Concept Map In Nursing Theories
Problem and purpose statement
There have been ongoing debates on whether or not nursing is an occupation or a profession. An n occupation means a job career. Profession is learned both through occupation and vocation that has the precedence and superiority status in a given work division. Profession requires a high level of skill, education, training and variable knowledge. Theory is a step of developing criteria for theory evaluation. Other authors have defined the term theory as being interchangeable with other terms such as a conceptual model, conceptual framework, paradigm, and model. Fawcett (1989) defines nursing theory as concrete and relatively specific set of propositions and concepts that aim to characterize or account for a given phenomena within the nursing discipline (p 23).
Nursing theories form a set of interrelated concepts that provide a systematic view of an observable event or fact. Theories comprise of definitions, models, concepts and propositions that are based on assumptions. A theory enables the organization of relationships among the various concepts that explain, describe, control and predict a given practice. There are various common aspects among and between theories though each of them does focus on various responsibilities in nursing. The philosophical foundation of these theories does determine the various concepts that they may have.
The basic concepts of nursing
Moore (2008) reported that the meta-paradigm of nursing is characterized by four main concepts which are nursing, environment, person and health. To other scholars, the core concepts in nursing practice and theory are assessment, teaching, learning, caring professional behavior, communication and management of care (Opperman Law Consulting, 2008). These core concepts are found in the various nursing theories.
The nurses, according to Orem can do nursing but explaining the definition of nursing becomes difficult (Hartweg, 1991). She further highlighted the condition or state of health that one can be so as to need nursing at a point when they can no longer take care of themselves. The work of Orem was inspired by the individuals she thought to be great thinkers like experts in action theories, metaphysics and philosophy including the work of Aristotle and Aquinas (Hartweg, 1991).
By looking at the vital concepts on managing care, environment, care and assessment, it is possible to analyze the work of Dorothea Orem on self-deficit nursing theory. To Orem, it is the intention of every individual to take care of him, and deficit exists when they are no longer able to take care of themselves (Horan, Doran and Timmins, 2004). This is now the point when one seeks assistance, and it will be the task of the nurses to assess the needs of the individual. They will design a working support program that can meet the unique needs of the patient. This way, the nurses will manage to eliminate the existing deficit Horan, Doran and Timmins, 2004).
The core concepts in nursing according to Orem do comprises of the main nursing paradigms which are health, environment, human being and nursing (Bridge, Cabell and Herring, 2005, p. 4). She further included the environment element as part of her theory among many other variables which characterize the core concept that she had identified initially. The nurses take according to this model is to assess the problems faced by patients as well as the environmental factors that affect or influence the life of the patient. The nurses are also responsible for assuming the way these factors do interact. The main goal is to assist in providing a working support system and to educate the patient so that h can participate in the healing process. Orem’s model is accepted by many experts as a framework of self-care and is adaptable to any setting (Horan, Doran, and Timmins, 2004).
Another theory on Health as Expanding Consciousness theory by Neumann Margret is based on a range of theories such as Perls' Gestalt theory that places emphasis on personal responsibility, Selye's stress theory and the way individuals react to stressors and the philosophy by Chardin that shows that humans are spiritual beings (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003, p. 21). This theory originates from the premise that the world comprises of various interconnected systems (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003, p. 21). Which is similar to the belief of Orem that all elements present in the environment do affect every person?
Neumann model presents five essential factors that have to be taken into consideration when treating patients. These are; socio-cultural, psychological, spiritual, developmental and physiological factors (McHolm and Geib, 1998, p. 23). This is the same meta- paradigm cited at the start of the chapter. The factors are also closely similar to the meta-paradigm of Orem though the words differ. Neuman’s model is also about treating the individual as a whole person and n not simply the symptoms that are visible. Neumann considers wellness and illness as falling into a continuum in which a patient at a given time is at any point of the continuum of either, spiritual, socio-cultural development, physiological or psychological. (McHolm and Geib, 1998). The nurse’s tasks are to ensure that all the five elements are at balance so as to determine the point at which a patient is at within the continuum (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). One way of looking at these elements is the way which a patient responds to stressors that do have a negative impact on their health. The task of nurses at this time is to try and restore stability and balance of the five factors (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Orem also mentions the same task as being the duty of nurses. This means that the nursing theories meta-paradigm and the core concepts are shared among nursing theorists. This can be represented in the concept map below;
The theory of nursing by Jean Watson is also derived from the viewpoints of a number of psychologists like Carl Rogers and philosophers (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003, p. 21). Her theory is a product of more than two decades experience in a diverse nursing setting. Her theory is called the Transpersonal Caring since it places emphasis on the world’s unity (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Based on her theory, Watson proposed that caring is a vital and natural element that defines us as human beings. Therefore, caring is a moral principle especially when the nurses and patient come together to share a common experience of caring (Watson 2007). The goal of nursing according to Watson is to enable an individual gain harmony of the spirit, body and mind (Watson 2007).
In applying Watson’s model nurses are expected to establish a caring experience with their clients, this experience will result into better outcome, and an effective way to provide care to the patient and nurse respectively. Examining the patient as a whole individual, just in the same way as suggested by Neumann does enhance the experience of caring. Watson believes that there are various upcoming opportunities that display caring and nursing care, the moral practice according to Watson is expected between the patient and nurse (Watson 2007). The nursing opportunities do arise from the daily routines in different nurse platforms.
These are three different categories of theories of nursing theory. Orem’s model, which falls under the interactive model and emphasizes on relationships. The theory focuses on self care, and it is applicable in the nursing practice. This can be seen for the case of individuals who focus on preventive treatment and most do not have health insurance covers. The theory also applies to individuals living in the rural areas who face difficulty in accessing the formal medical care. These are individuals who rely on support from nurses in educating them how to protect and care for their families. Orem’s model is applicable to the current largest population group in America of the elderly and senior citizens. These are individuals who are prone to chronic conditions and illnesses.
