Health Care Acquired Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus is a group of disease-causing bacteria that infects various body tissues (Stoppler, 2012). There are 30 identified species of S. aureus, but only three are pathogenic in humans. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram- positive, facultative anaerobic, non- motile, usually unencapsulated coccus. Staph, as is commonly known, can cause more than 30 infections, but many infections of public health concerned are caused by staphylococcus aureus, a type of staphylococcus. Staphylococcus inhabits the nose and the skin in apparently healthy adults. It is present in 25% of persons who work in the hospital setting. In many cases, the organism does not cause illness. However, injury to the skin may allow the organism to defeat the natural protective mechanism and cause infections. Staph infection is common in institutional health care settings including hospitals and nursing homes. In these settings, S. aureus is the dominant cause of urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, pneumonia, and sepsis (bloodstream infections). Meticillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the known strain that cause infections among persons in health care settings.
S. aureus exhibits a variety of pathogenic factors, which aid tissue colonization, tissue damage, and development of distant diseases (Jensen, 2009). The organism employs virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, and imunomodulatory factors that aid infection of different tissues in the host. For example, it produces SpA, α-, and β- toxins that cause staphylococcus pneumonia. S. aureus can survive inside host tissues and is able to invade, in- vitro, nonprofessional phagocytes including osteoblasts, fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells. After colonization, the bacterium may multiply and further disseminate, or persist, escaping antibacterial agents and the host’s immunity defense. The organism has global regulators that sense modifications in the environment such bacterial density. These regulators aid the capacity of the organism to evade body defense mechanism. In accordance to the situation in the environment, the regulators may or may not trigger the bacterium to secrete proteins that lyse the host cells and enable the bacterium to propagate. This ability allows the bacteria to gain therapeutic sanctuary, as well as play hide and seek in the human tissues.
Staphylococcus infection is contagious, and transmission occurs until the resolution of infection. Direct contacts with infected wounds or sores, and/or personal-care items (razors, bandages, etc.) are the major routes of transmission (Bien, Sokolova, & Bozko, 2011). Kissing and other forms of casual contact such as hugging do not pose a high risk of transmission of the bacteria if they do involve direct contact with infected areas. Anyone is prone to an infection with staph, but certain members of the population are at higher risk. They include newborn babies, breastfeeding mothers, and people suffering from chronic disease conditions such as cancer, diabetes, lung disease, and cardiovascular disease. Patients on treatment with intravenous catheters, injecting drug users, those with surgical incisions, and medications that weaken the immune system have a higher risk of contracting infection with staphylococcus aureus.
Staphylococcus Aureus is a pathogenic bacterium that can cause several infections categorized in three groups (Ibid). 1) Superficial lesions such as wound infection, 2) toxinoses (food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, and scalded skin syndrome), and 3) are systemic and life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, brain abscesses, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and meningitis. Risk factor for infection with hospital-acquired SAB is the presence of a central venous catheter.
Antibiotic ointment, such as nonprescription triple-antibiotic mixture, is the usual medication for minor infections of the skin (Stoppler, 2012). However, oral antibiotics are applicable to some cases of skin infection by S. aureus. In serious, life- threatening infections treatment involves the use of intravenous antibiotics. It is essential to conduct laboratory test to determine susceptibility of the strain of S. aureus involved in the infection. This informs the choice of antibiotic to use in specific cases of serious infections. There are some strains of S. aureus that are resistant to several antibiotics, and meticillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus is a common example (Ibid). It is resistant to meticillin and related antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin, and oxacillin. Health care associated MRSA (HA MRSA) is a term commonly used to refer to MRSA because its first diagnosis occurred in hospital patients including hospitals. It affects the elderly, the very sick, and patients with open wounds (bedsores, etc.) and an intravenous catheter in the body. Mupirocin is a drug that is effective in treating MRSA in healthy carriers, but not in all cases. There are other strains of S. aureus that are resistant to certain types of classes of antibiotics (Ibid). For example, vancomycin- resistant S. aureus is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin.
The basic principles of infection control must be applied to reduce transmission of MRSA from one patient to the other (Weston, 2008). These include minimizing environmental contamination. For instance, patients diagnosed with MRSA should be treated in isolation. Health care institutions should administer MRSA decolonization protocol to reduce carriage. Visitors who come to see patients should decontaminate their hands with alcohol rub on leaving the ward. Patients and persons operating in the health care environment must observe hand hygiene at all times. Patients diagnosed with MRSA should appear last on the theatre list. Other procedures include environmental cleanliness, restricting patient movements, wearing of protective equipment and clothing, decontamination of equipments, and appropriate disposal of all linen and waste.
Bien, J., Sokolova, O., & Bozko, P. (2011). “Characterization of Virulence Factors of
Staphylococcus aureus”. Journal of Pathogens, 2011: 1-13. Doi: 10.4061/2011/601905
Jensen, A. et al. (2009). “Risk factors for Hospital acquired Staphylococcus Aureus
Bacteremia”. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(13): 1437-1444
Stoppler, M. (2012). “Staph Infection (Staphylococcus aureus)”. Medicinenet.com. Diseases
And Conditions, Apr. 20th, 2012. Retrieved from
Weston, D. (2008). “Infection: Prevention and Control”. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Multicultural Diversity, Couples and Family, and Group Counseling
Joe is a male mental-health professional counselor. He received a referral case, a 35-year-old client named Jill, from a community-level clinic. Joe is the same age. Jill had a problem with her current job because she did not gain satisfaction from it. In the process of counseling, several issues of ethics arise in relation to the role of the counselor, client, issues of diversity (cultural and religious), and matters of counseling related to marital and family therapy as well as group counseling. Joe openly disapproves Jill’s sexual orientation saying it is against his religious beliefs. He also expresses to her his discontent with her culture. Joe goes ahead to discuss re-birth therapy despite Jill’s disapproval. Issues of confidentiality also arise when Joe informs Jill’s employer about the counseling taking place, and also when she proposes group counseling.
Ethical Standards: ACA Code of Ethics, 2005
American Association of Counseling Code of Ethics has eight sections (Corey, 2008). Section A: The counseling relationship, B: Confidentiality, C: Professional responsibility, D: Relationships with other professionals, E: Evaluation, assessment, and interpretation, F: Teaching, training, and supervision, G: Research and publication, and H: Resolving ethical issues. From the overview of the ACA Codes of Ethics, Joe violates sections A, B, and C. The sections have sub-sections that relate to specific guidelines.
