December1, 2010 grade 7 B
Topic: The eye
Subtopic: the pupil
Duration: 35 minutes
Objective: The learners should observe and identify the behavior of the pupil in presence on light and in darkness.
Content: The pupil in the eye behaves differently whenever it is subjected to bright light or darkness. Learners should therefore try to understand the specific behavior of the pupils at various light variations.
The teacher creates a link between the physical changes of the eye and the lighting that was available. The learners are made to understand that their eyes go through the same procedures when subjected to the same light situations. The teacher then lets the learners pose their understanding of the key terms as the teacher makes it clearer.
November 30, 2010 Grade 4 Purple
Topic: The Solar System
Duration: 35 minutes
Objective: By the end of the lesson the learner should be able to identify the various objects which make up the solar system and the characteristics of each object.
Content: the solar system as an integral part of the universe is made up of the moon, the sun and the stars. These heavenly bodies are very different from each other though they have a common function
The lesson plans prepared above depict a high degree of teacher-learner interactions such that both parties play a key role in the learning process. This is enhanced by the increased incorporation of the learners thinking ability in the introduction phase of the lesson plans. The teacher also demonstrates a high regard for the learner’s opinion in the learning process where the teacher moulds the next step based on how the learners perceive the topic. Similarly, the constructivism theory is reflected in the lesson plans through use of groups as the primary learning tool (Koppal, 2008).
Science as a life subject where learners are taught mainly through practicals borrows a lot from constructivism as it engages the learner and the teacher actively participating in the learning process. Bruner reflects on the constructivism theory as the most significant theory which describes learning such that learners are only able to synthesize new concepts based on their past knowledge. This is much easier in science as learners who have developed a clear understanding of the differences between the sun and the moon will have an easier time during the solar system lesson. Similarly, when teaching science it is vital to make learners play active roles in the entire process as Piaget puts it the learner should be actively involved. Exploring also plays a key role when teaching science in various grades through as learners have to explore scientific process before they are introduced by the teacher. Lev Vygotsky demonstrates the learner’s ability to comprehend concepts in science as a natural process where society plays a key role. Hence the social background determines the natural growth of the learner’s ability (Foreman).
The constructivist teacher has to apply the five major tenets of constructivist teaching where she/he evaluates the learner’s point of view especially in developing the connection between past and present understanding of the science concepts. Similarly, when developing projects the constructivist teacher has to analyze the nature of questions posed by the project which will relate to the learner’s real life experiences. A constructivist teacher should evaluate the key concepts which learners should understand through close monitoring each day as the learners pose various understanding capabilities daily (Foreman). The tenets of constructivism are applicable in science learning for instance in the general perception of why certain life process happen. The learner’s point of view may be non-scientific hence the constructivist teacher bridges the gap by availing the scientific explanation. Consequently, when developing science projects, such as “the solar system” the teacher has to develop questions which will explain why the sun is hot than the moon. Such an understanding is of the learner is obtained from the teacher’s close monitoring of the learner in class (Bencze, 2005).
The constructivist theory supports learning through inquiry as the questions posed by the learners portrays their degree of perception of the topic being taught (Bass, Contant and Carin, 2009). Various elements of the 12 science processes were incorporated in the lessons plans such as observation which was widely used. The learners were also subjected to inferring where concepts were related while communication was a vital tool in the presentation of drawings as well as the charts. Experiments were carried out in the first lesson plan for the topic on the eye (Bencze, 2005). Summative assessment was used as all the concepts learnt in class were part of the assessment to determine the learners understanding ability.
Bass, J. E., Contant, T. L., Carin, A. A. (2009). Teaching Science as Inquiry. (11th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. (Chapters 1 & 2)
Bencze, J. L. (2005). Constructivism. http://homespace.oise.utoronto.ca/~benczela/Constructivism.html
oreman, K. (n.d.). Constructivism as theory. http://userwww.sfsu.edu/%7Eforeman/itec800/finalprojects/eitankaplan/pages/ho me.htm
Kppal, M. (2008). Using National Standards to Improve K-8 Science Curriculum Materials. Elementary School Journal, 109(2), 104-122.