Chicago Style Guide

The Chicago style of the documentation focuses on several topical questions, from the use of grammar to the writing of manuscripts. The style has two forms of documentation which are the author-date system and the notes-bibliography system. Writers in arts, history, and literature are avid users of this style.

In-text Citations and Quotations

Note in the bibliography segment is commonly used in humanities, making use of footnotes and citations where a writer can reference their sources in the documents written. The style also provides a wide margin to writers when it comes to bibliography formulation. The use of Chicago style appropriately helps to cover the writers from allegations of plagiarism. If the writer sources information from an external material, a superscript digit is employed at the end of the sentence.

This is applicable both for direct quotations and paraphrased information. A superscript digit corresponds to the note with bibliographic information on the relevant source. This is the footnote that comes at the end of the page where the information is used. The endnotes similarly, come at the bottom of the page where the information has been used in that chapter. There is an alternative of putting them down when the author is done writing the body of the manuscript. The Chicago style of referencing stipulates that the first note of a citation should contain relevant information from the source which entails: author's full name, the title, year of publication, the city it was published in, and the name of the publisher. If a source is cited at least twice, the second note should only contain the surname of the author, the topic should be made brief, and the page(s) denoted.

The Chicago style of referencing commences with a number which is followed by a period then space. The bibliography is in such a manner that the sources used in the text are put down alphabetically according to the author’s last name. If the name of the author lacks, the title is used instead.


The Chicago style offers the necessary direction for bibliographical formatting of entries in the references. Variances occur at times, but the rules generally take form. Inclusion of the author's name, the title of the source, and its publication details are not applicable. The author’s name is inverted when formatting the name in this style and titles of books and journals are italicized. 

Titles of other materials such as articles are placed in quotation marks with information related to a publication following the author’s details. The details of a publication include the year of publishing, the publisher, and the edition of the publication if it is not the first. All elements in the bibliography are separated using periods.


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