According to the ACA Code of Ethics, it is mandatory for counselors to respect diversity (Section A.2.) (Ming Liu, Toporek, Coleman, & Pope-Davis, 2008). This comprises the following principles: nondiscrimination (A.2.a.) and respecting differences (A.2.b.). It is the duty of counselors to appreciate the diversity of cultural backgrounds of clients whom serve. This falls under section A.2.b. which also includes self awareness. In this respect, counselors must adhere to the principle of respect of diversity, and aspire to have an understanding of self and the clients. In relation to the case, Joe does not respect diversity in terms of the difference in sexual orientation and cultural backgrounds. When Jill informs him of her being sexually attracted to persons of the same sex, expresses shock. He tells her that they should not discuss the issue as it was against the principles of his religion. He tells that her behavior is immoral and that she should pray about it. In the progress of the counseling session, Jill reveals to him that she is from an Asian-American background with several cultural restrictions. Joe informs her of issues of her culture that he does not like.
Couples and Family Counseling
In relation to professional practice of counseling, section A.1.e. (employment needs), it is a requirement for counselors to work with clients practicing in jobs which are consistent with the counselor’s abilities, physical restrictions, interest, temperament, aptitude patterns, education, general qualification, and other qualities of relevance to client needs. (Gamino, 2009). Joe disregards all these provisions and begins to practice in marriage and family counseling in disregard of the ACA Code of Ethics. Marriage and family counseling requires specialized qualification.
In relation to group therapy, section A.8. (Group Work), provides for screening of prospective participants (sectionA.8.a.) and protecting clients (Section A.8b.) (Reynolds, 2012). According to A.8.a., counselors should select clients whose goals and needs are compatible with the goals of the group, who will not distract the group therapy, and whose mental status is not jeopardized by the group experience. Section B.4.a., states that counselors should demonstrate the importance and limits of confidentiality to the client for the group. It is best-practice to have members of a group sign an acknowledgement of confidentiality and a promise that the group member shall not disclose information shared in the group sessions. In view of the guidelines for group therapy, Joe clearly violates the ACA Code of Ethics. He places Jill in a group therapy without the consideration of the goals of Jill’s therapy. He does not consult her. In regard to her psychological problem, it is likely that the group will jeopardize her state of mind.
Personal Values and Multicultural Diversity
As a trained, competent, and certified counselor, there are expectations of professional and behavioral conduct that one follows. It is clear that the case has complex issues regarding diversity and difference of values. For a counseling process to be impactful, it has to be participatory. It has to take into account client’s cultural background, values, and opinions as regards proposed therapy. Therefore, it is essential to embrace diversity so as to conduct counseling therapy that benefits the client in terms of relevance to her values, religion, culture, and opinions. This is possible through observation of the relevant sections of the American Code of Ethics, 2005.
Corey, G. (2008). “Theory and Practice of Group Counseling”. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole
Gamino, L. A. (2009). “Ethical Practice in Grief Counseling”. New York, NY: Springer
Publishing Company LLC
Ming Liu, W., Toporek, R., Coleman, L., & Pope-Davis, D. (2008). “Handbook of Multicultural
Competencies in Counseling and Psychology”. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications,
Reynolds, E. W. (2012). “Ethics in Counseling and Psychotherapy (5th ed)”. Belmont, CA:
Infertility and Disability: Bragdon v. Abbot Case
Right to Reproduce
Americans with Disabilities Act, ADA, of 1991, protects people with disabilities and burrs employers from discriminating against such persons through biased conditions or terms of employment (Walker, 2002). In relation to the case, the court highlighted legal and economic places limitation on the infected person’s intention to reproduce. The act defines disability as a mental or physical condition that impairs or limits a person’s significant life activity. Fringe benefits are a condition or term of employment. In ordinary situations, persons obtain an insurance cover through employment. The law prohibits discrimination in relation to accommodation public places. Reproduction is a vital life function although the act does not include it in the listed examples. The act states examples of such activities whose impairment constitutes disability. People with impaired reproductive capacity are persons with disabilities in the context of the act. However, the debate is not over, hence, not clear whether an employer and/or insurance agencies can limit or exclude, altogether, treatment cover for infertility.
In what ways is infertility a disability? In what ways is it not?
Infertility is the failure of a person to achieve pregnancy over a specified duration of time, normally one year, in which the person participates in regular, unprotected sex (Basco, Campo-Engelstein, & Rodriguez, 2010). However, this definition has been expanded to include persons who may become infertile as a consequence of a medical condition or treatment for conditions such as cancer. It is a disability in the sense that its treatment is too expensive for an average citizen to afford. The number of persons of reproductive age diagnosed with cancer and undergoing treatment is high. Fertility concerns in relation to the quality of life of cancer survivors are emerging. In a study of cancer patients, 76% of them expressed the desire to have a biological child in the future. Impairment of fertility has psychological and physical dimensions. Absence of insurance coverage and extreme costs are the cardinal reasons why cancer specialists do not recommend fertility preservation option to cancer patients. Infertility is not a disability in cases where persons choose not have children through procedures that destroy their potential to reproduce (Rauprich, Berns, & Vollman, 2010). Some women decide to use fertility preserving technology to delay child bearing. It is a voluntary decision and does not amount to disability.
Implications for insurance coverage mandates for infertility treatment
In the case of Bragdon vs. Abbot, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Abbot stating the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) protected him and that Bragdon could easily perform the routine dental cavity filling procedure (Walker, 2002). In making this decision, the Supreme Court judges considered infection with HIV a disability since it compromises significant life activity i.e. fertility or reproduction. This particular ruling opened discussion as what amounts to the definition of infertility in relation to insurance coverage mandate.
The court’s ruling implies that persons with disabilities other than HIV infection can seek protection under the act i.e. ADA. These could include persons undergoing treatment, persons with Down’s syndrome, and conditions such as sickle cell anemia. However, there are unclear circumstances that may complicate application of the act. The definition of reproduction has a variety of loop holes and raises some questions. Example, can gay women and men for instance seek protection from the ADA act? Treatment for cancer is the other example. Increased rate of survival for patients suffering from cancer is the reason why there is a high demand for fertility preservation technology (Orentlicher, 2010). Fertility preservation is, generally, a quality of life issue. Many people agree that FPT exists for the purpose of the patient’s fertility preservation and that cancer patients should access the technology.
The point of contention is to whether insurance coverage mandate should encompass FPT. Objection to this is based on the fear that if that happens, the technology will then have to be rolled out to reach all female cancer patients regardless of their cancer status because all women will experience anticipated future inability to reproduce i.e. menopause (Rauprich, Berns, & Vollman, 2010). It may create a channel through which women without cancer or any other illness that can cause iatrogenic infertility may eventually be included in the coverage mandate.
The Supreme Court’s ruling is a significant step towards protecting the rights of the disabled. The challenge for future cases is in proving that their status meets the definition for impairment, mental and physical, and places a significant limitation in their fertility.
Basco, D., Campo-Engelstein, L., & Rodriguez, S. (2010). “Insuring against infertility:
Expanding state infertility mandates to include fertility preservation technology for
Cancer Patients”. Journal of Law, Medicine, & Ethics, 832-839.
Orentlicher, D. (2010). “Multiple embryo transfers: Time for policy”. The Hastings Center
Report, 40(3), 12-13
Rauprich, O. Berns, E., & Vollman, J. (2010). “Who should pay for Assisted Reproductive
Techniques? Answers from patients, professionals and the general public in Germany”.
Human Reproduction, 25(5), 1225-1233.
Walker, P. (2002). “The impact of Bragdon v. Abbot on persons affected by infertility”.
International Council on Infertility Information Dissemination, Inc. Retrieved May 20,
The Need For After School Program at Barry School
Barry school is located five miles from Yuba City in California USA. The school aims to provide students with strong instructional program that will enhance their ability to achieve excellent academic performance. Other than academic excellence, the school should strive to adopt several after-school program. After school program are crucial as they promote the students personal and social growth. It also boosts the student’s academic performance. After school programs can be academic or non academic. After school programs will be implemented for use after school and when the schools close. Such programs keep the students busy enough. They therefore stay clear off vices and negative influences that lay out in their communities. After-school program play the crucial role of shaping the students life to be morally upright (Zief, & Maynard, 2006).
There is need for Barry school to take up an elaborate after school program to ensure that their students not only acquire academic success but also social and personal growth.
A research study was conducted on the after school programs available for students at Barry school. The observations method of data collection was used. After lessons were over, the activities that students engaged in were observed. Interview were also conducted among the students and instructors to determine the after school activities that the school had. Another study was conducted to determine the types and categories of after school programs that institutions such as Barry school can adopt. This was conducted against the background information that Barry School hosts students from kindergarten to level eight.
Research into the after school programs available at Barry school showed that the school had inadequate activities. Most students were idle after school. Others however, were involved in extra curricula activities such as basketball practice, swimming and ballet. A majority of the students were however idle and headed home soon after classes. The school lacked an elaborate after school program when schools were closed. A review on after school programs that the school can adopt reveled numerous options. They include: academic enrichments, recreational facilities, and physical fitness and life skills.
Benefits Of After School Programs
After school programs are beneficial to the students overall well being. First it helps students widen their scope of interest. Students are able to discover new interests and talents in after school programs. With constant practice, these students end up engaging in this activities which opens up more opportunities for success. Barry school also needs after school programs so as to reduce the increasing levels of school drops puts. Most students are usually unsupervised once they leave the school premise. They are thus tempted or pressured to engage in criminal activities and delinquent behavior. After school program are supervised and will keep the students busy until when they are transferred to the care of their parents (Piha, 2006). The risk of drop out due to delinquent behavior will significantly be reduced. Engaging in non academic after school activities also boosts the students self esteem and well being. This is because the students have an opportunity to talent his talents, hobbies sand skills. By constant practice the students receives praise and recognition which boosts his self esteem. An improved self esteem is a motivator for a student to put extra efforts in all other spheres of his or her life (Zief, & Maynard, 2006).
In terms of health, after school activities discourage students from living a sedentary lifestyle. Most child if unattended spends their free time watching television and playing computers games. The sedentary lifestyle puts them at risk of being overweight and obese. This conditions in turn lead to occurrences of other underlying health complication such as Type II diabetes. After school activities encourage students to be active participating in sports, engaging in field trips and generally being up and about rather that sitting in one position for hours (Halpern, 2003).
An after-school program that fosters academic enrichment ensures that students are at par in terms of their academic growth. One example of academic nourishments is assisting students to complete their homework. An effective after school program ensures that the students write and properly complete their homework. Such a program will be supervised by instructors on a rotational basis. Assisting students in writing their homework guarantees that the students will complete their assignments and have a better understanding of the concept they had discussed in class. After school program on academic achievement also involves improving the student level of literacy (Fashola, 2002). This can best be achieved by establishing literacy clubs such as book clubs, drama and theatre club, creative writing and journalism club. Students will be encouraged to join this club. By joining at least one club, the pupils will be able to engage in productive after school activities at least thrice a week (Piha, 2006). Clubs such as the book, club, journalism and creative writing will helps students to not only enjoy themselves but also be avid readers which will in turn improve their vocabulary and overall literacy. Other clubs such as mathematics and science club will help students sharpen their science and arithmetic skills which will come handy during mainstream learning.
Other than adoption of after school programs that will foster academic growth, Barry school can also consider adopting life skills program. These are after school programs that aim to help students grow morally upright. Life skills programs help students to identity and shun social ills. Students fall vicit5ms to ills such as criminal activities, drugs and bullying (Zief, & Maynard, 2006). Introduction of life skill program will help mold students into living a morally upright lifestyle. The students will be advised of the danger of substance and drug abuse, premarital sex, engaging in violence and other intimidating acts such as bullying.
Recreational and Nutritional
Recreational and nutritional program can also be adopted as after school programs. This is essential for the health and well being of students. The rising number of children who are overweight and or obese is alarming. By adopting such an after school program, the school will have joined and greatly contributed to having a healthier nation. Such programs will include fitness activities aimed at keeping fit and loosing excessive fats. Theory classes will also be held on a regularly basis. These lessons will be aimed at empowering the students on proper feeding habits and determining what is healthy feeding from what is not (Halpern, 2003).
Cultural events programs can also be held as after school activities. This can be possible especially when the students have closed school for long holidays. During these times, students have a lot of time on their hands. If now well utilized, the students can find themselves exposed to social ills. Cultural events can range from field trips, talents shows and cultural exhibitions (Zief, & Maynard, 2006). These activities require a lot of time to prepare for. Keeping the students busy using cultural events can not only be entertaining and a break from mainstream studies but it can also be educational.