Neumann believes that her theoretical model is adaptable and holistic to client care situation. The key aspect of her work is interaction with the external and internal environment. The principles of this model are similar for the care of a single client system or large systems such as scientific evaluation, policy shaping, curricular programming or direct care by an agency (Neumann & Reed, 2007). The main emphasis at this point is the in-depth assessment of the needs of a client that are essential in developing the most appropriate interventions. the fast development of care technology and health knowledge calls for the need of nursing and other disciplines of health to use and implement care planning that are relevant (Neumann & Reed, 2007). The self-care theory by Orem is, therefore, board and has sustainability in terms of being adaptable to nursing science in the future. Also, new technologies such as electronic medical records and computers are here to stay, and they will assists health care professionals to be informed of the patient’s physical, mental, spiritual and history. Home Nursing Health care centers allow nurses to visit patients within the own comfortable environment. This means that it will be possible to assess the condition of patients through the uses of various monitoring programs and video phones to find out the blood sugar level of patients among other vital signs. The potential deficit can be filled in by applying Orem’s theory. This is especially true in the present day where self-care compensates are needed so as to prevent the congestion an inability to afford formal medical care. Through designing an appropriate support system, it becomes possible for the nurses to fill in the gaps (Bridge, Cabell and Herring, 2005).
Though the theories talk about a different aspect falling into different categories, they all share the elements of caring and care. They all view the patient as a whole human. The three theories do have an interconnectedness and unity. This is unity is emphasized in the Orem’s and Neumann theory. The three theorists further show that the nurses have large tasks of restoring the wellness and health of patients.
Bridge, J, Cabell, S & Herring, B. (2005). Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory. Retrieved from Troy University. http://prism.troy.edu/~scabell/Orem.pdf.
On September 25, 2013
Hartweg, D (1991). Dorothea Orem: Self-Care Deficit Theory. Sage Publications, Inc.
Horan, P, Aileen Do, and Timmins (2004) Exploring Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory in learning disability nursing paper (6).
McHolm, F A. & G (1998). Application of the Neumann Systems Model to teaching health assessment and nursing process. Nursing Diagnosis 9(1), 23(11).
Moore, C (2008) Nursing Site Theories. Retrieved from www.bellaonline.com/subjects/9573.asp
Neumann, B. & Reed, K. (2007). A Neumann Systems Model Perspective on Nursing in Retrieved from nsq.sagepub.com
Opperman Med Law Consulting (2008). Theory Core Concepts. Retrieved from http://oppermanmedlaw.com/aboutus.aspx.
Tourville, C & Ingalls. K. (2003) The Living Tree of Nursing Theories. Nursing Forum), 21(11).
Watson, J (2007) Nursing, the Philosophy and Science of Caring. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
Article Review: “Revisiting Employee Benefits Managers”.
The goal and purpose of this study was to examine how benefits buying had evolved since the early 1990 (Thompson, Draper & Hurley, 1990). The researchers sought to assess the trends in benefits buying among employers that formed part of the case study market and identify achievements brought about by EBM. The study has examined the role of EBM and how it has changed over time.
The researchers chose to use the qualitative research approach because the study focused on examining has phenomenon that has been clearly defined or structured (Thompson, Draper & Hurley, 1990). The qualitative research approach made the research process interactive in nature thus enabling the researchers to gain an in-depth understanding of the EBM concept (Shi, 2008). Interviewing was used because it allowed the researcher to have interactive sessions with the respondents and gave the respondents freedom to express themselves.
The other qualitative method that could be used to address the research issue is focused group discussion. This method brings people with experience and knowledge in the studied topic together and involves them in a moderated discussion about the topic (Smithson, 2000). The researcher notes down themes that are brought out during the discussion. One of the strengths of the method is that it is interactive thus making it suitable for least defined/ structured topics. It also allows respondents to reflect on the topic thus bringing out refined information about the topic. It is also flexible and easy to conduct. One of the weaknesses of the focused group discussion is that it does not eliminate researcher biasness (Smithson, 2000). The researcher selects participants based on his view about their ability to provide the required information. Similarly, some participants may dominate the discussion session denying other participants an opportunity to express themselves.
The findings of this study can be used to build theories about the EBM concept (Shi, 2008). These theories will provide frameworks and backgrounds for conducting broader research activities involving survey. Future researchers may use these theories to generate hypotheses, which form the background of broad research activities.
The purpose of qualitative research is to explore and understand least defined phenomena within their natural setting (Shi, 2008). It focused on building theories and hypotheses that explain events and phenomena. Qualitative research approach also seeks to provide a holistic view about a given phenomenon. One of the characteristics of qualitative researcher is that it uses the inductive reasoning approach (Shi, 2008). This is whereby the researcher starts with a small observation about a phenomenon and moves toward building broad theories and knowledge about the phenomenon. Another characteristic is that it uses subjective approaches of collecting data because the method is founded on the belief that reality changes with the context and people’s perceptions.
Table 1 is an excellent example of descriptive statistics that the researchers used in the article. This table enhanced the article as it enables readers to understand the characteristics of the subjects of the study (Shi, 2008). It enables readers to have a general understanding about the subjects of the study.
One of the advantages of the interview method is that it gave the participants the freedom to express themselves (Shi, 2008). The participants responses were not limited thus enabling them to provide insightful information. The same advantage cannot be enjoyed when the research opts to use a method such as observation. Interview also enables researchers to clarify information and judge the honesty of the participants. It also promotes cooperation as the interaction between the researcher and participants boost the participant’s confidence. One of the disadvantages of this method is that it collects a wide range of data making it difficult to analyze the data (Shi, 2008). This limitation is also present in other qualitative methods such as focus group discussion and observation. The participant may also provide information that he thinks the interviewer wants to hear thus reducing the accuracy of the response. This problem is not present in the observation method.
Shi, L. (2008). Health services research methods. NY. Delmar Cengage Learning
Smithson J. (2000). Using and Analyzing Focus Groups: Limitations and Possibilities. Journal of Social Research Methodology. 3 (2): 103- 119
Thompson J. Draper D. & Hurley R. (1999). Revisiting Employee Benefits. Health Care Management Review. 24 (4): 70- 79
Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management
Leadership entails influencing other to work towards desired goals or outcome (Bohoris and Vorria, 2009). On the other hand, management is the process of planning, directing and controlling people and resources in order to achieve desired goals. This paper will describe the differing approaches of nursing leaders and managers in address the issue of continuous quality improvement and patient satisfaction. The main goal on continuous quality improvement effort is to enhance customer satisfaction by identifying quality problems and implementing measures for fixing these problems (Bishop & Dougherty, 2004). While leaders count on moral authority to influence followers to pursue continuous quality improvement and patient satisfaction goals, managers count on formal authority to direct and control followers to work towards these goals.
Continuous Quality Improvement and Customer Satisfaction
Continuous quality improvement is a quality management strategy that is based on the Kaizen philosophy (Bishop & Dougherty, 2004). Kaizen is Japanese word that means change for the better. This philosophy views quality improvement as a continuous process. It seeks to bring excellence in an organization by identifying quality problems proactively and implementing measures to fix this problem. This philosophy seeks to eliminate defects with the care delivery process, thereby, promoting excellence. It also emphasizes on values such as customer focus, employee motivation, continuous learning, and use of systematic methodologies in the quality improvement efforts. The ultimate goal of quality improvement process is to enhance customer satisfaction. It is a philosophy that requires a high level of organizational maturity and cultural commitment.
A vision is a statement that reflects an organization desired situation. In the context of continuous quality improvement, the vision reflects the quality standard that the organization desires to achieve. Visioning is the first step that in planning and setting goals. By understanding where the organization wants to be, in term of quality, the organization is able to define the goals of the continuous quality improvement process.
Leaders try to define and articulate the quality vision that remains implicit. They invent models, metaphors and images that will create new attention and focus towards the vision. They are creative and seek to change prevailing systems. They challenge prevailing mode of doing things and wisdom. The vision is heavily influenced by the leaders’ passion, personal values and beliefs. On the other hand, managers attempt to stick on proven ways of doing things. They focus on implement quality improvement vision that have been tried and tested. They are cautious and seek to establish a routine. They adopt an impersonal and objective view about the quality vision (Bohoris and Vorria, 2009). They emphasize on the need to develop formal plans and strategies.
Implementing the Vision
Nursing leaders and managers cannot achieve quality improvement goals on their own. They must influence other members of the organization to work towards these goals. Nursing leaders influence followers by inspiring them to share the quality vision. The leader focuses on communicate the vision to the followers and explain why the vision is important (Huber, 2010). The leader achieves quality goals through communication rather than coercion. Followers start working on this vision because they believe it is important and not because they are coerced. The leader also seeks to create support for his vision among the followers (Lefton, 2007). This way of influencing followers takes time but yield long term results as followers will have strong commitments towards quality goals. On the other hand, the nursing managers use a set of reward and punishment to influence followers to pursue quality goals. They use a transactional approach that rewards those who comply with quality improvement policies and punish those who are non-compliant. This management approach influences followers through coercion. The management is not interested in waiting for followers to support the vision. They establish quality standards and objective ways of measuring performance (Bohoris & Vorria, 2009). Instead, the manager develop a set of rewards such as attractive pay packages, promotions, training in order to stimulate employees to work towards the quality goals. The manager may also develop a set of punishment such as dismissal and demotion to compel employees to work towards quality goals. This process is effective in realizing immediate quality outcomes.
Nursing leaders empower their followers to make decisions concerning quality improvements. The leader identifies the quality vision but allows the followers to participate in the development of strategies for achieving the vision. The leaders have an open door policy that encourage participation of employees in the decision-making process (Lefton, 2007)The goal of this leadership process is to create a sense of ownership among the followers. The nursing leaders focus on enhancing the skills and competencies of followers in order to prepare them for the process of implementing the vision. They ask questions and seek the opinion of employees when it comes to implementing quality improvement strategies. They also trust the employees with the task of implementing the vision. On the other hand, nursing managers focus on directing and controlling followers towards the desired goals. The managers define the quality vision, as well as, strategies for achieving the vision (Bohoris & Vorria, 2009). Followers are only required to follow directions in implementing the developed strategies. The managers focus on developing highly standardized tasks in order to minimize skill requirements. They prefer to take an impersonal stand in the quality improvement process.
The nursing leaders focus on both the outcomes of the quality improvement efforts and the means used to achieve these outcomes (Bohoris & Vorria, 2009). They are not only interest in seeing the quality improvement goals being implemented within the shortest time, but are also interest in the experiences of the followers. They show concern about the followers feeling and wellbeing. They seek to help the followers make personal achievements through the quality improvement process. On the other hand, managers are only interest in the outcome of the quality improvement process. They are concerned with seeing the desired quality goals being realized within the shortest time possible. They are objective and do not let subjective factors influence their decision making process. They establish goals, standards and policies and expect employees to support them. To nursing managers, the end justifies the means.
Nursing leaders lead from the front in implement quality improvement goals and strategies (Bohoris & Vorria, 2009). They seek to serve as role-models in the quality improvement efforts. They seek to evidence their competency and qualification in achieving the desired goals (Sant, 2004). Nursing leaders do this so as to develop moral authority, which they use to influence the followers. Managers direct the quality improvement efforts from the sideline. They use the “do as I say and not as I do philosophy”. They are not interested in evidencing their competency and qualification because they depend on the formal authority given to them by their positions to influence followers.
Continuous quality improvement seeks to enhance patient satisfaction by identifying and eliminating quality problems. Nursing leaders and managers use different approaches in implementing this process. The quality improvement process begins with developing a quality vision, which gives the entire process a sense of direction. Nursing leaders often take broad moves that are informed by personal values, beliefs and passion while developing the vision. On the hand, managers choose to remain objective and select a vision that has been proven. In the implementation of the quality vision, nursing leaders seek to create moral authority in order to influence followers while manager use formal authority to influence followers.
Bishop A. & Dougherty R. (2004). Implementing Continuous Quality Improvement at the Healthcare Provider Level. September 16, 2013. http://www.dmahealth.com/pdf
Huber D. (2010). Leadership and Nursing Care Management. USA. Saunders Publishers
Lefton C. (2007). Improve you Environment through Communication and Change. September 16, 2013. http://www.nursingcenter.com/upload/static/698812/NM_improve.pdf
Sant T. (2004). Persuasive Business Proposals: Writing to win more Customers, Clients and Contracts. USA. Illustrated Publishers
Katherine Kolcaba, Colette Tilton & Carol Drouin (2006). A Unifying Framework To Enhance The Practice Environment. The Journal Of Nursing Administration. Vol. 36, Number 11, Pp 538-544.
Katherine Kolcaba, Colette Tilton & Carol Drouin present the utilization of comfort theory in New England hospital so as to provide a coherent and consistent pattern of enhancing care and promoting professional practice. The theory was applied to help the hospital achieve Magnet status. The need to implement the theory was on the backdrop of lack of a well defined vision and framework to guide leadership, practice and research. The theory was applied as extensive consultations with experts such Dr. Kolcaba. After the consultation, various organizational and united-based initiatives were adopted to incorporate the theory into practice.
The comfort theory used in this case was prescriptive. The organization used it to achieve certain objectives or goal. The driving force behind the application of the theory was to help the organization improve its service delivery at attain the Magnet status.
Kolcaba’s theory of comfort is a midrange theory that is based on holistic philosophies and values. The theory helps nurses understand pain as not only the absence of pain or distress, but also as a positive subjective feeling reflecting a sense of holistic well-being. Providing comfort to patients is an integral part of nursing. Currently, there is a lot of focus on improving patient outcome in many health facilities. Comfort theory is reemerging as one of the theories that can help healthcare facilities improve patient outcome and reduce the cost of care.
Comfort theory has wide applications in nursing. First, it can be used to develop efficient care plans. Secondly, it can be used in assisting interdisciplinary team help families in decision making and the dying process. It can also be applied in pediatric to relieve pain, in hospice, orthopedic and peri-anesthesia nursing.
Katherine Kolcaba (2003). Comfort theory and practice: A vision for the holistic healthcare and research. Springer Publishing company. New York, USA.
Helming M., Cynthia C., Karen A & Deborah S. (2010). Core Curriculum for holistic nursing. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. MA, USA.
In the current business world, there are different leadership styles that are used by managers and leaders in order to ensure that they help achieve goals, objectives, and mission of their organizations. Typically, the leadership style selected to lead employees or the rest of the group in a given organization depends on the person who has been selected to lead or the culture of that given organization. The leadership style that is ultimately applied in an organization defines how the target group within the organization or the company functions. In an organization, the leadership style applied determines the success and morale of the employees. In an organization where people have a direct impact on the outcomes or the success of the organization, the best leadership to be applied should be transformational leadership. Being a member of Rotary Club, I have discovered that transformational leadership has been of help in realizing our goals and objectives.
Evidence shows that a transformational leader manages to develop and direct an organization in a positive direction. This paper will apply transformational leadership style in our Rotary Club in ensuring that proper styles are applied in the community service setting. This will involve an explanation of how the theory works by providing examples. The paper will explain the effect of power and influence that leaders in the organizations have on the followers plus the stand of the followers whether they are receptive or not. It will also examine the role and effectiveness of transactional and transactional leadership in the organization. The paper will also assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization. It will also explain how the leadership supports strategy, mission, and vision in the organization. Finally, the paper will examine on the areas that could have been changed if I was a leader. In an organization such as a Rotary Club, is transformational leadership style the best?
A transformational leader is someone who has the ability to inspire others in realizing goals and objectives of the organization. Our leader has been the best simply because he ensures that he has inspired and motivated others in doing things that are required in the development and growth of the Rotary Club. Leadership is made of variety of skills, qualities and characteristics that help influence people in order to actualize a common objective. The Rotary Club aims at community services thus what is required in our organization is that type of leadership that activate a structure in a place where there is mutual consensus and behavior so as to establish an environment suitable to achieve all the objectives and goals. The company has the best type of leaders, and I believe that is the reason why it always moves in the positive direction. Unlike in other organizations, our Rotary Club has leaders who takes extra care to ensure that employees are handled in the appropriate manner plus ensures that we are cared, and all our needs are met. It is with no doubt that such leaders have highly contributed to the growth and development of the company which currently under several projects and believe that they will all succeed, (DeRue & Ashford, 2010).
Since the establishment of the organization, the club has expanded and developed in different aspects that one could not have imagined given the period it was established. We have the best leaders who display the transformational leadership ability more than other leaders in the company. The club has engaged in many and different activities that relate to community services. Our manager is that type of person who keeps employees on the stand by asking a lot of questions based on what they think should be done in order to develop growth in the area of choice. Leaders in our organization mostly like to make solid moves, which help the organization achieve set goals. When we plan on conducting a given community service program, our leader always stops everything he is doing. This helps employees understand that something relevant is being conducted and that all eye are focused on them expecting positive outcomes from the established activity, (Bass & Riggio, 2008).
Effects of Power and Influence
An organization that has strong and powerful leaders always achieves its goals and objectivities without such a great struggle. In the Rotary Club, power and influence calls for organization growth because leaders must ensure that they have influenced employees on doing what is the right thing and what gives the company the best outcomes. Leaders in the organization use the power in order to influence others help accomplish vital objectives of the organization. When in community service mission, I have discovered that leaders use influential tactics of scarcity, direct appeal, developing allies, reciprocity, friendliness, and rational persuasion in influencing individuals engage in activities which are healthy towards organization growth. Our leaders in most of the times develop followers into leaders. Instead of controlling people all the times, I have discovered that they give people freedom to control their behaviors by giving them examples of what they are expected to do when they are alone, (Conchie et al., 2012).
Followers in the Rotary Club are receptive simply because when they are given the freedom to control their behaviors, they always give a positive response hence assist in accomplishing set targets. Followers of the group have been trained and inspired to go beyond their own interests for the goodness of the organization, and I have discovered that this is what make most of the programs and projects run and move smoothly even when leaders are away. Followers of the group don’t have to see their leaders so that they can work on the activities that have been set for a given project. They are people who understand what they are supposed to do even without being monitored. Given an option, I think I won’t recommend another strategy in running the organization simply because the current approach suits our club. Followers have been given enough freedom to work and improve the organization without being monitored and followed all the time and it’s something which has worked out for the better of the organization, (Baum et al., 1998).
Role and Effectiveness of Transformational and Transactional Leadership
It is with no doubt that different manager in their organizations employ different managing styles that range from micromanaging styles, autocratic styles, to facilitative styles and relatively hands off styles. Leaders and managers can as well employ different techniques and motivational strategies in order to boost employee performance and help accomplish internal change. It has been discovered that transactional and transformational leadership styles gives polar opposite factors when it comes to matters that underlie theories of motivation and management in an organization. The role of transactional leadership in an organization is more of maintaining the normal flow of the company’s operations. For instance, a transactional leader will only ensure the work is completed using normal styles and it’s completed on time without adding any value to what is usually done. Transactional leader will motivate their subordinates by the use of rewards so that they can perform to their best, (Kotlyar & Karakowsky, 2007).
Transformational leadership is something different from the above leadership style. The work of a transformational leader is to ensure that the company or the organization operates beyond the normal day-to-day operations. This type of leader crafts and develops new operational strategies for taking his company, employees, and work team to the next level of success and performance. Rotary Club has been operating under this type of operation, and that is the reason why we have been in a position to outdo other organizations with similar operations in the society. The role of leaders in our club is to bring about significant change in both the organization and followers. I have discovered that the reason why our club is developing and growing is due to the fact that leaders that we have in the company have the ability to establish strategies that bring changes in the company’s culture, strategy, and vision. Unlike transactional type of leadership, our company has managed to develop because we have transformational leaders whose work is to focus on team building, collaborating with employees, and motivating them in a way that helps accomplish change for the better. I have discovered that leaders in the Club set incentives and goals to employees to push them to higher performance level, and at the same time they provide them with opportunities for professional and personal growth, (Currie & Lockett, 2007).
Traits and Characteristics of an Effective Team Leader
Most of the current organizations fail simply because they lack experts and proper leaders to lead and control their organizations. In respect to the current global development and competition in the market, organizations require experts who will help an organization develop proper strategies for growth and development. Great leaders in organizations or in our daily life have unique traits and characteristics that distinguish them from other people. A great leader should be flexible enough so as to carry out operations of an organization in the best manner possible. It is clear that not everything responds as planned thus a leader should be flexible to switch to changes that occur in the course of operations. Occasionally, natural disasters occur, strikes stop the flow of products, governments force new business regulations and competitors change their market tactics. This is the reason why managers and leaders should be flexible enough to ensure that their organizations first survive in any of the situation then develop new strategies to take their business to the next level, (Riggio, 2009).
Another thing with great leaders within an organization is having the ability of communication. Speaking perfect is not all that is required so that you can be a great leader. Evidence shows that there are many people who talk or base their arguments on a great game, but when it comes to deliver, they deliver nothing. Great leaders in this situation are those who are able to communicate to their employees and share their thoughts in a way that employees are able to capture the goals of the company plus they are given applicable examples. Something else for great leaders is that they should have patience, tenacity, and courage to face organizations challenges and come up with new strategies of handling those problems. Leaders who have presence and humility perform best in their organizations simply because they are able to listen and talk to their employees on all matters that relate to the growth and development of the company. A smart leader is someone who is responsible irrespective of whom conducted the situation. When it comes to a blame to be accepted, a great leader should be there to accept the blame even if it was a mistake of his employee. The later need to be solved internally when things have gone to normal and the company is operating effectively, (Joo & Lim, 2013).
The ability of an organization to survive in the market is the ability of the leader to develop strategies that are strong enough to work out plans and moves that operate with competitors. The work of a leader in a marketplace is to understand the market and establish the best strategies that will help the company operate within its strategies, mission, and vision without any worry. Leaders must have an accurate understanding of the market so as to translate the organization’s strategies, values, processes, and mission who allows them engage in a successful competition. In such a situation, organization’s infrastructures, systems, and culture must be well aligned with the realities of the organization’s marketplace. In most cases, the required behaviors to ensure or facilitate successfully implementation of vision, mission, and strategy of the business are out of alignment with the marketplace and customer, (Currie & Lockett, 2007).
Changing anything in an organization is one of the most difficult things leaders face when operating their businesses. The first thing I would want to change given a change in an organization id the culture of the organization. Evidence shows that culture is a major problem in most organizations and that it’s the reason why culture is invisible to people who are inside the organization. There are times when the organization culture drags operations of an organization. I will do this by becoming aware of the culture by way of keeping notice on how the business operates, (Riggio, 2009).
