Domestic violence is a pervasive problem which affects women in all the sectors of the society. The levels of domestic violence usually reflect a problem which has been established in the society, culture and gender norms, and perpetuated by traditions. A number of research shows that almost 30% of united states couple who are either married or not married experience intimate partner violence while they are in their relationship and between 3% and 10 % of relationships which are intimate are usually characterized by sever violence. Domestic violence usually results in a variety of physical injuries, death and even mental health problems and because of this effect that it has it is now being recognized as a major health problem.
A study conducted by Zincir, H Kaya, Z et al (2010) on the factors affecting domestic violence. This research was conducted among low socio economic level families so as to determine the domestic violence incidences and the factors which are affecting it. The methodology which was used for conducting the research study was descriptive study and the population that was used to gather information was 1455 students in a primary school. The results of the study according to the statement provided by the children is that 6.2 % of mothers and 22.6% of fathers used violence against there partners whereby about 51% of the children were exposed to violence from their mothers and 46% were exposed to violence from the fathers.
The findings of the research shows that the most common forms of violence which are reported by women are physically and psychological abuse and 81% of women experience the two types of violence. According to the results of this study a number of women were suffering from severe depression without it being recognized and adequately and managed. This study also shows that economic abuse is entangled in the socio economic circumstances of women and most of the women usually remain in the violent relationship because of the housing crisis that is being experienced in most of the communities.
A study conducted by Kocacik F & Kutlar A (2007) on domestic violence against women in Turkey suggests that there are many factors which affect domestic violence against women. The factors affecting domestic violence consists of cultural, social, economic and psychological factors and the income of a family has a positive relationship with violence. Research also suggests that when one is a university graduate and if you have a personal income it reduces the prevalence of violence. The aim of this research was to investigate the factors which are affecting domestic violence and the method used was through questionnaires where the individual and interpersonal relations and also the environmental factors were incorporated.
The variables were chosen through consideration of the ecological model where the variables that were in the first level of were to provide information about the characteristics of a person or the history of a person. Most of the factors were the psychological factors like childhood history of domestic violence, demographic factors of violence towards children. The second circle provided information about the interaction with partner which is the distribution of decision making power in the family and the third circle represented the extent of male dominance as being a cultural factor.
In a research conducted by Ellison C Johnson, B et al (2007), the aim was to explore the relationship that exist between the religious involvements and intimate partner violence and the method that was used gather information was by analyzing the data from the national survey of families and households. The result of this research found out that first, level of domestic violence vary by ethnicity and race, second, religious involvement is correlated with a reduced number of domestic violence, third religious involvement mostly attending to church protect against domestic violence and fourth the effect of domestic violence vary by ethnicity and race.
The method that was used in the research by Ellison C Johnson, B et al (2007) in exploring the relationship between religious involvement and domestic violence was by analyzing data from the national survey of families and households. The national survey of families and households is a cross sectional national probability sample of approximately 13020 men and women aged 18 and older who reside in the United States.
The study involved 3666 women and 3134 men. Self-administered questionnaires were used where the primary respondents and the partners were asked whether if and of there arguments had resulted to being physical. The primary respondents were being asked if during their past year, any of their arguments resulted to shoving, hitting or even throwing things at each other while the partners were administered with questionnaires where they were asked if during their past years how many fights they had with their partners which resulted to throwing things at each other, shoving or hitting.
When carrying out the study the researchers reduced bias by combining the reports from both the partners. From the results of the questionnaire few respondents showed multiple acts of violence and a dichotomous measure of domestic violence perpetration was created 0 represented did not report perpetration while 1 represented reported violence at least once. To get information about religious involvement, the researchers used a frequency of religious attendance as the measure for religious involvement. An eight category measure was used for measuring religious attendance by the primary responded where 1 represented less than once an year,2 represented about once of twice a year 3 represented several times a year and 0 represented never.
To gather information about victimization of domestic violence, the reports from the NSFH primary responded together with the partners were combined in order to create a dichotomous measure of domestic violence victimization (Ellison C Johnson, B et al 2007). If the respondent was victimized by a domestic assault in the past year, it was coded having experienced victimization and this was represented by 1 victim, and 0 no victimization was experienced.
In a study conducted by Kocacik F & Kutlar A (2007) the method used was through questionnaires where the individual and interpersonal relations and also the environmental factors were incorporated. The study was conducted in four cities in Turkey Sivas, Adryaman, Denizil, and Kirklarelli. The questionnaires were completed by 137 households in 4 quarters in Kirklarelli, 200 households in 10 quarters in Sivas, 66 households in 4 quarters in Denizil and 306 households in 8 quarters in Adryaman.
The study was carried out by female interviewers which included the teachers through the use of face to face interview techniques and questionnaire techniques. The teams were conducting the research were trained about the subject. The data which was obtained was statistically evaluated by use of SPSS and logistic regression analysis which was done by use of binary logistic model that was developed from discrete choice theory. All the people were given the questionnaires were women where 54% of the sample was above the age of 35. More than 90% of the people who responded were married and 93% had at least one child.