The school administrations and management at Barry school should strive to integrate some if not all the after school programs suggested above. Students need all round growth. School should be able to offer more than academic growth. Time spent in school should not be just about class work, reading, examinations and assignments. The school should be a place where students can receive all round growth. Most students at Barry school have nothing to do after their lessons. They are thus found idling around the school, passing time (Fashola, 2002).
The school administration should make it mandatory for each student to participate in any case one after-school program. Students with difficulty determining their preferred program will be assisted by their tutors. Programs to help students on their academic achievement will include remedial classes. The school should include remedial classes for slow learning students. Remedial classes will enable students catch up on concepts that they missed in class. Students will difficulty completing specific assignments will rely on such after school program as well. After school programs may be expensive to implement for many school. It is crucial therefore; that the management at Barry school seeks funds from bodies such as After School Education & Safety (ASES) which offers grants to institutions with solid after school programs (Piha, 2006). This report recommends that the administration looks into adoption the activities indicated above in the after-school program the school will take up. Barry school needs a solid and reliable after school program
Adopting an elaborate after school program at Barry school may appear expensive but the school administration should consider introducing various after school activities. The importance of these activities is numerous and help student grow academically, socially and psychologically. After school programs can be educational as well as recreational as students engage in activities of their own interests. After school activities are supervised. The management at Barry school will be able to monitor their students for a longer period of time. This in turn minimizes the risk of student’s exposure to drugs, premarital sex, crimes and many other vices.
Fashola, O. (2002). Building effective after-school programs. Corwin Press
Halpern, R. (2003). Making play work: the promise of after school programs. Teachers college press
Piha, S. (2006). Holding California afterschool programs accountable. Retrieved from http://www.cnyd.org/afterschool_outcomes.pdf
Zief, S. & Maynard, R. (2006). Impacts of after-school programs on students outcomes. Campbell Systematic reviews
“Leading Edge” Logistics in the Supply Chain
Logistics is a business framework in the supply chain that entails the management of material, service and flow of information within an organization. An effective logistics system in an organization ensures that the planning, implementation and control of goods and services is effective. Goods and service flow internally and externally within an organization. The flow of information from the point of origin to the point of utilization should also be effective.
An effective supply chain flow in an organization means that the company implements and utilizes a “leading edge” in its logistics systems. Determining an effective “leading edge” in logistics means that the organization determines a cost effective strategy of operations. Supply chains are constantly being modified, it is important therefore that an organization keeps up with the changes ensuring that they adopt those changes that will be beneficial to the company (Coyle, & Gibson, 2008). A “leading edge” logistics system will enable the organization to effectively not any impending changes in the supply chain. By identifying imminent changes the organization will be in a position to effectively make relevant changes that will ensure operations are not affected.
“Leading edge” logistics in supply chain means that the organization should have an efficient logistics system. The logistics should operate in line with organization objectives ensuring that they assist in achieving the set organizational goals (Wood, 2002). A “leading edge” logistics also looks into the structural aspect of the organization. It ensures that the organization has optimal facilities that enhance productivity. The ability to efficiently implement logistics across all the essential departments of the organization also determines its success.
There are several essential competent that are essential for a supply chain for the future. First, a “leading edge” logistics must provide the organization with an elaborate transportation system. The transportation system is for incoming or outgoing goods or services. The transportation system must be efficient at all levels of the organization. The second component of a “leading edge” logistics is the aspect of outsourcing. Outsourcing offers labor advantage and helps save on labor costs. Outsourcing is aimed at improving the overall services that the organization provides. The third component is technological advancement. A “leading edge” logistics for the future adopts technologies that will boost the organizations performance. It enables the organization to receive essential information and data in real time (Coyle, & Gibson, 2008). A logistics system that has embraced technology will enable the organization to remain competitive and ahead of its rivals. The fourth is expansion capabilities. A “leading edge” logistics guarantees that an organization has viable expansion opportunities. An organization hat hopes to remain competitive in the future must have room for growth. An effective logistics systems guarantee that opportunities for expansion into global markets can be attained (Wood, 2002).
The secret to the success of many organizations is the presence of an effective logistics as well as chain management system. An organization must be in a position to tap into the labor market and acquire qualified personnel. The organization must also be in a position to adopt the latest technology that will help boost the operation within the organization. The organization must be able to focus on change so as to determine the effective strategies that can be adopted. The overall purpose of logistics is not only to reduce on costs within the organization but to guarantee maximum customers satisfaction.
Coyle, J. & Gibson, B. (2008). Supply chain management. Cengage learning publishing
Wood, D. (2002). International Logistics. AMACOM div American Mgmnt Assn
Professional Work Samples
A Psychology degree is a passport into a career in postgraduate education and professional practice. I joined undergraduate program in Psychology so as to gain insight into my own behavior and that of others. It is an intellectual challenge, but with capacity for interaction with culturally diverse people. I spent 4 years at Argosy University studying a baccalaureate degree in Psychology which I successfully completed in 2012. During the study period at the University, I attended a number of lectures, fieldwork expeditions, and conferences. In me, there has been a development of a range of skills and confidence to experiment with new ideas. The University offers global Bachelor of Science and Master of Science programs in an attractive and conducive learning environment.
During my study at the university, gained knowledge and abilities for critical thinking as applied to problem solving in the practice of psychology. I am a different person in relation to the brain processes information. I am able to acquire and make use of information and experiences gained through mental processes. In the summary of cognitive capacity, the areas of proficiency include learning, retrieval, thinking, and memory storage. These are aspects of everyday speech that I perfected through the Psychology program at Argosy University. Cognitive ability is the capacity to diagnose and provide interventions by processing visual, gustatory, olfactory, and auditory information depending on situations (Esgate, 2005). Cognitive psychology involves aspects of how one’s brain processes information. It affects performance and behavior in real-life situations of psychology practice and interpersonal communication. The Psychology program at Argosy University has a quality structure for cognitive development in students.
Research is a core module in the undergraduate degree in psychology (Latto & Latto, 2009). As a graduating student, with an honors degree in psychology, I am typically able to reason and make judgments scientifically. I understand the role of evidence and have the capacity to make critical inferences in psychology research. The research skills that I acquired at the university include the ability to adopt perspectives and analyze the relationships between them systematically. Through behavior and experience, I can detect meaningful patterns and evaluate their significance. I have the capacity to pose, operationalize, and critique research questions. I can confidently apply multiple statistical methods, and competently, design, initiate, and conduct empirical research. In addition, I am able to prepare appropriate inferential reports. I understand limitations of various methods and the implications. I am aware of ethical principles of research and approval procedures for research. Sample research proposals and reports are provided for the purpose of evidence for these qualities. I undertake self-directed research and study in order to meet desired objectives. I am computer literate and I am proficient in word processing, database systems, and use of statistical software programs to process information.
Communication skills are essential for effective study and practice of psychology (Latto & Latto, 2009). Again, this is a core component of the study program in Psychology at Argosy University. Upon completion and graduation with a degree in Psychology, I am able to communicate general information and present research reports, both effectively and fluently, through oral, written, and visual means. This is possible through the ability to comprehend and make use of statistical and complex information sets. I am capable of solving problems through consideration of alternative solutions, clarification of questions, and evaluation of outcomes. I am aware of, and react accordingly, to contextual and interpersonal issues in groups and teams.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness
Psychologists work in the society to improve the quality of life of people. In view of this respect, I am aware of the ethical considerations and issues of diversity as regards the practice of psychology. In addition, I understand the codes of behavior and practice as relates to professionalism. Psychology, as applied globally, requires a practitioner to embrace cultural pluralism (Francis, 2009). The world is complex in terms of diversity of cultures, values, and beliefs. Therefore, I am aware of this and treat people in the context of this diversity so as to eliminate bias, unethical, and, therefore, ineffective practice.
Knowledge of Foundations of the Field
I understand the foundations of psychology as are critical in application of knowledge in professional endeavors. Psychology is a scientific study of behavior and mental processes. It involves understanding, explanation, and scientific investigation of behavioral and mental aspects of life. These are components of human functions that relate to history and personal experiences. Rationalism and empiricism are the roots of psychology. Rationalism is founded on reason and logic i.e. theory, whereas empiricism focuses on data. The modern fields of psychology include cognitive, health, biopsychology, developmental, clinical, evolutionary, and social psychology. Psychology studies behavioral experiences and is inspired by biology.
Knowledge of Applied Psychology
Applied psychology refers to the application of the principles of psychology in areas of business, health, law, social change, forensics, and education. I am aware of the themes or principles of applied psychology which includes improving health, promoting democracy, increasing safety, improving education, and increasing prosperity. These are the goals that psychologists embrace while at service in applied psychology. Psychology is not only limited to health and behavioral change, it is also applicable in improving the status of life in the various sectors of development. My interest in applied psychology emanates from the need to promote the observation of human rights which is cardinal to improvements of the quality of life and achievement of equality of all persons in society.
I have the capacity for effective communicate with people and operate in tandem with best-practices of interactions in teams. Quality practice of psychology relies on collaboration and team efforts across various disciplines. Therefore, it is essential that a Psychology graduate understands issues of personal relations and diversity.
Argosy University’s most cardinal contributions to the American society are exceptional basic research and training of undergraduate and graduate students to the highest possible standard. The psychology program in particular, is student-centered and research-based conferring evidence-based knowledge to students. Upon graduation, Argosy graduates can almost readily integrate into the society and positively transform the psychology practice.
I direct personal learning and development though a reflection and evaluation of personal weaknesses and strengths for the purpose of continued future learning and development. As evident in the work samples, I am a qualified psychologist and, hence, ready to engage in professional practice. The documents serve as evidence of my skills in communication, research, cognitive development, and ethics; and an understanding of the foundation of general psychology and applied psychology.
Esgate, A. (2005). “An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology”. New York, NY: Psychology
Latto, J. and Latto, R. (2009). “Study Skills for Psychology Students”. New York, NY: Open
Francis, R. D. (2009). “Ethics for Psychologists”. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
Forde, C., McMahon, M., & Reeves, J. (2009). “Putting together Professional Portfolios”.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Relationship Between Obesity And Diabetes Risk
Excess weight particularly obesity weakens almost every aspect of health, from respiratory to reproductive function. Obesity raises the chances of individuals suffering from deadly and debilitating diseases. Such diseases include heart ailment, diabetes as well as handful types of cancers. It is through a variety of pathways that obesity is capable of doing this, while some are clear such as mechanical stress. Others involve complex changes in hormones and metabolism. The condition also diminishes the quality and length of life of individuals as it increases the health costs. These costs are incurred in the treatment of related diseases among which diabetes is included. It is, however, essential to note that individuals who are obese can be able to address their situation. Weight loss is a significant aspect through which obese persons can be able to reduce the risk of getting diabetes.
The research question or the papers is to establish whether there is a relationship between obesity and diabetes.
One of the most challenging public health issues in the twenty first century is diabetes and obesity. There are staggering statistics that have supported that obesity largely contributes to individuals being diabetic. In the United States of America, there has been a constant raise in the amount of individuals who are diabetic. This increase has largely been attributed to raise in number of individuals who are obese. Last year the percentage of individuals in America who are diabetic increased by six percent. The same period also saw an increase by fifty seven percent in the number of individuals who are obese. Recent studies have revealed that there is a steeper increment of suffering from diabetes for those persons who have weight gain. With each kilogram of weight that is gained, there is a nine percent increased risk of getting diabetes. Studies have shown that the risk of developing diabetes was ninety three times higher, in women who had a body mass index of thirty five or higher. This was when contrasted with individuals who had a BMI that was fewer than twenty two. Colditz GA (1995).
Research has shown that eighty to ninety percent of individuals who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are obese. It is essential to comprehend what causes the disease so as to be able to prevent diabetes in the future. Individuals who are overweight place extra stress on their bodies in a number of ways. Such includes the body’s ability to maintain appropriate blood glucose levels. Being overweight results to a person’s body to be resistant to insulin. For people who do not have diabetes it means that the stretched effects of the insulin resistance ultimately causes a person to develop the disease. For overweight individuals who are diabetic, it means that they are required to consume more insulin so as to get more sugar in the cells. Weight gain that usually results to obesity is more common in individuals who consume insulin to treat diabetes. This is because additional insulin that is used to maintain blood glucose levels results to more glucose absorption in the cells. This is in contrary with what is supposed to happen where the excess glucose should be eliminated from the body. Koh P. (2004).