There are different leadership styles that are used by managers and leaders in order to ensure that they help achieve goals, objectives, and mission of their organizations. Typically, the leadership style selected to lead employees or the rest of the group in a given organization depends on the person who has been selected to lead or the culture of that given organization. Evidence shows that a transformational leader manages to develop and direct an organization in a positive direction. Leaders and managers can as well employ different techniques and motivational strategies in order to boost employee performance and help accomplish internal change. An organization that has strong and powerful leaders always achieves its goals and objectivities without such a great struggle.
Bass, B. M. & Riggio, R. E. (2008). Transformational Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Baum, J.R., Locke, E.L. and Kirkpactrick, S. (1998), ``A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication to venture growth in entrepreneurial firms’’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 1, pp. 43-54
Conchie, S. M., Taylor, P. J., & Donald, I. J. (2012). Promoting safety voice with safety-specific transformational leadership: The mediating role of two dimensions of trust. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(1), 105-115. Doi: 10.1037/a0025101
Currie, G., & Lockett, A. (2007). A critique of transformational leadership: Moral, professional and contingent dimensions of leadership within public services organizations. Human Relations, 60(2), 341-370
DeRue, D., & Ashford, S. J. (2010). Who Will Lead And Who Will Follow? A Social Process of Leadership Identity Construction in Organizations. Academy Of Management Review, 35(4), 627-647. doi:10.5465/AMR.2010.53503267
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Riggio, R.E. (2009). Are you a transformational leader. Psychology Today. Retrieved from, http://blogs.psychologytoday.com/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/200903/are-you-transformational-leader, On September 27, 2013
Sir Walter in the novel is portrayed as being reluctant towards the lower class which can be seen, by the way, he describes his daughters. The opinions in the novel are driven by vanity which tends to set the tone for the novel. According to Walter, he thinks that Elizabeth is the dream child, Mary as a letdown, and Annie is of no importance, but just a helping hand. Walter shows insincere love for his daughters, which is an indication of his arrogant nature. There is a contradiction in the theme of nobility through the voice of the narrator when using the statement “people of real understanding” when describing everyone who is not noble. This is a term that shows a tone which suggests mocking of nobility. The tone of the narrator can be said to be hostile; however, the narrator has been able to keep the story composed.
Diction used in the passage tends to place more emphasis on the faults of nobility. Mary is described as a person of little artificial importance. This is a phrase that refers to Elliot’s values emphasizing how fake his love for the daughters is not real. The phrase of people of real understanding and little artificial importance tend to have a negative connotation to the noble class (Austen, 1947). These are phrases which are used in the passage with the aim of creating a negative image of nobility and also appealing to the satirical fans. Reading this story careful, show how hard it is to mix romance and satire, but the narrator has been able to do this quite well. The narrator has been able to portray fun at the noble class in a fun, romantic novel.
Austen, J (1947). Persuasion Bompacrazy.com
While there are numerous career options, it is essential to choose a highly competitive field. A highly competitive career will help me in terms of attaining both professional and life goals. Apart from competitiveness, another factor that I consider as an integral aspect in any career plan is individual passion. Despite the excellent levels of competitiveness associated with some careers, one might not be passionate about one or more professions.
In view of this perspective, my career choices are not only based on competitiveness but also the level of passion I have towards different professions. When one is passionate about a given career, chances of success are significantly high. In this career plan, I will provide an in-depth analysis of my preferred choices. My first career choice is software development and the second is market research analysis.
Software Developer- Career Plan
My first career choice is software development. This is among the most competitive careers in the United States and also across the globe. More importantly, I am passionate about this profession because I am massively interested in computer technology and ICT. In order to achieve success in this career, there are various academic and professional qualifications required. I have an elaborate plan on how to ensure that I meet the criterion required to become an expert in software development.
The prerequisite academic qualification for this career is a bachelor’s degree in software development. There are numerous universities offering this degree across the United States. In order to attain the highest levels of professionalism in this career, it is also necessary to pursue a postgraduate degree program in software development. In 5 years’ time, I will have completed the bachelor’s and postgraduate degree programs in software development. For the purposes of gaining competitive advantage in the job market, it is essential to supplement the bachelor’s and postgraduate degrees with short-term courses in ICT (Lore, 2012). This includes web design and programming. These short-term courses can be pursued in tandem with the degree or postgraduate programs.
Among the most notable duties of software developers is to design software. This might include the development of computer applications or even programs. It is the role of the software developer in any organization to design software and computer applications for a company. This can also be done on a private basis whereby the software developer designs programs based on the specifications of different clients (Hartman, 2007).
Apart from software design, another pertinent duty is to enhance the privacy of data. This is achieved through the facilitation of the relevant encryption platforms for organizations or individual clients. This might also include the customization and configuration of data. The software developer is also charged with the responsibility of determining the feasibility of different platforms for computer architecture. This also involves the development of a framework for implementing the chosen architecture (CNN, 2013). Other duties include the maintenance of software, identification of ICT threats, and optimization of computer systems among others.
The average annual salary of software developers in the United States is $88,500. Based on this salary, this career is ranked among the fifty most prestigious across the nation. The income of the software developer can also be enhanced by moving into private practice. This is because of the intensive demand of software development services by public and corporate entities (Forbes, 2013). In private practice, several deals can fetch hundreds of thousands of dollars in just one month. Consequently, this career is characterized by high income and compensation.
Other Crucial Factors
The level of job satisfaction in this career is among the highest in the country. This is mainly because of the minimal supervision and flexibility in terms of working hours. Any software developer can determine their own working schedule depending on the goals and targets. Typically, the average working hours in this profession are 40 in one week (Andrews, 2006). The high levels of income have contributed towards an excellent lifestyle for most software developers. Additionally, this career is associated with excellent opportunities for advancement.
Market Research Analyst- Career Plan
Market research analysis is my second career choice. With immense passion in marketing and sales, I strongly believe that I can shine in this career. Numerous reputable journals including Forbes and CNN Money have ranked market research analysis as among the most competitive careers in the globe. Both local and multinational organizations are massively dependent on the services of market research analyst in their operational framework.
