alice start with a curious stumble and later end with a furious rumble. In order to confine to her fantasy, Alice passes some size shrinking conditions. During this period, her small stature, which she wears gets wearied off, and it’s at this point she begins to seen the concept of nonsense in it. Just like a child that enters the stage of adolescence, Alice must have focus and come face to face with her position in the world she is living. This clearly gives us the central emotional and moral motif in Alice which is the isolation. The concept of isolation develops with the abandonment of childhood to another stage which is adolescence. It also comes with psychological fear of growth in what she does plus the sense of being displaced that someone feels in an irrational and illogical place, (Rackin, 1998).
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Carroll, Lewis. (2000)“Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.” The Annotated Alice. Ed. Martin Gardner. New York, New York: W.W. Norton & Company
Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1992.
Carroll, Lewis. The Annotated Alice. New York : New Tenniel. Notes by Martin Gardner. American Library, 1974, c1960. Illustrated by Sir John
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Ostry, E. (2003) “Magical Growth and Moral Lessons; or, How the Conduct Book Informed Victorian and Edwardian Children’s Fantasy” The Lion and the Unicorn 27.1 (January 2003): 27-56. EBSCOhost: Project Muse. East Stroudsburg University:
Rackin, D. (1998) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass: Nonsense, Sense, and Meaning. New York: Twayne Publishers
Sewell, Elizabeth. “The Nonsense System in Lewis Carroll’s Work and in Today’s World.” Lewis Carroll Observed. Ed. Edward Guiliano. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1976.
www.usingenglish.com accessed 5 September 2006 < http://www.usingenglish.com
Sun Rise Senior living
8300 Burdette Rd. Bethesda. MD 208817
I have the honor to report what has happening to my job as a security at Fox hill. I have been facing many challenges ever since I left my previous work because things have never been all that easy. There has been a lot of humiliation and intimidation from my supervisor something that affects my working condition in a great way. I once worked for five weeks without receiving my pay check. When I inquire from Ian who is my supervisor, he told me that I should write a resignation letter if I felt that the job was not good for me. It took me an extra week before my pay check was being processed. Ian has severally sent me home for no apparent reason something that makes me feel that he is not doing the right thing because am always faithful and punctual to my job.
I remember when I started working at Fox Hill Ian asked me to go home until they prepare for my barge. When he was preparing job schedule, he did not consult me on the shift to start with because I had not fully resigned from the previous work. Since I liked the job and had no option, I managed to work out my plan and I adhered to the rules and regulations as provided by the company. Controller Mr. Stephen Downs knows about this and has requested us to have a meeting to discuss the matter, but Ian has refused. It has gone to a point that Ian doesn’t listen what I have to say for the behaviors he has towards me. All that Ian focuses is to tell me to resign if I feel that am in the wrong place. Kindly help me in the areas you can.
Several common patterns can be identified in the stories. First, there is a common pattern in the plot of the stories. All the stories portray the main characters as individuals in search of self-identity, seeking a purpose in life, struggling to do the right thing and dealing with the consequences of their actions. Secondly, the story depicts a contrast between hero and villain. Third, their endings bring the same question of “what is the true purpose of life?”For example, Gilgamesh has false confidence of his identity as an immortal being. His journey with Enkidu is all about seeking identity, meaning, being something but finally death as fate frustrates all his desires. Even at the end of the story it is yet unclear whether Gilgamesh has developed any sense of self-understanding that is positive.
The plot of the stories takes an exploratory trend with each of the characters seeking a purpose for life, trying to do what is right and struggling with decision-making. For example, the story of Joseph, right from the beginning his life is about seeking his role and purpose in life. He goes through various stages just like Gilgamesh before finding his real meaning in life. The ending of his story is rises back a question similar to the ending of Gilgamesh story, “is there complete fulfillment in man’s endeavors?” His success in life is darkened by the enslaving of his community long after the death of the king who had favored him. Similarly, the Oedipus Rex story ends tragically. Despite his excellent characteristics as an efficient ruler in the beginning of the story, Oedipus finds himself in tragic ending having killed his father and married his mother. He condemns himself to eternal blindness for actions. His story follows the same plot as that of Joseph and Gilgamesh i.e. search of self-identity, search for life’s purpose and struggle to do what is right.
Comparing Traditional and Authentic Assessments
In the classroom, the traditional means of assessment are quizzes and tests. The more the number of questions a student answers correctly, the more knowledge the student has gained (McCormack, 2008). Traditional assessments focus on what a person has learned. On the other hand, authentic assessments focus on how the student learns and the process of learning (Lee, 2005). The chart that follows provides a summary of the comparison between traditional assessment and authentic assessment.
Involves selecting a response. Students are provided with several choices from which to select the right answer. For example, a teacher may provide a-b-c-d choices or the true-false type of questions.
Authentic assessments involve performing a task. Students demonstrate knowledge by performing complex tasks representative of meaning application.
Traditional Assessment is contrived. It tests proficiency by asking students to select from alternatives.
Authentic assessments are real-life. They test the proficiency at doing a particular event by asking students to do that event.
Involves recognition or recall. Students are asked to recognize or recall facts or ideas learned
Involves application or construction. Here students analyze, synthesize, and apply learned ideas to create new meaning.
Traditional assessments are teacher-structured. The teacher carefully structures the expected responses.
Authentic assessments are student-structured, i.e., they allow students freedom in demonstrating performance.
In traditional assessments, the teacher has indirect evidence of the students' ability to apply knowledge in real-world situations.
In authentic assessments, the teacher has direct evidence of proficiency or application of learned knowledge.
Types of Traditional Assessment
There are many types of traditional assessment. Examples include
- Multiple choice questions
- Gap fill or short -answer questions
- Final tests and standardized tests
Types of Authentic Assessments
Examples of authentic assessments are
- Essays such as letter writing
- Portfolios of student work
- Teacher observations
Advantages and Disadvantages
Traditional and authentic assessments both have advantages and disadvantages (McCormack, 2008). Traditional assessments require little time to manage, monitor, and coordinate. With traditional assessment, it is easy to align tests with educational standards. The grading system for traditional assessments is uniform and without bias. Traditional tests are familiar with students. In addition, traditional assessments are effective for large enrollment classes. However, they are disadvantageous because they do not encourage creativity and collaborative work among students. In addition, traditional tests do not enhance problem-solving or analytical skills. Authentic learning promotes creativity, encourages collaboration among students, focuses on analytical or problem solving skills, enhances both oral and written presentation skills, and emphasizes alignment of learning strategies with time. Authentic assessments display both the processes and the products of learning. Authentic assessments are adaptable, flexible, cumulative, and demonstrates learner growth with time. If closely aligned with the curriculum, students connect thinking and doing or theory and practice, in real-world contexts or settings. Authentic assessments can be adapted for both learning disabled students and gifted students or fast learners. However, authentic assessment has some disadvantages. It is time-intensive to administer. It is difficult to align with mandatory educational standards. In addition, it is difficult to develop a consistent grading rubric that is free from grading bias. Its administration may not be practical with large enrollment courses.
Authentic assessments have more advantages than traditional assessments because the teacher redirects the student’s thought processes, teach needed strategies, and correct poorly applied strategies (Suskie, 2010). They demonstrate both what students know and can do.
Lee, SW, (2005), “Encyclopedia of School Psychology”, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
McCormack, V, (2008), “Content Area Literacy for Diverse Learners”, Tucson, AZ: Wheatmark, Inc.
Suskie, L, (2010), “Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide (2nd ed.)”, San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons