It is clear that O’Connor has effectively theorized the human and ecological effect of the uneven and a combined development of capitalism. This is one of the key strengths since the analyst has met the intended goal. In order to comprehend the root causes of environmental damage in any given location, there is need for a concrete analyzing of a concrete situation. O’Connor failed to take into account specific situations such as the impact of the pattern and rate of capitalist accumulation, the technological aspect as well as the organization and size of capitalist firms. It is thus clear that generalization is one of the weaknesses of O’Connor’s analysis (O’Connor, 1989).

Question 2

Uneven development is the historical produced and spatial distribution of resources in an uneven manner. Combined development on the other hand is the combination of social, economic and political forms of those present in underdeveloped regions with those in developed regions. The combination of the two aspects leads to great eco-destruction of resources and land in zones of raw materials and vice versa (O’Connor, 1989).

Question 3

The ideas of justice and sustainability can be linked through a set of principles. There are four key principles which are, ecological integrity, respect and care for the community of life, non-violence and peace, and finally social and economic justice and democracy. One of the critical aspects is the social dimension in that it is unlikely for an unjust society to be economically or environmentally sustainable. A just society on the other hand has a high probability of being sustainable in economic or environmental terms (Agyeman, Bullard and Evans).


O’Connor, J. (1989). Uneven and combined development and ecological crisis: a

theoretical introduction. Race and Class, 30(3)

gyeman, J., Bullard, R. D., & Evans, B. Joined-up Thinking: Bringing Together

Sustainability, Environmental Justice and Equity.


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