The glucose that is absorbed is then stored as fat which makes a person to gain weight. People who have been diagnosed with diabetes is required to modify their diets for that reason. This is since it is probable that they will gain weight once they start consuming insulin. Failure to do this complicates the problem that the body has of maintaining appropriate blood glucose. This would then increase the risk of complications that are diabetic related. Persons who have begun to take insulin for treatment of diabetes should refrain from having much food.
During adulthood, weight gain has also increased risk of getting diabetes even among individuals who are considered to have BMIs in the healthy range. Research that has been conducted on weight related diseases has shown that diabetes is the most likely to be acquired. Men and women who are termed to be in the standard weight range have a less risk of getting type 2 diabetes. These are people who have a BMI that is fewer than twenty five. The comparison is with individuals who have a body mass index of thirty or higher. Diabetic and obesity risk factors may be associated with age, race and family. It is, however, becoming evident that the lifestyles that are currently being adopted largely contribute to the development of both conditions. Such include inactive and deskbound lifestyles that have resulted to reduced physical activity. Other lifestyles such as having high energy diets and meals are termed to be convenient. They have also resulted to obesity that has put people on diabetes risk.
The quest to close the information gap that exists on how to handle obesity and diabetes has resulted to studies in metabolism process. Some researchers have studied metabolism process in mice and have reported that mice that lack enzyme are lean. They are also resistant to weight gain even when they are placed on a high fat diet. This studies and results can be termed to be positive because of the rennin blocking drugs. These include drugs that are used for purposes of controlling blood pressure as they may be used to take care of diabetes, portliness and insulin resistance. In clinical experiments, these drugs have portrayed positive results when it comes to improving insulin sensitivity. The drugs also have the potential of reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.
There are measures that can be taken at a personal level so as to minimize the chances of developing diabetes. One is required to ensure maintenance of a healthy weight as well as increase in the physical activities. For people who have diabetes, they may try a diabetes vitamin that is specially formulated for diabetic people. For individuals who are overweight, even a minimal weight loss can reduce the risk of getting diabetes. For persons who are already diabetic, a small weight loss can reduce the quantity of medication that one needs. It also aids in prevention of common complications that are associated with diabetes such as stroke, blindness and heart attacks. There are some measures that can be adopted that support in weight reduction. One of the measures includes having a high fiber, low carbohydrate diet. This should be accompanied by twenty to thirty minutes of modest physical activity per day. Individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes are required to consult their physicians prior to initiating and new diet or workout program. Modification of the diet should be able to prevent individuals from adding weight that is associated with consuming insulin. Furthermore, persons should ensure that they monitor their blood glucose levels on a standard basis as recommend by the physician.
According to previous studies, which have been, conducted on obesity and diabetes risk the researchers have focused on factors like environment, family history, the male and women population. There has been no research conducted on the relationship of obesity and diabetes among middle aged and older adults. This is one population, which has been, ignored by researchers. This study will aim at studying obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged, and older adults between the age of 39 and 79 years. The research hypothesis is as following:
Ho: There is no relationship between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged and older adults
Ha: There is a relationship between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged and older adults.
Ho represents null hypothesis while Ha represents the alternative hypothesis.
The study will aim at focusing on the relationship that exists between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged and older adults. The population of middle aged and older adults who are being diagnosed with diabetes is now being considered an epidemic. Previous studies have shown that there is a relationship between obesity and the risk of diabetes. A relationship might exist between obesity and diabetes risk among these populations because most of this people do not have enough knowledge on the link between diabetes and obesity. The key variables in this study are obesity among middle aged and older adults, and diabetes. The independent variable is obesity while the dependent variable is diabetes.
In order to certify that there is a relationship between obesity and diabetes risk among middle aged, and older adults, the participants will be interviewed on their family history. The information about the family history, their blood samples, and blood pressure will be collected so as to be able to determine their cause of diabetes. This will also help in determining the participant’s family history on obesity which might be due to genetic factors. The participants will also have to provide information about their nutrition, physical activities and also the BMI will be tested to identify if they have diabetes. This information will be extremely essential in certifying that a relationship does exist between obesity and diabetes risk in middle aged and older adults. When conducting research, the researchers have to ensure reliability and validity. Validity means the degree in which the test accomplishes the purpose which it was being used (Trochim, W. 2006). This is the extent to which the inferences can be made from the measurements and test scores. A test is said to be valid if it is reliable. A reliable test is one which is consistent in measuring the same thing at all time. In this case when measuring the blood pressure of the participants, the results of the test should be consistent each time the person is measured.
Obesity and diabetes can be termed to have a strong relationship as one leads to another. Individuals who are obese have been seen to have a high probability of developing diabetes. Appropriate measures should, therefore, be adopted to prevent both obesity and diabetes as they are serious health conditions.
Colditz GA (1995) Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes in women. 122:481-6.
Koh P. (2004) Changes in body weight and body fat distribution as risk factors for clinical diabetes in US men. 159: 1150-9.
Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Sampling terminology. Retrieved fromhttp://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampterm.php Retrieved February 23, 2012
This marketing simulation is about a company whose product is passing through different points of the product lifecycle. The Thorr motorcycle was first experiencing a period of growth and then it began to decline. The company had to reposition the product with the intention of facilitating the rejuvenation of the company. Various marketing components have featured in this simulation. These include; differentiation and positioning. The simulation also demonstrates the implication of product lifecycle to marketing.
Thorr Motorcycles was initially a successful brand. This brand was promoted using the image of a high lifestyle product that is attractive to the high income group. Thorr’s highly qualified personnel were able to differentiate this product from the rest and position Thorr in the market as a high lifestyle product. The message conveyed by this product was that Thorr motorcycles was not only about transportation but was a lifestyle. The product was successful and recorded production of over 200,000 motorcycles every year. This period marked the growth stage of Thorr Motorcycle. At this stage, a company experiences a period of increased sales and declining costs. Companies at the growth phase of the life cycle should focus on increasing market share and building loyalty among its customers (Kotler & Keller, 2009). This can be achieved through offering additional value and quality customer experiences. This will make certain that the company continues to enjoy growth for a longer period.