While most bachelor’s degrees are helpful in this career, specialization in marketing is always essential. Competence in research methodology is also helpful in terms of excelling in this career. However, the best combination is a bachelor’s degree in business and a postgraduate course in marketing (CNN, 2013). Consequently, there are numerous courses that one can pursue in order to become a fully-fledged professional in market research analysis.
The scope of duty for a market research analyst is considerably extensive. The formulation of a marketing plan is among the most pertinent roles of a market research analyst. Business organizations require an elaborate platform to jumpstart sales and hence contribute towards the realization of corporate targets. The market research analyst must also have adequate skills to coordinate the implementation phase of the marketing plan (BLS, 2013). Another outstanding responsibility of the market research analyst is to facilitate for primary and secondary research about different marketing variables. This includes researching on the demand of products, attitudes towards services offered by a company, and levels of customer satisfaction among others. Evaluating the competition facing a company in the market is also a fundamental duty of any market research analyst. This is helpful in terms of enabling companies to formulate effective business strategies.
The market research analyst is also charged with the responsibility of monitoring and determining the feasibility of products in a given market. Companies use this information to improve products and services. Forecasting is also a pertinent responsibility of market research analysts (Forbes, 2013). This involves making reliable projections about sales and future demand trends. The market research analyst must forecast such trends based on actual data.
The average annual salary for a market research analyst in the United States is $69,500. On the upper scale, the salary can be as high as $98,000. This is an indicator of the excellent income associated with this career. In view of such salaries, most market research analysts enjoy high standards of living. Another aspect of consideration is that market research analysts are offered commissions and bonuses based on performance (Lore, 2012). This acts as an excellent incentive for any person in this profession. In view of such bonuses and commissions, the income of a market research analyst can topple the $100,000 mark.
Other Important Factors
The levels of job satisfaction in this career are extremely high. With adequate training and skills, it is considerably easier to attain the highest standards of performance. The typical working hours for a market research analyst are 50 in a week. However, this may vary depending on the scope of responsibilities for the market research analyst. Consequently, there is an excellent level of flexibility in this career. The opportunities for advancement are also significantly high. In essence, consistency in the attainment of targets can greatly boost the chances of advancement (Forbes, 2013). As compared to other jobs, there are minimal risks associated with market research analysis. This is an aspect that has contributed massively to the excellent levels of job satisfaction.
The career plan documents two of my preferred choices. As stipulated in the plan, my first choice is software development. This career is highly satisfying because of the excellent levels of flexibility and high income. I strongly prefer this career because it provides me with the option of either working in an organization or in private practice. In this career, the academic qualifications are attainable in five years. This career calls for high standards of concentration, creativity, and professionalism. I have what it takes to meet this criterion. My second choice of career is market research analysis. This career is also characterized by a high level of competitiveness. Business organizations across the globe require the services of market research analysts. In essence, the roles of market research analysts are inherently connected to the corporate goals of business organizations. Consequently, there are numerous opportunities of advancement in this career.
Andrews, L. L. (2006). How to choose a college major, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professionals
BLS (2013). Occupations with the largest job growth, Accessed on 24th September 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_table_104.htm
CNN (2013). Best jobs in America, Accessed on 24th September 2013 from http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/best-jobs/
Forbes (2013). Top 10 jobs for 2013, Accessed on 24th September 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/pictures/efkk45mkkh/top-10-jobs-for-2013/
Hartman, K. (2007). 35 ways to discover a major, Mason, OH: South-Western
Lore, H. (2012). The pathfinder: How to choose or change your career, Touchstone Publications
Personal Vision Statement
I have had many days of relaxation since my retirement for the army. The time has allowed me to analyze my life and recognize that there are numerous areas of my life that need improvement. I know that I will not struggle to make changes and implement lifestyle changes due to my prior experience in the military. I am familiar with the changes that I need to make in an effort to venture in my new career.
Time management is one of my main challenges. I am used to doing everything for myself hence used to multitasking to the extent that I can barely manage my actions. In the end, I miss out of various important activities needed to be performed in a day. I need to relax so as manage this challenge. I will set some time for relaxation and taking care of myself. I will not strive to do everything at once. I will also strive to delegate responsibilities where possible. This will help me in time management. I also want to be more spiritual and will, therefore, dedicate time for prayer and spiritual nourishment. Religion will give me a better perspective of life and how to handle challenges I may encounter. I also intend to improve my eating habits. I have always had a sweet tooth hence used to treats and sweets. I will speak to a nutritionist on the food groups that I need. I will also clear my house off junk food to minimize consumption.
I am currently unemployed, but aspire to be hired as a human resource manager. I expect to receive my entire disability fund from Veterans affairs, which I will then use to complete my master’s degree in organization management. First I will be employed as a HR manager, work for a few years then open my own HR consultancy firm. I will integrate my strengths in my profession. I will work through issues and lead people. My competency and experience in leading, mentoring, problem solving and training will also be essential in the profession. I will also integrate my strengths of being a great communicate, leader and team player in the profession. My vast knowledge about human resource functions, equal opportunity complaint process and sexual harassment and assault procedures will also be essential for the profession. I will work for at least ten years before I permanently retire from the HR profession. I expect to be financially stable by retirement. Family is an important aspect of my life and will spend most of my retirement time with my family, travelling the world and spending time with my grand children.
Family therapy is a choice therapy based on the assumption that issues affecting marriage can be diagnosed through an assessment of observed problems resulting from a client’s interaction with others, in the family (Carr, 2011). This therapeutic option is solution-focused. Alcohol abuse disorders do not develop in isolation. For many persons, alcoholism results from a person’s patterns of interactions with the current family, as well as the family of origin. In addition to excessive anger, the client’s denial of the fact that alcohol consumption is problematic may contraindicate family therapy, it is an effective way to study interactions that will define the problem and provide ways to solve it. According to information from research, family therapy produces better outcomes for marital problems.