A study conducted by Zincir, H Kaya, Z et al (2010) on the factors affecting domestic violence. The methodology which was used for conducting the research study was descriptive study and the population that was used to gather information was 1455 students in a primary school. In obtaining the information, the researchers distributed the questionnaires forms to the students which had 49 questions and this was done after investigations had been done.
The forms were then collected during the same session at the guidance and psychological counseling sessions and during the free study time. The method which was used was the arithmetic mean, double logistic regression and percentage distribution for evaluating the data and the dependent values were compared one by the other. The independent variables were modeled with the forward logistic regression method where an alpha level of p which was less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant for all the analysis (Zincir, H Kaya, Z et al 2010).
From the information gathered on the impact of race, ethnicity, religious attendance on domestic violence, Ellison C Johnson, B et al (2007) shows that the frequency of religious attendance is associated with the probability of victimization. A one unit increment in attendance to church is related to 5% reduction in the incidence of experiencing domestic violence. The result indicate that comparing a woman who do not attend church services ever and a woman who have the same demographic characteristics but tend to attend church services frequently is about 40% less likely to experience domestic violence. The results of this research show that the domestic violence vary by racial or ethnic groups at the low levels of religious involvement and the differences tend to converge at high levels of religious involvement.
This study show that domestic violence is common among people who are young and the odds of male perpetration and female victimization usually decline by 6% in every additional year. It also suggestion that the education in men is inversely associated with the possibility of perpetrating violence and the education in women is not related to the risk of experiencing violence (Ellison C Johnson, B et al 2007). The results of the study by Kocacik F & Kutlar A (2007) indicated that 27% of women suffer fro either psychological or physical violence in their own families and 89% of the perpetrators of violence are found to be the husbands.
It was also determined than more than half of the women have been experiencing violence in the past years whereby physical violence is very common. From the study 22% of women believed that most of their husband exercise violence because of no reason while 20 % believes that they were being violated by their husbands because of not performing their domestic duties.
The results of the study by Zincir, H Kaya, Z et al (2010) suggest that 6.2 % of mothers and 22.6% of fathers used violence against there partners whereby about 51% of the children were exposed to violence from their mothers and 46% were exposed to violence from the fathers. Most children who were involved in this study said that the parents were right about the use of violence and that this behavior was important for discipline.
The study suggest that a fathers increase in one year of age increased the use of violence in 1.33 times and the use of violence by a father in those families that have low economic status was 1.8 times higher that in those families that had good economic status. The use of violence in families where the father drink alcohol increased by 1.8 and smoking increased violence by 1.4 times more. In family where the father was employed, it decreased the use of violence to the wife by 1.6 times more. In families with low economic status, the mothers use of violence to the children increased by 2.1 than in those families that have good economic status.
Ellison C Johnson, B et al (2007) discussion about on the relation to domestic violence by ethnicity, the African Americans compared to the non Hispanic whites and Latino have higher levels of domestic violence and they are more likely of being perpetrated and victims of domestic violence than the Latinos and non Hispanic whites. This research also show that religious involvement by attending to church help in protecting against domestic violence and this is string in women and men who are African Americans and Latino men.
Religious organizations usually reduce the factors which are related to domestic violence like drinking social isolation and depression (Ellison C Johnson, B et al 2007). Attendance to church serve as being a proxy for self discipline, prayerfulness, positive religious coping styles and many other factors.
According to Zincir, H Kaya, Z et al (2010) domestic violence is exposed mostly to children by both the mothers and the fathers. The findings show that children consider violence to be normal and that parents think that it is right to use violence. Domestic violence is a global problem and its rate is 21-30% in the United States and 24% in South Africa and 17% in South Australia. Studies (Mathews, S & Abraham, N 2008) show that there is a correlation between domestic violence and educational status, low economic income, profession and there are some which do not prove this to be right. This study show states that the type of the occupation of the father, the age of the parents the use of the alcohol by the father and the low economic status increases the rate of domestic violence.
This paper suggests that the experience of violence among women is common all around the world. It is concluded that factors which are affecting domestic violence include age, domestic violence in childhood and education. This is what is associated with violent behavior in women. It is also evident that the prevalence of violence tend to reduce as the age of the respondent is increasing and this is because the marital relationship can achieve the degree of stability therefore it reduces the tendency of the husband to resulting in violence (Peterman, L & Dixon, C 2009). It is also possible that women who are brought up in families where they have experienced domestic violence are likely to perceive violence as being a normal behavior for punishment and conflict situations.
Ellison C Johnson, B Anderson, K & Trinitapoli, J (2007) Violence against women Sage Publishers Inc
Kocacik F & Kutlar A (2007) Domestic violence against women the social science journal 44 (4)
Mathews, S & Abraham, N (2008). An analysis of the impact of the domestic violence Sage Publishers Inc
Peterman, L & Dixon, C (2009) Assessment and evaluation of men who batter women Journal of rehabilitation
Zincir, H Kaya, Z Yagmur, F & Elmali, F (2010) the incidence of domestic violence, the causative factors and their effects on the family Pak J Med Sci 26 (1)