Thorr began to lose essential customers after a period of time. The company sales volume declined below the industry level and the organization experienced difficulties in competing with other product. Thorr motorcycle had become outdated and, therefore, could no longer appeal to the market niche. Consumers became adamant to pay high prices a product whose quality has rapidly declined. This period marked the decline phase of the Thorr Motorcycle. The lifestyle idea that used to sell the product to its consumer has become obsolete to the consumer. The company needed to respond to this situation by reinventing the product and providing fresh and new ideas to the customers (Kotler & Keller, 2009). Another option for a company at the decline stage is to discontinue the product. This option is considered in a situation where it is longer economically viable to continue with the production of the product.
After experiencing the decline of the Thorr motorcycle, the company made a decision to discontinue the product and introduce a new brand that will reflect the values of the company. The company introduced the RRoth. RRoth was a new brand of motorcycle that represented fresh and innovative ideas. The new product targeted the young generation and various promotional channels were used to position the product in this target market. These channels include; test rides and Hollywood films. However, customization was the most effective positioning strategy. This strategy entailed allowing customers to customize the motorcycle so that they can have features that are tailored to their own preference. The new product was also fairly price in order to make it accessible to the target market. The product was very successful, one year after its launch.
Differentiation and Positioning
Differentiation and position are some of the marketing components that have been addressed in this simulation (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009). Differentiation is the process of distinguishing the company’s product from those of the competitors. Company can use various strategies to differentiate products. These include; additional features; additional services; better customer services; packaging and branding. Positioning, on the other hand, refers to how the company presents itself to the market with the aim of getting a better appeal than itself competitors (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009). Companies can use various strategies to position their product in the market. One of these positioning strategies is differentiation (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009).
The company in this simulation was able to position both the Thorr and RRoth motorcycles in the market through product differentiation. Thorr motorcycle was differentiated by creating an image of high lifestyle motorcycle. This strategy was meant to make the Thorr motorcycle appealing to the high end market. With time, this positioning strategy became less effective as the market had changed and competition had evolved. The company had to reposition itself in the market by introducing the RRoth motorcycle. RRoth motorcycle was made different by allowing customers to order customized version of the products, offering fair prices and using various promotional channels. These strategies intended to make RRoth appealing to the younger generation. The repositioning strategy was effective as review conducted one year after the launch of the RRoth indicates that the product was a success.
Effect of Product Lifecycle on Marketing
Product lifecycle refers to the path followed by products once they are introduced to the market until the time they are phased out of the market (Perreault, Cannon & McCarthy, 2009). Product lifecycle model suggest that products go through four major phases; introduction; growth; maturity and decline/ rejuvenation. Product lifecycle has significant implication on marketing. At the introduction phase, a product is usually characterized by slow growth and high cost (Perreault, Cannon & McCarthy, 2009). Marketers respond to this by adjusting prices and implementing promotional strategies. This what the company did during the introduction of the RRoth. The growth stage is usually characterized by high sales and declining cost. At this phase, competition begins to set in. Marketers respond to this by reinforcing their brands in the market and creating loyalty (Perreault, Cannon & McCarthy, 2009). Maturity stage is characterized by slowed growth, rising cost and stiff competition. Marketers respond to through aggressive marketing company in order to capture their rival’s market share. Decline phase is characterized by diminishing sales, high cost and high competition. Marketers respond to this by rejuvenating the product or phasing out the product. The company in this simulation responded by rejuvenating the product.
Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2009). Marketing: An introduction. Pearson Education
Kotler, P., & Keller L. (2009). Marketing management. Prentice-Hall
Perreault W. Cannon P. & McCarthy J. (2009). Basic marketing: A marketing strategy planning approach (17th ed.). New York. McGraw Hill
Sephora: Segmentation Criteria
Sephora is a business that deals with production and distribution of beauty products which include; body products; fragrance; skincare; makeup and hair care products. Sephora distributes its product in over 17 different countries. This market is an extremely big and highly heterogeneous. Heterogeneous means that consumers within this market have different needs and expectations. Thus, Sephora must segment the market in order to operate effectively. Market segmentation is the process of breaking down the markets into segments according to consumer characteristics (Lamb, Hair and McDaniels, 2008). Consumers that have similar characteristics are placed in the same segment, which is different from consumers exhibiting different characteristics. There are various criteria for segmenting a market. Some of these include; geographical segmentation; segmentation according to demographic characteristics; behavioral segmentation and psychographic segmentation (Lamb, Hair and McDaniels, 2008).
Demographic segmentation criteria are the most appropriate for Sephora’s products. This is whereby the market is segmented according to demographic characteristics. Demographic characteristics include; age; gender; race; education level; ethnicity; income; region; occupation and many others (Lamb, Hair and McDaniels, 2008). One of the characteristics that best suits the segmentation of Sephora’s market is income. Sephora may segment the market according their level of income and then identify the market that best appeal to the company product, economic model, pricing and marketing strategy. Another demographic segmentation factors that may apply in Sephora’s case is age. Individuals from different age groups have varying needs and expectations when it comes to beauty products. Sephora may therefore segment the market according to age and select the most suitable age group. Behavioral segmentation criteria may also be applied in the segmentation of Sephora’s market. This is whereby the market is segmented according to consumer behaviors (Lamb, Hair and McDaniels, 2008). These behaviors are such; rate of usage of the product; benefit sought by the consumer; willingness to buy and loyalty towards brands.
Lamb C. Hair J. and McDaniels C. (2008). “Essentials of Marketing”. USA. Cengage Learning
Proposal On A Compensation And Benefit Plan
Kaiser Permanate is America’s leading non-profit health plan. The plan serves more than 8.6milllion people from 431 medical office buildings and 35 hospitals in the District of Colombia and nine states. The organization has an approximate 180,600 physicians and employees who dedicate themselves each year to serve the 36 million out patients’ visits and more. One of the human resource management functions at Kaiser is compensation of its employees. Each individual in the organization is subject to a reward in return to their performed tasks in the organization. Within this organization, employees exchange their labor and in return receive financial and non financial rewards.
Employees receive both direct and indirect financial compensation. Employees believe pay is the necessity of life and it is what drives people to seek employment. With increasing pressures from inflation, high performers should be awarded raises higher than those of average performers. However, this should be carefully done to avoid reduced motivation on other employees. Currently, the Kaiser Permanente is in search of a senior project manager to join the strategic project team. The project manager, senior will provide numerous activities related to highly sensitive strategic projects. This paper proposes a compensation and benefits plan that meets employee and organizational needs.