Strategy for Assessment and Treatment
For this case, the counselor family therapy will be used to examine factors that propagate or maintain the client’s substance abuse behavior (Metcalf, 2011). The counselor observes the family’s different structural elements, and how they contribute to the client’s wife’s behavior of sustained criticism and lack of forgiveness, as well of the client’s behavior and sustained use alcohol, knowing that it angers his wife. The counselor will conduct an observation of the power hierarchy, rules, roles, and alignments, as well as the patterns of communication, within the family. The family approach to therapy can help the therapist identify the dysfunctional areas within the family. The aim is to identify and alter the dysfunctional alignments between the couples, replacing them with direct, clear, and effective interaction and communication.
Denial is a common behavior among alcoholics and substance abuse clients (Metcalf, 2011). The husband thinks that his wife is presenting with recurrent PMS symptoms. The client’s submission that he is aware of his drinking habits and that the breathalyzer is giving the wrong readings should not be taken at face value. Observation of the various elements of family interactions will paint a real problem. In fact, his view that his drinking is light may not be the true situation. Meeting the client’s family and observing the interactions will give a much better picture. Family involvement is fundamental to the success of the treatment. This is vital, when elements of the family interactions are supporting or reinforcing the problem indirectly. For instance, the wife may be assuming additional responsibilities, taking the vacuum left due to the husband’s involvement in alcohol consumption. The problem may not be alcohol consumption, in itself, but the indirect consequences.
In terms of treatment and recovery, the counselor will helps couple set and reestablish boundaries (Carr, 2011). For example, a reversal of family roles may have occurred due alcohol abuse. The wife may have assumed the roles of her husband. The boundaries and roles must be reclassified, for each partner. One of the principal objectives of therapy is to re-establish the lines of communication.
Family therapy is an ideal option for this case because it focuses on the expectations of change (Metcalf, 2011). The counselor tests new behavioral patterns and teaches the couples how the family system works, as well as how the family supports the symptoms and maintains the needed roles. It exposes the strengths of every family member and explores the meaning of alcohol or substance abuse.
Carr, A. (2011), “Family Therapy: Concepts, Process, and Practice”, Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons
Metcalf, L. (2010), “Marriage and Family Therapy: A Practice-Oriented Approach”, New York, NY: 2011
Health Care Economics : Resources, Quality, Technology, Costs, Risks
Resources, technology, costs, risks, and quality are terms that are closely interrelated in health care economics (Dewar, 2009). Quality refers to the cost, benefit, and the distribution of health care as valued by the population. Health care professionals involved in the provision of direct patient care should ensure that the technologies used in service delivery meets the technical specifications and standards for safety and quality, as applicable internationally, required for improved performance in the specific clinical environment. The rising cost of health care has placed questions about interventions and the need for efficiency in the delivery of health care. The focus on quality measurement, management, and improvement includes the use of technology with great efficiency on the use of resources. Resources include all personnel, materials, funds, facilities, and other items used in the provision of health services. There is scarcity in the availability of resources for the delivery of health care services.
Technology refers to the mechanism of accomplishing a task through the application of a method, process, and knowledge (Powell-Cope, Nelson, & Patterson, 2008). Technologies for patient care range from relatively simple devices such as syringes and catheters, to complex systems such as the electronic health records and barcode medication administration systems. It includes clinical protocols and tools used to deliver direct care to patients. Technology improves health care quality, efficiency, cost, and safety. Technology provides the means to prevent errors such as medication errors, delays in treatment, miscommunication, and others that can have adverse effects. The use of advanced technology helps to reduce risks associated with factors such as failure to rescue, pressure ulcers, complications of immobility, and falls. For example, nurses can prevent hip fractures resulting from falls from hospital beds by using non-height adjustable low beds. The role of technology in health care delivery is to improve efficiency in service delivery. The aim of service providers, in the health sector, is to provide services of a desirable quality at an affordable cost.
Cost, in health care terms, refers to the number of dollars required to deliver health care services (Flower, 2009). Cost is a recurrent problem in health care delivery. In order to reduce the cost incurred by the patient, the cost of delivering health care services including the cost of equipment and various procedures must be brought down. Health risk is a disease precursor associated with morbidity and mortality rates higher than the average. Health risks may include certain individual behaviors, demographic variables, certain physiologic changes, and individual and familial history of specific diseases.
In comparison, these terms are vital in understanding the health care system. The goal of health delivery system is to attain optimal quality in service provision (Henderson, 2011). This can be attained through adjustments on resources and technology in use. Risks and costs are vital indicators of the quality of health. The purpose of technology is to utilize resources in a way that reduces the cost and risks incurred by patients when seeking health care services. Health economics seeks to address the problem of scarcity. The need to make proper choices is essential in addressing the problem of limited resources. Therefore, the concept of opportunity cost is vital in choosing among alternatives. The cost of any decision is determined, in terms of the value of the alternatives foregone.
In summary, costs and risks are variables that measure the quality of patient care. Technology ensures quality through the utilization of resources with little associated costs and risks. Health care policy and reform seek to improve the quality of care through adjustment of factors to ensure proper utilization of technology characterized by efficiency in resource use and reduction, in cost and risks.
Dewar, D.M. (2009), Essentials of Health Economics, Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett
Flower, J. (2009), “Health Care beyond Reform: Doing it Right for Half the Cost”, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Henderson, JW. (2011), Health Economics and Policy (5th ed.), Mason, OH: South-Western
Powell-Cope, G., Nelson, A.L. & Patterson, E.S. (2008), “Patient Care Technology and Safety (Ch. 50), In Hughes, RG, “Patient Safety and Quality (Vol.3)”, Rockville, MD: AHRQ