Today, employees are looking for an organizational reward system that contains their values and desires. In as much as possible they are willing to seek for an employer who is an able and willing to offer a match in exchange for the employees’ contribution. Kaiser like any other organization is interested in great talent for its senior project management position. However, it is not just up to Kaiser to determine how much compensation and benefits will be paid to the senior project manager. The healthcare business environment has its own compensation rates for similar positions. On average, Kaiser pays its project managers $82,178 which falls within a range of $49,000 and $152, 000.
As the senior project manager the role will be to compile and analyze financial reports, track project progress, coordinate activities and schedules. The senior project manager will also be responsible for participation and documentation of project meetings, requirements and schedules and other duties assigned to them. Basically, a minimum of 4 years experience is required, a bachelor’s degree in project management. Senior project manager to will also be required to have strong analytical, organizational, and negotiating skills and experience.
Pay scale (Starting, mind, high end)
Within an organization, proper compensation bridges the gap between organizational objectives and the aspirations and expectations of an individual the four things that Kaiser should consider in their pay scale is sufficient levels of rewards, equity with the labor market internally, equity with organization, and organizational member treatment. Kaiser must make sure that the rewards system fulfils the basic needs of the senior project manager. Again, there should be equity with the labor market such that potential project managers should be having a comparable option to choose from. The compensation and benefit should be at equity with other project managers within Kaiser such that all are equally empowered. Since each member has their own needs, Kaiser must ensure that individual needs are observed when dealing with each individual to avoid employees feeling out of place.
Another aspect important to note is that each pay system is should not be used to attract employees but also to retain, and motivate employees. Carefully, tradeoffs should be done, on conflicting objectives such that the job security of the employee is not at stake irrespective of their contribution. Kaiser should ensure that the project manager should have tangible comparison between their inputs and the outcomes they obtain with those of other coworkers. Every employee wants assurance that their input is worth the outcomes and that compared with the work of other project managers, the compensation and benefits are similar.
In Kaiser, the starting pay scale for the senior manager is $49,000. The average compensation is $83,000 while the high end pays is $152, 000. This is not so competitive within the market. However, according to glassdoor.com (2012), the project manager in San Francisco, CA area, project manager salaries. Glassdoor.com also indicates that San Francisco, CA are recommending a starting salary as $76,000, an average pay or $94,822, and the high end of $120,000. Although the minimum and average pay are higher in the average project manager pay in CA area, a senior project manager can earn up to $152,000 on the highest end. The low starting may be a discouraging factor to employees and additional benefits are compensation is needed not only to attract but also ensure that senior managers are retained. Given the sensitive nature of tasks, duties and responsibilities expected for this senior manager, Kaiser must work on its starting pay scale to match the business market expectations and requirements. Although the organization will have some applicants for the senior project manager position, it is likely that they will not feel encouraged to remain within the organization long enough especially where a similar opportunity will arise at a higher starting salary.
The benefits offered in Kaiser for a senior manager are not competitive. This is the case given that as part of the organizational executives, the senior manager enjoys lavish benefits while other senior employees experience low pay. For instance, the executive enjoy a defined-benefit pension plan while other employees are deemed to receive less desirable defined-contribution plan. However Jamieson (2011) revealed that the senior management including the senior project manager, are paid less than most for profit health plans and less compared to other not for profit healthcare organizations dependent on organizational size and complexity. Kaiser needs to work on a market competitive benefits program for all its employees and not just the senior managers. This way, it will be up to the competition to attract the best senior management talent the market has as well as retain it. The achievement of an equitable employees’ benefit system is not possible given that attracting and retaining effective leadership is key to the company’s delivery of affordable and high quality healthcare.
Factors dictating the compensation level
For a senior manager, compensation will be determined by factors such as education level, Experience, accountability, and complexity of decision making (FINS, 2012). A senior manager with a bachelor’s degree in project management is eligible for the starting pay scale of $52,000. However, such an applicant has limited room for negotiations on pay increment. With an additional master’s in project management or related field, the applicant has an added advantage with increased power for negotiation of payment increment or minimum pay. Additional proficiency in courses like Microsoft office and Microsoft Project will only affect a person’s viability for the position and is considered part of the basic educational requirements for this position. This is because computers are part of organizations today and one has to demonstrate conversancy in them (FINS, 2012). For effective performance and productivity of the organization, proficiency in Microsoft Office product or other operating systems is a requirement.
In terms of experience, a minimum of four years of experience within the project management field is not sufficient for a senior project manager (FINS, 2012). However, with a low pay scale, the only way Kaiser can attain the best talent is by ensuring that it has a competitive pay scale for senior management as well. With the right compensation, it is easy to stick to higher levels of work experience for senior project managers. Experience should also involve relevant aspects that are entailed in the senior management responsibilities at Kaiser.
As a manager, accountability is an essential requirement. For instance, senior manager will be responsible for adhering to strict confidentiality and information privacy requirements (FINS, 2012). The manager must, therefore, remain accountable for any organizational information. No information should have their privacy and confidentiality level compromised. Since the senior project manager is involved in project design, he or she must ensure that they are exposed to the right information to design and implement strategic projects and take responsibility for the outcomes.
Senior project manager is responsible for complex decision making like the management of frequently and rapidly changing priorities. The senior manager is also responsible for critical project support function and making the right decision is important in ensuring that company objectives and goals are not overexposed.
For a project Manager II, I would offer an average $74,000 within a range of $ 50,000 to $101,000. In most cases, project manager II is an assistant answerable to the senior project manager and a pay difference is essential.
For this benefits system, expected obstacles include limited financial resources to adjust the starting pay scale for project managers, and reduced employees’ motivation given the difference in compensation and benefits between newly acquired senior manager and prevailing senior managers.
FINS, (2012). Senior project manager, strategic projects. Retrieved from http://it-jobs.fins.com/Jobs/261353/Senior-Project-Manager-Strategic-Projects
Jamieson, D., (2012). As Kaiser workers face cuts, Execs have enjoyed Lavish benefits. Huffington post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/12/kaiser-permanente-workers-executive-compensation_n_896276.html
Glassdoor, (2012). Kaiser senior project manager. retrieved from http://www.glassdoor.com/Job/san-francisco-senior-manager-at-project-kaiser-jobs-SRCH_IL.0,13_IC1147401_KO14,39_KE40,46.htm